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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24783, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607830

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and potential value of 2D Parametric Parenchymal Blood Flow (2D-PPBF) for the assessment of perfusion changes following partial spleen embolization (PSE) in a retrospective observational study design.Overall, 12 PSE procedures in 12 patients were included in this study. The outcome of the study was the platelet response (PR), calculated as the percentage increase of platelet count (PLT), following PSE. To quantify perfusion changes using 2D-PPBF, the acquired digital subtraction angiography series were post-processed. A reference region-of-interest (ROI) was placed in the afferent splenic artery and a target ROI was positioned on the embolization territory of the spleen on digital subtraction angiography series pre- and post-embolization. The ratios of the target ROIs to the reference ROIs were calculated for the Wash-In-Rate (WIR), the Time-To-Peak (TTP) and the Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC). Comparisons between pre- and post-embolization data were made using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r). Afterwards, the study population was divided by the median of the TTP before PSE to analyze its value for the prediction of PR following PSE.Following PSE, PLT increased significantly from 43,000 ±â€Š21,405 platelets/µL to 128,500 ±â€Š66,083 platelets/µL with a PR of 255 ±â€Š243% (P = .003). In the embolized splenic territory, the pre-/post-embolization 2D-PPBF parameter changed significantly: WIRpre-PSE 1.23 ±â€Š2.42/WIRpost-PSE 0.09 ±â€Š0.07; -64 ±â€Š46% (p = 0.04), TTPpre-PSE 4.41 ±â€Š0.99/TTPpost-PSE 5.67 ±â€Š1.52 (P = .041); +34 ±â€Š47% and AUCpost-PSE 0.81 ±â€Š0.85/AUCpost-PSE 0.14 ±â€Š0.08; -71 ±â€Š18% (P = .002). A significant correlation of a 2D-PPBF parameter with the PLT was found for TTPpre-PSE/PLTpre-PSE r = -0.66 (P = .01). Subgroup analysis showed a significantly increased PR for the group with TTPpre-PSE >4.44 compared to the group with TTPpre-PSE ≤4.44 (404 ±â€Š267% versus 107 ±â€Š76%; P = .04).2D-PPBF is an objective approach to analyze the perfusion reduction of embolized splenic tissue. TTP derived from 2D-PPBF has the potential to predict the extent of PR during PSE.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Hiperesplenismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Portal/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Esplênica/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Angiografia Digital/métodos , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperesplenismo/etiologia , Hiperesplenismo/cirurgia , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Hipertensão Portal/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Intervencionista , Adulto Jovem
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(1): 437-444, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Intraarterial Technetium-99m-Macroaggregated Albumin (99mTc-MAA) administration is an established method to predict particle distribution prior to radioembolization. This study aimed to analyse the impact of intraarterial administration of 99mTc-MAA on changes in liver-specific laboratory parameters and to assess whether such changes are associated with post-radioembolization hepatotoxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 202 patients treated with radioembolization received prior mapping angiography with 99mTc-MAA administration. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory examinations, including liver-specific parameters at certain times before and after mapping angiography/99mTc-MAA administration, as well as before radioembolization and during follow-up. RESULTS: Bilirubin increased temporarily after 99mTc-MAA administration (p<0.001), but was not clinically relevant, and returned close to the initial value before radioembolization. These changes showed no association with subsequent postradioembolic hepatotoxicity or shortened overall survival. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-MAA administration results in a significant, however, not clinically relevant transient increase in bilirubin levels, which does not provide a predictive value for subsequent radioembolization outcome or postradioembolic hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Agregado de Albumina Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Agregado de Albumina Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(2): 282-291.e1, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the safety and clinical outcomes of combined transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) plus variceal obliteration to those of TIPS alone for the treatment of gastric varices (GVs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study of 40 patients with bleeding or high-risk GVs between 2008 and 2019 was performed. The patients were treated with combined therapy (n = 18) or TIPS alone (n = 22). There were no significant differences in age, sex, model for end-stage liver disease score, or GV type between the groups. The primary outcomes were the rates of GV eradication and rebleeding. The secondary outcomes included portal hypertensive complications and hepatic encephalopathy. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 15.4 months for the combined therapy group and 22.9 months for the TIPS group (P = .32). After combined therapy, there was a higher rate of GV eradication (92% vs 47%, P = .01) and a trend toward a lower rate of GV rebleeding (0% vs 23%, P = .056). The estimated rebleeding rates were 0% versus 5% at 3 months, 0% versus 11% at 6 months, 0% versus 18% at 1 year, and 0% versus 38% at 2 years after combined therapy and TIPS, respectively (P = .077). There was no difference in ascites (13% vs 11%, P = .63), hepatic encephalopathy (47% vs 55%, P = .44), or esophageal variceal bleeding (0% vs 0%, P > .999) after the procedure between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The GV eradication rate is significantly higher after combined therapy, with no associated increase in portal hypertensive complications. This translates to a clinically meaningful trend toward a reduction in GV rebleeding. The value of a combined treatment strategy should be prospectively studied in a larger cohort to determine the optimal management of GVs.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Escleroterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroterapia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Clin Imaging ; 69: 169-171, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861127

