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3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 736-753, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047532

RESUMO

Este artigo, de caráter interdisciplinar, tem como objetivo articular questões da diversidade sociocultural com o direito à comunicação e à saúde e a estratégias de reconhecimentos identitários. Para isso, propomos uma análise de conteúdo, de abordagem qualitativa, da comunicação produzida pela Equipe de Base Warmis ­ Convergências das Culturas sobre o caso que ficou conhecido como Projeto pró-cesárea no SUS ou PL 435/2019, comparando-a ainda com matérias veiculadas sobre o tema na mídia tradicional comercial e em notas e comunicados oficiais de instituições formais de classe profissional envolvidas com a questão. Como recurso teórico-metodológico, utilizamos os conceitos de interculturalismo e comunicação intercultural. Entre os principais resultados, destacamos que processos comunicacionais, quando entendidos não somente a partir de seu alcance instrumental, mas, em seu sentido de vinculação sociocultural, interação simbólica e produção subjetiva, podem ter caráter mobilizador coletivo e de reconhecimento identitário visando, muitas vezes, a transformação da realidade social, ainda que essa signifique uma coexistência sociocultural capaz de ser negociada.


This interdisciplinary article aims to articulate issues of sociocultural diversity with the right to communication and health and identity recognition strategies. For this, we propose a qualitative content analysis about the communication produced by the Warmis Base Team ­ Convergences of Cultures on the case known as the Pro-cesarean project in SUS or PL 435/2019, comparing it with articles published about the theme in the traditional commercial media and in formal professional class institutions official notes involved with the case. As a theoretical-methodological resource, we use the interculturalism concept and intercultural communication. Among the main results, we highlight that communicational processes, when understood not only from their instrumental reach, but, in their sense of sociocultural attachment, symbolic interaction and subjective production, can have collective mobilizing character and identity recognition, often aiming at the transformation of social reality, even if it means a sociocultural coexistence able of being negotiated.


Este artículo, interdisciplinario, tiene como objetivo articular temas de diversidad sociocultural con el derecho a la comunicación y a la salud y estrategias de reconocimiento de identidad. Para esto, proponemos un análisis de contenido cualitativo de la comunicación producida por el Equipo Base de Warmis ­ Convergencias de las Culturas en el caso conocido como el Proyecto pro cesárea en SUS o PL 435/2019, comparándolos con artículos publicados sobre el tema en los medios comerciales tradicionales y con notas oficiales de instituciones formales de clase profesional involucradas en el tema. Como recurso teórico-metodológico, utilizamos los conceptos de interculturalidad y comunicación intercultural. Entre los principales resultados, destacamos que los procesos comunicacionales, cuando se entienden no solo desde su alcance instrumental, sino que, en su sentido de apego sociocultural, interacción simbólica y producción subjetiva, pueden tener un carácter movilizador colectivo y reconocimiento de identidad, con el objetivo de la transformación de la realidad social, aunque esa signifique una convivencia sociocultural capaz de ser negociada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Participação da Comunidade , Diversidade Cultural , Discurso , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Comunicação em Saúde , Mídias Sociais , Política Pública , Violência , Sistema Único de Saúde , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Parto Humanizado , Parto , Violações dos Direitos Humanos , Emigração e Imigração , Competência Cultural
4.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 240-261, jul.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043051

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) Analizamos los factores que promueven la incursión de menores de edad a mercados laborales ilícitos en la frontera norte de México. Se analiza el caso de los niños, niñas y adolescentes de circuito. Llevamos a cabo una revisión bibliográfica, hemerográfica, así como desarrollamos y aplicamos indicadores de desarrollo social en una de las regiones de mayor incidencia del fenómeno y realizamos entrevistas a actores clave en la atención institucional a esta población. Concluimos que este fenómeno tiene un origen multifactorial, pero con un trasfondo geográfico y de deficiencias en desarrollo social con una visión incluyente de la niñez y la adolescencia.


Abstract (analytical) In this study the authors explore the factors that promote the involvement of children and adolescences in illicit labor markets in Mexico's northern border region. The study analyses cases from the population known as circuit children and adolescents. The research includes bibliographic, hemerographic, and statistical analyses, as well as the application of social development indicators in one of the regions that has the highest concentration of cases. The study also included interviews with key informants who provide institutional assistance to this population. The authors conclude that there are multiple factors that contribute to the insertion of minors in illicit labor markets. These can be traced to geographic conditions and a lack of social development that has an inclusive vision for children and adolescents.


Resumo (analítico) Este artigo analisa a relação entre as condições de desenvolvimento social e a incursão de menores de idade em mercados de trabalho ilícitos na fronteira norte do México. Analisa-se o caso de meninos, meninas e adolescentes de circuito. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica, hemerográfica, desenvolveram-se e aplicaram-se indicadores de desenvolvimento social em uma das regiões com maior incidência do fenômeno, e realizaram-se entrevistas com atores-chave no atendimento institucional dessa população. Concluiu-se que esse fenômeno tem origem geográfica e multifatorial, mas com um pano de fundo de deficiências no desenvolvimento social com visão inclusiva da infância e adolescência.


