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1.
Cell Rep ; 32(6): 108016, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755598

RESUMO

The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and coronavirus spike (S) protein mediate virus entry. HA and S proteins are heavily glycosylated, making them potential targets for carbohydrate binding agents such as lectins. Here, we show that the lectin FRIL, isolated from hyacinth beans (Lablab purpureus), has anti-influenza and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. FRIL can neutralize 11 representative human and avian influenza strains at low nanomolar concentrations, and intranasal administration of FRIL is protective against lethal H1N1 infection in mice. FRIL binds preferentially to complex-type N-glycans and neutralizes viruses that possess complex-type N-glycans on their envelopes. As a homotetramer, FRIL is capable of aggregating influenza particles through multivalent binding and trapping influenza virions in cytoplasmic late endosomes, preventing their nuclear entry. Remarkably, FRIL also effectively neutralizes SARS-CoV-2, preventing viral protein production and cytopathic effect in host cells. These findings suggest a potential application of FRIL for the prevention and/or treatment of influenza and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fabaceae/química , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Lectinas de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Lectinas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Células Vero , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(19): 8427-8437, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813067

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a member of genus gamma-coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causing serious economic losses to the poultry industry. Reverse genetics is a common technique to study the biological characteristics of viruses. So far, there is no BAC reverse genetic system available for rescue of IBV infectious clone. In the present study, a new strategy for the construction of IBV infectious cDNA clone was established. The full-length genomic cDNA of IBV vaccine strain H120 was constructed in pBAC vector from four IBV fragment subcloning vectors by homologous recombination, which contained the CMV promoter at the 5' end and the hepatitis D virus ribozyme (HDVR) sequence and bovine growth hormone polyadenylation (BGH) sequence after the polyA tail at the 3' end of the full-length cDNA. Subsequently, using the same technique, another plasmid pBAC-H120/SCS1 was also constructed, in which S1 gene from IBV H120 strain was replaced with that of a virulent SC021202 strain. Recombinant virus rH120 and rH120/SCS1 were rescued by transfecting the plasmids into BHK cells and passaged in embryonated chicken eggs. Finally, the pathogenicity of both the recombinant virus strains rH120 and rH120/SCS1 was evaluated in SPF chickens. The results showed that the chimeric rH120/SCS1 strain was not pathogenic compared with the wild-type IBV SC021202 strain and the chickens inoculated with rH120/SCS1 could resist challenge infection by IBV SC021202. Taken together, our results indicate that BAC reverse genetic system could be used to rescue IBV in vitro and IBV S1 protein alone might not be the key factor for IBV pathogenicity. KEY POINTS: • BAC vector was used to construct IBV full-length cDNA by homologous recombination. • Based on four subcloning vectors, a recombinant chimeric IBV H120/SCS1 was constructed and rescued. • Pathogenicity of H120/SCS1 was similar to that of H120, but different to that of SC021202.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , DNA Complementar , Recombinação Homóloga , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Virulência/genética
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 107-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833208

RESUMO

The embryonated egg is a complex structure comprised of an embryo and its supporting membranes (chorioallantoic, amniotic, and yolk). The developing embryo and its membranes provide a diversity of cell types that allow for the successful replication of a wide variety of different viruses. Within the family Coronaviridae the embryonated egg has been used as a host system primarily for two avian coronaviruses within the genus Gammacoronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV). IBV replicates well in the embryonated chicken egg, regardless of inoculation route; however, the allantoic route is favored as the virus replicates well in epithelium lining the chorioallantoic membrane, with high virus titers found in these membranes and associated allantoic fluids. TCoV replicates only in epithelium lining the embryo intestines and bursa of Fabricius; thus, amniotic inoculation is required for isolation and propagation of this virus. Embryonated eggs also provide a potential host system for detection, propagation, and characterization of other, novel coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha/virologia , Coronavirus do Peru/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Alantoide/virologia , Âmnio/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/citologia , Coronavirus do Peru/fisiologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Tropismo Viral
4.
Life Sci ; 258: 118230, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777303