RESUMO

Spontaneous breast hematoma is a rare complication of therapeutic anticoagulation therapy with few cases reported in the literature. We present a case of spontaneous breast hematoma resulting in hypotension and symptomatic anemia. Angiography demonstrated multiple sites of hemorrhage within the breast, which was treated with gelatin sponge embolization. This case highlights the role of interventional radiology in the treatment of breast hematoma, as well as reviews the arterial vascular anatomy of the breast.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hematoma , Angiografia , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Hematoma/induzido quimicamente , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
5.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(1): 50-57, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043841

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study reports our experience with the use of an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx™) for the treatment of type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to coils and cyanoacrylate glue. METHODS: Clinical data of all patients treated for type II endoleak following EVAR between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) diameter and AAA sac volume during follow-up were measured using computed tomography angiography (CTA). Treatment failure variables were created for the change in sac diameter and volume. An increase in sac diameter ≥ 5 mm was considered a failure, as was an increase ≥ 10% in AAA sac volume. RESULTS: 35 patients underwent treatment for a persistent type II endoleak following EVAR. Of these patients, 18 (51.4%) were treated with Onyx and 17 (48.6%) were treated with coils ± cyanoacrylate glue embolization. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to demographics. The average volume of Onyx used per treatment was 13.4 ml (range 4.5 ml- 39 ml). There was no difference in efficacy between the Onyx and non-Onyx group. Complications were limited to 1 non-target embolization without significant clinical sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx™) embolization is similarly effective compared to traditional cyanoacrylate glue or coil embolization in the treatment of type II endoleak after EVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Cianoacrilatos/administração & dosagem , Embolização Terapêutica , Endoleak/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Polivinil/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cianoacrilatos/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoleak/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polivinil/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(2): 211-219, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349507

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate safety and efficacy of segmental yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. The hypothesis was liver sparing segmental Y90 for HCC after TIPS would provide high antitumor response with a tolerable safety profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-arm retrospective study included 39 patients (16 women, 23 men) with ages 49-81 years old who were treated with Y90. Child-Pugh A/B liver dysfunction was present in 72% (28/39) with a median Model for End-stage Liver Disease score of 18 (95% confidence interval, 16.4-19.4). Primary outcomes were clinical and biochemical toxicities and antitumor imaging response by World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria. Secondary outcomes were orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) estimates by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 30-day mortality was 0%. Grade 3+ clinical adverse events and grade 3+ hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 5% (2/39) and 0% (0/39), respectively. Imaging response was achieved in 58% (22/38, WHO criteria) and 74% (28/38, EASL criteria), respectively. Median TTP was 16.1 months for any cause and 27.5 months for primary index lesions. OLT was completed in 88% (21/24) of listed patients at a median time of 6.1 months (range, 0.9-11.7 months). Median OS was 31.6 months and 62.9 months censored and uncensored to OLT, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental Y90 for HCC appears safe and efficacious in patients after TIPS. Preserved transplant eligibility suggests that Y90 is a useful tool for bridging these patients to liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/mortalidade , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/efeitos adversos
7.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(2): 187-195, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353814