Assuntos
Humanos , Mudança Social , Adolescente , Emigração e Imigração
5.
BMJ ; 367: l7001, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848154
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765537

RESUMO

The article analyzes the indicators of population reproduction on the example of the Kostroma region, presents the dynamics of the main medical and demographic indicators of the region: age structure of the population, mortality, fertility, migration, marriage and divorce rates, as well as the starting positions for overcoming reproductive and demographic disadvantages.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Fertilidade , Mortalidade , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35208-35217, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696425

RESUMO

Given that the volume of carbon emissions in the US is a significant share of the global greenhouse gas emissions, some salient factors are being currently examined so as to reverse the threat to global environmental sustainability. To this regard, the current study investigates the co-movement and long-term and short-term causal relationship between CO2 emission (a proxy for environmental quality) and renewable consumption, immigration, and healthcare by using the wavelet coherence approach which primarily provides information on dynamic correlations over time and for different time scales. The coherence approach allows the one-dimensional time data into the bi-dimensional time-frequency sphere between the variables. In addition to investigating the causal relationship between CO2 and renewable consumption, immigration, and healthcare, this study also employs gradual-shift causality and Toda-Yamamoto causality tests. With this, the study found a high variation for CO2 emission in the US at 8 scales (8 quarters) from 1999 to 2008. Additionally, there is significant feedback causality between CO2 emission and renewable consumption at different scales while a positive correlation between the variables is observed in the short run. Similarly, the result reveals that immigration significantly causes CO2 emission in the US from 2008 to 2010 and a two-way causality is detected between CO2 emission and healthcare at different frequencies and time period. Moreover, the Toda-Yamamoto causality and gradual-shift causality tests provide supportive evidence to the outcomes of the wavelet coherence-based causality test in this study. Overall, the investigation offers significant policy directive especially toward addressing the potential adverse effects from the country's immigration and healthcare amendments.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Emigração e Imigração , Poluição Ambiental , Energia Renovável , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Políticas , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1534, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Prat ; 69(5): 550-554, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626466

RESUMO

The intensification of international migrations questions the national health system: do people who come from elsewhere have specific health needs? Answering this question is difficult on the one hand because of the very great heterogeneity of situations that can cover this "coming from elsewhere", and on the other hand because of the scarcity of available health data depending on the origin. This article brings some elements to answer these questions, starting by defining who are the populations concerned and what is their weight in the French population. From the available scientific literature, it shows that if immigrants are sometimes healthier than natives when they arrive in France, because good health is one of the conditions to "try the adventure elsewhere", this initial robustness can be undermined by the difficult living conditions on arrival in France. In addition, people from countries with limited resources know during their lives in France an "accelerated health transition", chronic diseases and mental disorders taking precedence over infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Emigração e Imigração , França , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
12.
Rev Prat ; 69(5): 567-574, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626470

RESUMO

Language barrier remains the number one obstacle in accessing health care and rights. Even though seeking for a professional interpreter assistance should be top priority, it is not yet a usual action among the health workers community. Foreign nationals are ruled by special immigration laws, thus facing specific legal challenges. According to health coverage laws (public social security system), every needy person living in France (regardless to his/her nationality or immigration status) should be granted a free of charge public health coverage to deal with health care expenses. Nevertheless, foreign nationals face long and recurring periods of time in which health coverage is over or in stand by (due to their precarious immigration status). It is recommended to anticipate those breakdown periods. Furthermore, an increasing range of medical certificates are demanded by administrations. Doctors dealing with the requests of their patients need to gain new dedicated skills. Asylum process (to qualify for an international protection) and access to a medical residence permit are two very different administrative actions which respectively involve two different kinds of officials and judges. The granting of a medical residence permit is a key concern for any doctor since he is in charge with ensuring his patient's continuity of care. The medical staff of OFII (the French authority in charge with the reception and integration of new incoming migrants and asylum seekers) tightened its assessment practices.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Refugiados , Migrantes , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino
14.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 791-798, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539336

RESUMO

In the United States, undocumented residents face unique barriers to healthcare access that render them disproportionately dependent on the emergency department (ED) for care. Consequently, ED providers are integral to the health of this vulnerable population. Yet special considerations, both clinical and social, generally fall outside the purview of the emergency medicine curriculum. This paper serves as a primer on caring for undocumented patients in the ED, includes a conceptual framework for immigration as a social determinant of health, reviews unique clinical considerations, and finally suggests a blueprint for immigration-informed emergency care.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Anthropol Med ; 26(3): 280-295, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550907