RESUMO

Here we evaluate the role of mast cells in infection with influenza A/H5N1 virus in immunized mice. CBA mice were immunized intramuscularly with formalin-inactivated A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1)NIBRG-14 (H5N1). Serum samples were obtained on days 7, 12, 14, 21 after immunization. At day 14, the mice were infected intranasally with the A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1)IDCDC-RG2 (H5N1) influenza virus with half of the animals receiving a mixture of the antihistamines. 67% of the vaccinated mice were protected from the lethality compared to 43% in the PBS-immunized group. Administration of antihistamines increased survival up to 85%-95%. Immunohistochemical examination using CD117 staining of the lungs demonstrated a larger quantity of activated mast cells after infection of immunized mice compared to mock-immunized mice. This was correlated to increased histamine level in the lungs and blood. Our experimental results suggest the involvement of mast cells and the histamine they produce in the pathogenesis of influenza infection in case of incomplete formation of the immune response to vaccination and mismatch of the vaccine and infection influenza viruses.


Assuntos
Degranulação Celular/fisiologia , Liberação de Histamina/fisiologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Mastócitos/fisiologia , Mastócitos/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Chlorocebus aethiops , Mastócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Células Vero
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833999

RESUMO

Myo/Nog cells were discovered in the chick embryo epiblast. Their expression of MyoD reflects a commitment to the skeletal muscle lineage and capacity to differentiate into myofibroblasts. Release of Noggin by Myo/Nog cells is essential for normal morphogenesis. Myo/Nog cells rapidly respond to wounding in the skin and eyes. In this report, we present evidence suggesting that Myo/Nog cells phagocytose tattoo ink in tissue sections of human skin and engulf cell corpses in cultures of anterior human lens tissue and magnetic beads injected into the anterior chamber of mice in vivo. Myo/Nog cells are distinct from macrophages in the skin and eyes indicated by the absence of labeling with an antibody to ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1. In addition to their primary roles as regulators of BMP signaling and progenitors of myofibroblasts, Myo/Nog cells behave as nonprofessional phagocytes defined as cells whose primary functions are unrelated to phagocytosis but are capable of engulfment.


Assuntos
Miofibroblastos/citologia , Fagócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Humanos , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Coelhos , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107963, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781092

RESUMO

This study analyzed the large-subunit (60S) ribosomal protein L12 of Eimeria tenella (Et60s-RPL12). A full-length cDNA was cloned, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 and inoculated in rabbits to produce the polyclonal antibody. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to analyze the transcription levels of Et60s-RPL12 and translation levels in different developmental stages of E. tenella. The results showed that the mRNA transcription level of Et60s-RPL12 was highest in second-generation merozoites, whereas the translation level was highest in unsporulated oocysts. Indirect immunofluorescence showed that Et60s-RPL12 was localized to the anterior region and surface of sporozoites, except for the two refractile bodies. As the invasion of DF-1 cells progressed, fluorescence intensity was increased, and Et60s-RPL12 was localized to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). The secretion assay results using staurosporine indicated that this protein was secreted, but not from micronemes. The role of Et60s-RPL12 in invasion was evaluated in vitro. The results of the invasion assay showed that polyclonal antibody inhibited host cell invasion by the parasite, which reached about 12%. However, the rate of invasion was not correlated with the concentration of IgG.


Assuntos
Eimeria tenella/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Western Blotting , Ceco/parasitologia , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Biologia Computacional , DNA Complementar/genética , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Eimeria tenella/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fezes/parasitologia , Fibroblastos , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Coelhos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transcrição Genética
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4523-4540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606692