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe interventional oncology therapies combined with immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy targeting the programmed death 1 pathway in patients with different neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent tumor-directed thermal ablation, embolization, or selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) between January 1, 2011, and May 1, 2019, and received anti-programmed death 1/PD-L1 agents ≤ 90 days before or ≤ 30 days after the interventional procedure. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and procedural complications ≤ 90 days after the procedure were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. The study included 65 eligible patients (49% female; age 63 years ± 11.1). The most common tumors were metastatic melanoma (n = 28) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (n = 12). Patients underwent 78 procedures (12 patients underwent > 1 procedure), most frequently SIRT (35.9%) and cryoablation (28.2%). The most common target organs were liver (46.2%), bone (24.4%), and lung (9.0%). Most patients received ICI monotherapy with pembrolizumab (n = 30), nivolumab (n = 22), and atezolizumab (n = 6); 7 patients received ipilimumab and nivolumab. RESULTS: Seven (10.8%) patients experienced an irAE (71.4% grade 1-2), mostly affecting the skin. Median time to irAE was 33 days (interquartile range, 19-38 days). Five irAEs occurred in patients with melanoma, and no irAEs occurred in patients with NSCLC. Management required corticosteroids (n = 3) and immunotherapy discontinuation (n = 1); all irAEs resolved to grade ≤ 1. There were 4 intraprocedural and 32 postprocedural complications (77.8% grade < 3). No grade 5 irAEs and/or procedural complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: No unmanageable or unanticipated toxicities occurred within 90 days after interventional oncology therapies combined with ICIs.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Braquiterapia , Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias/terapia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Segurança do Paciente , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100693, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308525

RESUMO

Many interventions to treat men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with sexual side effects or complications, such as hematospermia, erectile dysfunction, or ejaculatory dysfunction. As loss of sexual function can significantly impact quality of life, an optimal treatment for BPH associated LUTS would be one without any sexual dysfunction side effects. Prostatic artery embolization is a minimally invasive treatment for men with BPH associated LUTS. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of prostatic artery embolization on sexual function and compare the sexual side effect profile to the other available BPH procedures.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100696, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308526

RESUMO

There are active debates surrounding patient evaluation and procedural techniques of prostate artery embolization. This review evaluates the available evidence on the value of urodynamics, the effect of prostate gland size, the benefits of pre- and intraprocedural cross-sectional imaging, the utility of a balloon-occlusion microcatheter, the differences among embolic particle sizes and types, and the merits of radial versus femoral arterial access.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/normas , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Urodinâmica
10.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100694, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308527

RESUMO

Hematuria of prostatic origin has multiple etiologies including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), iatrogenic urological trauma, prostate cancer, and radiation therapy. Hematuria secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia can occur because of the increased vascularity of the primary gland, itself, or because of the vascular re-growth following a transurethral resection of the prostate. Prostatic hematuria usually resolves with conservative measures; however, refractory hematuria of prostatic origin may require hospitalization with treatment with blood transfusions, repeated indwelling urinary catheterization, and continuous bladder irrigation. Prostate artery embolization is an emerging minimally invasive procedural therapy for men with BPH that was originally utilized for the treatment of refractory hematuria of prostatic origin . This article aims to summarize the currently available evidence around prostate artery embolization for the treatment of refractory hematuria of prostatic origin.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Hematúria/terapia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Hematúria/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematúria/etiologia , Hematúria/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100687, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308528

RESUMO

As prostatic artery embolization is assuming an increasingly important role in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, it is important for the practicing interventional radiologist to have a deep understanding of all aspects of the disease process and the available treatment options. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management options for benign prostatic hyperplasia with an emphasis on the surgical and medical treatments.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Radiografia Intervencionista , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/efeitos adversos , Agentes Urológicos/efeitos adversos
12.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100688, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308530

RESUMO

Prostate artery embolization (PAE) has been shown to be safe and effective at treating lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urinary retention, and hematuria caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To distinguish from other causes of these symptoms, a multidisciplinary evaluation by a urologist and interventional radiologist should include a complete history to screen for any nonprostate causes of LUTS. The International Prostate Symptom Score is a useful objective measure to quantify the patient's urinary complaints. A physical exam should be performed to evaluate a patient's candidacy for angiography, and baseline laboratory evaluation should ensure that the patient's coagulation and kidney function are adequate. In certain situations, patients may benefit from cystoscopy and urodynamic evaluation to ensure their symptoms are related to BPH. A review of the patient's imagining can be the most important component of the evaluation of a patient prior to PAE, because a patient's gland size is often a primary driver of what procedural options available are to him. Men with small glands (≤30 mL) can be treated with several of the available minimally invasive transurethral procedures, but larger glands (≥80-120 mL) may be limited to holmium laser enucleation of prostate, thulium laser enucleation of prostate, surgical prostatectomy, or PAE, depending on institutional practice patterns. Secondary considerations include medical comorbidities, the risks for sexual side effects, the risk for bleeding, and the possible adverse events associated with the procedure, which are all low for PAE. Most patients suffering from symptomatic BPH resulting in LUTS, retention, or hematuria will benefit from PAE.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Urodinâmica
13.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100695, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308532