RESUMO

Purpose: Selenium nanoparticles (SeNP) have several applications in the field of biotechnology, including their use as anti-cancer drugs. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the efficacy of green synthesis on the preparation of SeNP and its effect on their anti-cancer properties. Methods: A bacterial strain isolated from a freshwater source was shown to efficiently synthesize SeNP with potential therapeutic properties. The quality and stability of the NP were studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, zeta-potential and FTIR analysis. A cost-effective medium formulation from biowaste having 6% banana peel extract enriched with 0.25 mM tryptophan was used to synthesize the NP. The NP after optimization was used to analyze their anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity. For this purpose, first, the cytotoxicity of the NP against cancer cells was analyzed by MTT assay and then chorioallantoic membrane assay was performed to assess anti-angiogenic activity. Further, cell migration assay and clonogenic inhibition assay were performed to test the anti-tumor properties of SeNP. To assess the cytotoxicity of SeNP on healthy RBC, hemolysis assay was performed. Results: The strain identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (MH191156) produced phenazine carboxylic acid, which aids the conversion of Se oxyanions to reduced NP state, resulting in particles in the size range of 75 nm to 200 nm with improved stability and quality of SeNP, as observed by zeta (ξ) potential of the particles which was found to be -46.2 mV. Cytotoxicity of the SeNP was observed even at low concentrations such as 5 µg/mL against cervical cancer cell line, ie, HeLa cells. Further, neovascularization was inhibited by upto 30 % in CAMs of eggs coinoculated with SeNp when compared with untreated controls, indicating significant anti-angiogenic activity of SeNP. The NP also inhibited the invasiveness of HeLa cells as observed by decreased cell migration and clonogenic proliferation. These observations indicate significant anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity of the SeNP in cervical cancer cells. Conclusion: P. stutzeri (MH191156) is an efficient source of Se NP production with potential anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor properties, particularly against cervical cancer cells.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Pseudomonas stutzeri/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Células HeLa , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Fenazinas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Difração de Raios X
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008610, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603377

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, can activate PKR/eIF2α signaling cascade to shutoff host and facilitate viral mRNA translation during infection, however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that NDV infection up-regulated host cap-dependent translation machinery by activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and p38 MAPK/Mnk1 pathways. In addition, NDV infection induced p38 MAPK/Mnk1 signaling participated 4E-BP1 hyperphosphorylation for efficient viral protein synthesis when mTOR signaling is inhibited. Furthermore, NDV NP protein was found to be important for selective cap-dependent translation of viral mRNAs through binding to eIF4E during NDV infection. Taken together, NDV infection activated multiple signaling pathways for selective viral protein synthesis in infected cells, via interaction between viral NP protein and host translation machinery. Our results may help to design novel targets for therapeutic intervention against NDV infection and to understand the NDV anti-oncolytic mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Nucleoproteínas , RNA Mensageiro , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/metabolismo , Nucleoproteínas/biossíntese , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Nucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/biossíntese , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649674

RESUMO

Recent discoveries of at least two heart fields and dynamic nature of cardiac development as well as controversies regarding the participation of heart fields in development of different heart structures led us to investigate the dynamics of incorporation of the first and second heart fields and prospective fate of the straight heart tube by labeling chicken embryos in vivo with the fluorescent lipophilic dye DiI. The cephalic and caudal limits of the anterior and posterior segments of the straight heart tube were labeled in two groups of embryos. Labels were tracked along the "C," "S," and "U" loops up to the tetracavitary or mature heart (n = 30 embryos/group; torsion and looping stage). To determine whether the atria and atrioventricular canal are derived from the first heart field the straight heart tube was cultured in vitro and immunodetection of Sox-9 and troponin I was performed to identify the mesenchymal and myocardial lineages respectively. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunodetection was used to determine the involvement of cell proliferation in heart tube development during torsion and looping. Embryological constitution of the straight heart tube and heart looping (C, S, and U) were not consistent with current descriptions. In fact, right ventricle precursors were absent in the straight heart tube derived from the first heart field. During torsion and looping, the cephalic segment of the straight heart tube gradually shifted into the heart tube until it was located at the myocardial interventricular septum in the tetracavitary heart. In contrast, the caudal segment of the straight heart tube was elongated and remodeled to become the first heart field derived left ventricle and the proximal part of the ventricular inlets. The ventricular outflows, right ventricle, distal part of the ventricular inlets, and atria developed from the second heart field.


Assuntos
Coração/embriologia , Animais , Carbocianinas , Divisão Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Embrião de Galinha , Corantes Fluorescentes , Mesoderma/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Miocárdio/química , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Organogênese , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/análise , Troponina I/análise
10.
Eur J Protistol ; 75: 125718, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604041

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that inhabit the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of vertebrates. Research of these parasites is limited by a lack of model hosts. This study aimed to determine the extent to which infection at the embryo stage can enhance the propagation of Cryptosporidium oocysts in chickens. Nine-day-old chicken embryos and one-day-old chickens were experimentally infected with different doses of Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Post hatching, all chickens had demonstrable infections, and the infection dose had no effect on the course of infection. Chickens infected as embryos shed oocysts immediately after hatching and shed significantly more oocysts over the course of the infection than chickens infected as one-day-olds. In chickens infected as embryos, C. baileyi was found in all organs except the brain whereas, C. parvum was only found in the gastrointestinal tract and trachea. In chickens infected as one-day-olds, C. baileyi was only found in the gastrointestinal tract and trachea. Chickens infected as embryos with C. baileyi died within 16 days of hatching. All other chickens cleared the infection. Infection of chickens as embryos could be used as an effective and simple model for the propagation of C. baileyi and C. parvum.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium parvum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptosporidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia
11.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674326

RESUMO

The Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious economically important respiratory pathogen of domestic fowl. Reverse genetics allows for the molecular study of pathogenic determinants to enable rational vaccine design. The recombinant IBV (rIBV) Beau-R, a molecular clone of the apathogenic Beaudette strain, has previously been investigated as a vaccine platform. To determine tissues in which Beau-R could effectively deliver antigenic genes, an in vivo study in chickens, the natural host, was used to compare the pattern of viral dissemination of Beau-R to the pathogenic strain M41-CK. Replication of Beau-R was found to be restricted to soft tissue within the beak, whereas M41-CK was detected in beak tissue, trachea and eyelid up to seven days post infection. In vitro assays further identified that, unlike M41-CK, Beau-R could not replicate at 41 °C, the core body temperature of a chicken, but is able to replicate a 37 °C, a temperature relatable to the very upper respiratory tract. Using a panel of rIBVs with defined mutations in the structural and accessory genes, viral replication at permissive and non-permissive temperatures was investigated, identifying that the Beau-R replicase gene was a determinant of temperature sensitivity and that sub-genomic mRNA synthesis had been affected. The identification of temperature sensitive allelic lesions within the Beau-R replicase gene opens up the possibility of using this method of attenuation in other IBV strains for future vaccine development as well as a method to investigate the functions of the IBV replicase proteins.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Temperatura , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3191-3201, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Although it has been accepted that the tandem repeat galectin-8 (Gal-8) is linked to angiogenesis, the underlying mechanisms in endothelial cells has remained poorly understood. In this study we aimed to investigate the effect of Gal-8 on selected biological processes linked to angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In detail, we assessed how exogenously added human recombinant Gal-8 (with or without vascular endothelial growth factor - VEGF) affects selected steps involved in vessel formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Gene expression profiling of HUVECs was performed to extend the scope of our investigation. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrate that Gal-8 in combination with VEGF enhanced cell proliferation and migration, two cellular events linked to angiogenesis. However, Gal-8 alone did not exhibit any significant effects on cell proliferation or on cell migration. The molecular analysis revealed that Gal-8 in the presence of VEGF influenced cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, HIF-1 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Gal-8 alone also targeted cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, but with a different expression profile as well as a modulated focal adhesion and TNF signaling. CONCLUSION: Gal-8 promotes a pro-angiogenic phenotype possibly in a synergistic manner with VEGF.


Assuntos
Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Galectinas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/metabolismo , Galectinas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008514, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479542

RESUMO

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage response (DDR) is the fundamental cellular response for maintaining genomic integrity and suppressing tumorigenesis. The activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is central to DNA double-strand break (DSB) for maintaining host-genome integrity in mammalian cells. Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can selectively replicate in tumor cells; however, its influence on the genome integrity of tumor cells is not well-elucidated. Here, we found that membrane fusion and NDV infection triggered DSBs in tumor cells. The late replication and membrane fusion of NDV mechanistically activated the ATM-mediated DSB pathway via the ATM-Chk2 axis, as evidenced by the hallmarks of DSBs, i.e., auto-phosphorylated ATM and phosphorylated H2AX and Chk2. Immunofluorescence data showed that multifaceted ATM-controlled phosphorylation markedly induced the formation of pan-nuclear punctum foci in response to NDV infection and F-HN co-expression. Specific drug-inhibitory experiments on ATM kinase activity further suggested that ATM-mediated DSBs facilitated NDV replication and membrane fusion. We confirmed that the Mre11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex sensed the DSB signal activation triggered by NDV infection and membrane fusion. The pharmacological inhibition of MRN activity also significantly inhibited intracellular and extracellular NDV replication and syncytia formation. Collectively, these data identified for the first time a direct link between the membrane fusion induced by virus infection and DDR pathways, thereby providing new insights into the efficient replication of oncolytic NDV in tumor cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Células Gigantes , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Células A549 , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/genética , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Células Gigantes/virologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/genética , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/virologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20190107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556049