RESUMO

Medically refractory benign prostatic hyperplasia induced lower urinary tract symptoms is an extremely prevalent issue in older men. The current gold standard therapy transurethral resection of the prostate does produce urologic improvements but is also associated with higher than desired morbidity. This has led to the need to develop new minimally invasive means to treat this disease; prostate artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as one minimally invasive treatment option for these patients. The body of evidence which supports the use of PAE has grown quickly and substantially over the last decade. The goal of this review is to introduce and summarize the published urologic outcomes for PAE when utilized to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia induced lower urinary tract symptoms as well as document the established complication profile. Finally, the paper reviews current societal recommendations as they relate to PAE.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/normas , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento , Urodinâmica
14.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100692, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308533

RESUMO

As prostate artery embolization (PAE) for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia becomes more commonly performed, operator knowledge of the adverse events is essential to inform patient selection, patient preparation, and postprocedural management. The aim of this article is to discuss the incidence, presentation, and management of adverse effects after PAE.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Tech Vasc Interv Radiol ; 23(3): 100691, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308534

RESUMO

In the last decade, prostatic artery embolization (PAE) established itself as a safe and effective treatment option for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) attributed to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), with reproducible results across multiple centers and endorsement by important international societies. However, PAE is also known to be a technically demanding procedure. Accompanying the prevalence of benign prostate hyperplasia, the procedure is usually performed in older patients, in whom atherosclerosis and comorbidities are common features. Also, prostatic vascular anatomy is described to be complex and variable, and pelvic structures are deeply interconnected by anastomosis. Thus, PAE demands a deep familiarization with materials and devices, intraprocedure imaging techniques, microcatetherization skills and with the pelvic vascular anatomy. Especially in the beginning of the learning curve, the procedure can be time-consuming and related to high radiation exposure for both medical team and the patient. In this article, the main points of technical concern during PAE are described and discussed, such as the equipment needed, the effect of different embolic materials, patient's preparation for the procedure, arterial access sites, identifying and catheterizing the prostatic arteries, the embolization techniques, among others. Finally, the most frequent technical challenges are presented, and the possible strategies to overcome them are exemplified and discussed.