RESUMO

The Hancornia speciosa latex reveals angiogenic, osteogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, which present its potential for developing of wound healing drugs; however, the latex compounds responsible for angiogenesis remain unknown. One strategy to screen these active compounds is evaluation of latex fractions. This study aimed to obtain different fractions of latex and evaluate its angiogenic activity separately using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The serum (SE) fraction was responsible for angiogenesis, which was subject to biochemical characterization and computational simulations in order to understand the contribution of H. speciosa latex in wound healing process. Our results revealed weak antioxidant potential and absence of antimicrobial activity in the SE fraction. Phytochemical analysis identified chlorogenic acids (CGA) as the main compound of SE fraction. CGA bioactivity predictions identify different molecules associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, such as metalloproteinases, which also are overexpressed in our CAM assay experiment. Docking simulations revealed the interactions between CGA and matrix metalloproteinase 2. In conclusion, SE latex fraction stimulates angiogenesis and may influence ECM remodeling. These properties may contribute to the wound healing process, and also confirm the widespread use of this plant.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Látex/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Indutores da Angiogênese/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Apocynaceae/classificação , Embrião de Galinha , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Látex/isolamento & purificação
15.
Nature ; 584(7819): 98-101, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581357

RESUMO

Formation of the body of vertebrate embryos proceeds sequentially by posterior addition of tissues from the tail bud. Cells of the tail bud and the posterior presomitic mesoderm, which control posterior elongation1, exhibit a high level of aerobic glycolysis that is reminiscent of the metabolic status of cancer cells experiencing the Warburg effect2,3. Glycolytic activity downstream of fibroblast growth factor controls WNT signalling in the tail bud3. In the neuromesodermal precursors of the tail bud4, WNT signalling promotes the mesodermal fate that is required for sustained axial elongation, at the expense of the neural fate3,5. How glycolysis regulates WNT signalling in the tail bud is currently unknown. Here we used chicken embryos and human tail bud-like cells differentiated in vitro from induced pluripotent stem cells to show that these cells exhibit an inverted pH gradient, with the extracellular pH lower than the intracellular pH, as observed in cancer cells6. Our data suggest that glycolysis increases extrusion of lactate coupled to protons via the monocarboxylate symporters. This contributes to elevating the intracellular pH in these cells, which creates a favourable chemical environment for non-enzymatic ß-catenin acetylation downstream of WNT signalling. As acetylated ß-catenin promotes mesodermal rather than neural fate7, this ultimately leads to activation of mesodermal transcriptional WNT targets and specification of the paraxial mesoderm in tail bud precursors. Our work supports the notion that some tumour cells reactivate a developmental metabolic programme.


Assuntos
Âmnio/embriologia , Glicólise , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Padronização Corporal , Embrião de Galinha , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Mesoderma/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15712-15723, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561646

RESUMO

The mechanisms used by embryos to pattern tissues across their axes has fascinated developmental biologists since the founding of embryology. Here, using single-cell technology, we interrogate complex patterning defects and define a Hedgehog (Hh)-fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling axis required for anterior mesoderm lineage development during gastrulation. Single-cell transcriptome analysis of Hh-deficient mesoderm revealed selective deficits in anterior mesoderm populations, culminating in defects to anterior embryonic structures, including the pharyngeal arches, heart, and anterior somites. Transcriptional profiling of Hh-deficient mesoderm during gastrulation revealed disruptions to both transcriptional patterning of the mesoderm and FGF signaling for mesoderm migration. Mesoderm-specific Fgf4/Fgf8 double-mutants recapitulated anterior mesoderm defects and Hh-dependent GLI transcription factors modulated enhancers at FGF gene loci. Cellular migration defects during gastrulation induced by Hh pathway antagonism were mitigated by the addition of FGF4 protein. These findings implicate a multicomponent signaling hierarchy activated by Hh ligands from the embryonic node and executed by FGF signals in nascent mesoderm to control anterior mesoderm patterning.


Assuntos
Fator 4 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/genética , Gastrulação/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética , Animais , Padronização Corporal/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Embrião de Galinha , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Gástrula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gástrula/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma/genética
17.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e166086, mai. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122174

RESUMO

Avian coronavirus (AvCoV) infects a range of tissues in chickens and several other avian species. Although the virus can be isolated in chicken embryos, only a few strains of the 6 genotypes/33 lineages can grow in cell lines, with the Beaudette strain (GI-1 lineage) being the most used for in vitro studies. Considering the differences between cell lines and chicken embryos as habitats for AvCoV, this study aimed to assess the diversity of the genes coding for the nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) and spike envelope protein (S) after serial passages in BHK-21 and Vero cells. After 14 passages of an embryo-adapted Beaudette strain, the virus loads fluctuated in both cell lines, with the highest loads being 8.72 log genome copies/µL for Vero and 6.36 log genome copies/µL for BHK-21 cells. No polymorphisms were found for nsp3; regarding S, not only aa substitutions (Vero: 8th passage A150S, and 14th S150A; BHK-21: 4th S53F, 8th F53Y, and 8th S95R), but also minor variants could be detected on chromatograms with fluctuating intensities. As the regions of these aa substitutions are within the receptor-binding domain of S, it can be speculated that differences in cell receptors between Vero and BHK-21 cells and the speed of cell death led to the selection of different dominant strains, while the stability of nsp3 supports its function as a protease involved in AvCoV replication. In conclusion, AvCoV quasispecies evolution is influenced by the biological model under consideration, and a gradual transition is seen for minor and major variants.(AU)


O Coronavírus aviário AvCoV infecta uma variedade de tecidos de galinhas e de outras espécies aviárias. Apesar de este vírus poder ser isolado em ovos embrionados de galinha, apenas alguns dos 6 genótipos / 33 linhagens podem crescer em cultivo celular, sendo a cepa Beuadette (linhagem GI-11) a mais utilizada para estudos in vitro. Considerando as diferentes linhagens celulares e ovos embrionados como habitats para o AvCoV, este estudo teve por objetivo estudar a diversidade de genes que codificam para a proteína não-estrutural 3 (nsp3) e espícula (S) após passagens seriadas em células BHK-21 e VERO. Após 14 passagens, de uma amostra Beuadette adaptada a ovos embrionados, os títulos virais variaram em ambas as células, com os maiores títulos sendo de 8,72 log cópias genômicas/µL para Vero e 6,36 cópias genômicas/µL para BHK-21. Nenhum polimorfismo foi encontrando para nsp3. Considerando a proteína S, não somente foram encontradas substituições de aminoácidos (Vero: 8a passagem A150S e 14a passagem S150A; BHK-21: 4a passagem S53F, 8a passagem F53Y e S95R), mas também, variantes subconsensuais foram detectadas pelos cromatogramas com intensidades flutuantes. Uma vez que as regiões destes aa se encontram no domínio de ligação de receptor de S, pode-se especular que diferenças em receptores celulares entre Vero e BHK-21, além da velocidade da morte celular, levaram à seleção de diferentes cepas dominantes, enquanto que a estabilidade de nsp3 concorda com sua função como protease com papel na replicação de AvCoV. Como conclusão, a evolução de quase-espécies de AvCoV é influenciada pelo modelo biológico sob consideração e uma transição gradual é vista para variantes dominantes e subdominantes.(AU)


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Gammacoronavirus
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232571, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442180