Assuntos
Cateteres , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Radiografia Intervencionista/instrumentação , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012867, 2020 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of minimally invasive surgical approaches are available as an alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) is a relatively new, minimally invasive treatment approach. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of PAE compared to other procedures for treatment of LUTS in men with BPH. SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar), trials registries, other sources of grey literature, and conference proceedings with no restrictions on language of publication or publication status, up until 25 September 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included parallel-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs), as well as non-randomized studies (NRS, limited to prospective cohort studies with concurrent comparison groups) enrolling men over the age of 40 with LUTS attributed to BPH undergoing PAE versus TURP or other surgical interventions.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently classified studies for inclusion or exclusion and abstracted data from the included studies. We performed statistical analyses by using a random-effects model and interpreted them according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We used GRADE guidance to rate the certainty of evidence of RCTs and NRSs.  MAIN RESULTS: We found data to inform two comparisons: PAE versus TURP (six RCTs and two NRSs), and PAE versus sham (one RCT). Mean age, IPSS, and prostate volume of participants were 66 years, 22.8, and 72.8 mL, respectively. This abstract focuses on the comparison of PAE versus TURP as the primary topic of interest. PAE versus TURP We included six RCTs and two NRSs with short-term (up to 12 months) follow-up and one RCT with long-term follow-up (13 to 24 months).  Short-term follow-up: based on RCT evidence, there may be little to no difference in urologic symptom score improvement (mean difference [MD] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.40 to 3.50; 369 participants; 6 RCTs; I² = 75%; low-certainty evidence) measured by the International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS) on a scale from 0 to 35, with higher scores indicating worse symptoms. There may be little to no difference in quality of life (MD 0.16, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.68; 309 participants; 5 RCTs; I² = 56%; low-certainty evidence) as measured by the IPSS quality of life question on a scale from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating worse quality of life between PAE and TURP, respectively. While we are very uncertain about the effects of PAE on major adverse events (risk ratio [RR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.16 to 3.10; 250 participants; 4 RCTs; I² = 26%; very low-certainty evidence), PAE may increase re-treatments (RR 3.64, 95% CI 1.02 to 12.98; 204 participants; 3 RCTs; I² = 0%; low-certainty evidence). Based on 18 re-treatments per 1000 men in the TURP group, this corresponds to 47 more (0 more to 214 more) per 1000 men undergoing PAE.   We are very uncertain about the effects on erectile function (MD -0.03, 95% CI -6.35 to 6.29; 129 participants; 2 RCTs; I² = 78%; very low-certainty evidence) measured by the International Index of Erectile Function at 5 on a scale from 1 to 25, with higher scores indicating better function. NRS evidence when available yielded similar results. Based on evidence from NRS, PAE may reduce the occurrence of ejaculatory disorders (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.73; 260 participants; 1 NRS; low-certainty evidence). Longer-term follow-up: based on RCT evidence, we are very uncertain about the effects of PAE on urologic symptom scores (MD 0.30, 95% CI -3.17 to 3.77; 95 participants; very low-certainty evidence) compared to TURP. Quality of life may be similar (MD 0.20, 95% CI -0.49 to 0.89; 95 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are also very uncertain about major adverse events (RR 1.96, 95% CI 0.63 to 6.13; 107 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We did not find evidence on erectile function and ejaculatory disorders. Based on evidence from NRS, PAE may increase re-treatment rates (RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.43 to 5.29; 305 participants; low-certainty evidence); based on 56 re-treatments per 1000 men in the TURP group. this corresponds to 143 more (25 more to 430 more) per 1000 men in the PAE group.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared to TURP up to 12 months (short-term follow-up), PAE may provide similar improvement in urologic symptom scores and quality of life. While we are very uncertain about major adverse events, PAE may increase re-treatment rates. We are uncertain about erectile function, but PAE may reduce ejaculatory disorders. Longer term (follow-up of 13 to 24 months), we are very uncertain as to how both procedures compare with regard to urologic symptom scores, but quality of life appears to be similar. We are very uncertain about major adverse events but PAE may increase re-treatments. We did not find longer term evidence on erectile function and ejaculatory disorders. Certainty of evidence for the main outcomes of this review was low or very low, signalling that our confidence in the reported effect size is limited or very limited, and that this topic should be better informed by future research.


Assuntos
Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/terapia , Próstata/irrigação sanguínea , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata , Idoso , Artérias , Ejaculação , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Ereção Peniana , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
No Shinkei Geka ; 48(10): 935-940, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071230

RESUMO

We present a case of a patient who survived carotid blowout syndrome(CBS)due to covered stent placement, but bled again 34 days later. A 67-year-old man with laryngeal cancer experienced cardiac arrest due to carotid blowout a day after he underwent the balloon occlusion test and abnormal feeder embolization of the tumor. After quick resuscitation, he was treated with endovascular therapy using a covered stent, since he had insufficient cerebral ischemic tolerance. We succeeded in stent placement and the bleeding stopped without any procedural complications. The patient survived after the procedure. However, bleeding recurred when a nasal endoscope was inserted 34 days later. The rupture point was immediately distal of the stent. We performed carotid artery occlusion with coils and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate. The patient survived, but his condition gradually weakened and died 97 days after stenting. Emergency hemostasis for carotid blowout using a covered stent is the only available treatment for patients who do not have sufficient cerebral ischemic tolerance. However, this procedure has a higher rate of re-bleeding than carotid artery occlusion. Moreover, it is an off-label treatment in Japan. Therefore, possible treatments for CBS including use of covered stent or treatments for non-ruptured CBS should be analyzed in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Embolização Terapêutica , Idoso , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Stents/efeitos adversos
19.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(11): 1740-1744.e9, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019993

RESUMO

Advances in immunotherapy have changed the landscape of oncology over the past decade. Still, most patients with solid organ tumors do not derive a durable benefit from immunotherapies. How these tumors evade treatment has not been fully elucidated, but several studies are seeking ways to stimulate treatment response in these immunologically quiescent tumors. Of these, the combination of locoregional therapy with immune checkpoint inhibition is of interest to the interventional radiologist. This brief report provides an overview of current trials testing the effectiveness of locoregional therapy in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors and identifies future research goals.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Embolização Terapêutica , Neoplasias/terapia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/mortalidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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