RESUMO

Molecular-based testing of poultry dust has been used as a fast, sensitive and specific way to monitor viruses in chicken flocks but it provides no information on viral viability. Differentiation of viable and nonviable virus would expand the usefulness of PCR-based detection. This study tested three treatments (1. DNAse, 2. propidium monoazide [PMA], 3. immunomagnetic separation [IMS]) applied to dust or virus stock prior to nucleic acid extraction for their ability to exclude nonviable virus from PCR amplification. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) was used as a model. These treatments assume loss of viral viability due to damage to the capsid or to denaturation of epitope proteins. DNAse and PMA assess the integrity of the capsid to penetration by enzyme or intercalating dye, while IMS assesses the integrity of epitope proteins. Treatments were evaluated for their ability to reduce PCR signal, measured as ILTV log10 genomic copies (ILTV GC), of heat and chemically inactivated ILTV in poultry dust and virus stock. Compared to untreated dust samples, there was an overall reduction of 1.7 ILTV GC after IMS treatment (p<0.01), and a reduction of 2.0 ILTV GC after PMA treatment (p<0.0001). DNAse treatment did not reduce ILTV GC in dust (p = 0.68). Compared to untreated virus stocks, there was an overall reduction of 0.5 ILTV GC after DNAse treatment (p = 0.04), a reduction of 1.8 ILTV GC after IMS treatment (p<0.001) and a reduction of 1.4 ILTV GC after PMA treatment (p<0.0001). None of the treatments completely suppressed the detection of inactivated ILTV GC. In conclusion, treatments that use capsid integrity or protein epitope denaturation as markers to assess ILTV infectivity are unsuitable to accurately estimate proportions of viable virus in poultry dust and virus stocks.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Separação Imunomagnética/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
19.
Environ Pollut ; 264: 114718, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388309

RESUMO

Diesel exhaust (DE) had been associated with cardiopulmonary toxicity and developmental toxicity. However, neonatal very early-in-life exposure had not been extensively studied previously. To investigate the potential effects of neonatal very early-in-life exposure to DE, a brand-new chicken embryo in ovo exposure model had been established, with which the cardiopulmonary effects of DE exposure via air cell infusion at embryonic day 18/19 (ED18/19) were assessed in hatchling chicks post-hatch 0-, 1-, or 2-weeks. Heart rates were assessed with electrocardiography. Cardiac and pulmonary morphologies were investigated with histopathological methods. Cardiopulmonary effects were explored with immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). In further investigations, the expression levels of phosphorylated AhR, serum levels of TGF-ß1, phosphorylated SMAD2/3 and phosphorylated p38MAPK were assessed in the lung tissues. Significantly elevated heart rates, increased right ventricular wall thickness and cardiac collagen deposition were observed in the hearts of exposed hatchling chicks. Significantly increased collagen deposition as well as increased vascular alpha-SMA layer thickness/decreased cavity area were observed in exposed animal lungs. These effects persisted up to two weeks post-hatch. Mechanistic studies revealed elevated phosphorylated AhR expression levels in 0-week and 1-week chicken lungs, while phosphorylated SMAD2/3 levels significantly increased in 0-week chicken lungs but decreased in 2-week chicken lungs following DE exposure. Phosphorylation of p38MAPK did not remarkably increase until 2-week post-hatch. In summary, the novel chicken neonatal very early-in-life exposure model effectively exposed the chicken embryos during the neonatal initial breathing, resulting in cardiopulmonary toxicity, which is associated with AHR, TGF-ß1 and MAPK signaling.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Emissões de Veículos , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Pulmão
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110772, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464444

RESUMO

Recently two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have received much attention as adsorbent materials for the effective removal of organic contaminants. MoS2 is attracting attention, not only for its chemical-physical properties, but also for its wide availability in nature as a constituent of molybdenite. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of different MoS2 concentrations (5 × 10-1, 5 × 10-2 and 5 × 10-3 mg/ml) on the embryonated eggs of Gallus gallus domesticus, according to Beck method. We evaluated the toxic effect of the MoS2 powder purchased at Sigma-Aldrich indicated as "received" and MoS2 powder treated via mechanical milling indicated as "ball mille". Subsequently, the embryos were sacrificed at different times of embryonic development (11th, 15th and 19th day after incubation) in order to evaluate their embryotoxic and teratogenic effects. The alterations of the embryonic development were studied by morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tissues. The results obtained have shown the toxicity of both powders of MoS2 with a high percentage of deaths and growth delays. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis performed on several tissue sections showed a strong positivity to the anti-metallothionein1 antibody only for the erythrocytes.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/química , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Grafite/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/embriologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/embriologia , Pulmão/patologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
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