RESUMO

As immigration and health policy continue to be contentious topics globally, anthropologists must examine how policy creates notions of health-related deservingness, which may have broad consequences. This paper explores hidden relationships between immigration enforcement laws and the most recent health reform law in the United States, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which excludes immigrants from certain types of health services. Findings in this paper show how increasingly harsh immigration enforcement efforts provide health facilities a 'license to discriminate' against undocumented immigrants, resulting in some facilities 'dumping' undocumented patients or unlawfully transferring them from one hospital to another. Due to changes made through the ACA, patient dumping disproportionately complicates public hospitals' financial viability and may have consequences on public facilities' ability to provide care for all indigent patients. By focusing on the converging consequences of immigrant policing and health reform, findings in this paper ultimately show that examining deservingness assessments and how they become codified into legislation, which I call 'deservingness projects', can reveal broader elements of state power and demonstrate how such power extends beyond targeted populations. Exercises of state power can thus have 'spillover effects' that harm numerous vulnerable populations, highlighting the importance of medical anthropology in documenting the broad, hidden consequences of governmental actions that construct populations as undeserving of social services.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hispano-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Transferência de Pacientes/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Antropologia Médica , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos/etnologia
18.
Int J Public Health ; 64(8): 1193-1201, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A long-term civil conflict has been occurring in the southernmost provinces of Thailand, and migration to Malaysia has been accelerated by this conflict. The objective of this work was to examine the influence of perceived effects of the unrest, migration of a household member, and children left behind on the reporting of psychiatric symptoms of working age adults. METHODS: A first round of data collection was conducted in 2014 including interviews with a probability sample of 1102 households and individual interviews with 2058 males and females aged 18-59. In 2016, a second round of data collection was conducted. A fixed effects model was used in the analysis. RESULTS: The perceived effect of the unrest on the household was associated with an increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, the migration of a household member for work and the presence of children left behind were related to an increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among adults, especially among females. CONCLUSIONS: The unrest and its associated migration was related to an increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among working age adults in the study population.


Assuntos
Distúrbios Civis , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emigração e Imigração , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 624, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A physician shortage is a worldwide problem and foreign-born physicians fill in the shortage of physicians in many developed countries. One problem that is associated with the physician shortage is increased physician turnover. Also, regarding foreign-born physicians, migration can be costly. The present study aimed to examine the turnover intentions and intentions to leave the country of foreign-born physicians. We examined how demographics, discrimination, language problems, perceived employment barriers, satisfaction with living in Finland, team climate, job satisfaction and patient-related stress were associated with these factors. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 371 foreign-born physicians in Finland that were aged between 26 and 65 (65% women). Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations. RESULTS: Half of the respondents had turnover intentions and 14.5% had considered leaving the country. High satisfaction with living in Finland was associated with a lower likelihood of both turnover intentions and intentions to leave the country. High levels of discrimination and employment barriers were associated with a high likelihood of turnover intentions whereas good team climate was associated with a low likelihood of turnover intentions. High levels of language problems were associated with a high likelihood of intentions to leave the country. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the importance of satisfaction with living in the host country, the prevention of discrimination and employment barriers, language skills and a good team climate for the retention of foreign-born physicians in their current job and in the host country. Thus, to keep their foreign-born physicians, health care organisations should implement measures to tackle these challenges. Organisations could arrange, for example, diversity training, self-assessment, team reflections, leadership coaching and culturally-specific networks. Moreover, internships associated with the qualification process could be utilised better in order to give a thorough introduction to the host country's health care environment and the possibilities for learning the language.


Assuntos
Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/psicologia , Humanos , Intenção , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/psicologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Public Health ; 175: 120-128, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research indicates that the impact of immigration on health tends to be specific as it is influenced by many factors such as life stage and host country. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between immigration and adolescent health within the multicultural context of the Brussels-Capital Region in Belgium. STUDY DESIGN: The study was based on the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. The sample consisted of 2962 adolescents from the fifth grade of primary to the last grade of secondary schools in Brussels. METHODS: Associations between health indicators and immigration status were analysed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Natives, first-generation immigrants, second-generation immigrants with both parents born abroad and second-generation immigrants with one parent born abroad represented 19%, 23%, 36% and 22% of the respondents, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviours varied according to immigrant status. Young immigrants were more likely to present overweight (odds ratio [OR] first-generation immigrants vs. natives = 1.76 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.16-2.65]; OR second-generation immigrants with both parents born abroad vs. natives = 2.06 [95% CI = 1.41-3.02]; OR second-generation immigrants with one parent born abroad vs. natives = 1.69 [95% CI = 1.12-2.56]). This effect turned out to be partially explained by sociodemographic status and health-related behaviours. No association was detected between immigration and self-rated health and multiple recurrent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancies in health behaviours and weight status were identified between adolescents of different immigration background, whereas this was not the case for well-being. Socio-economic status, cultural characteristics and specific behaviours partly explained these findings. Future research is needed to better understand immigration-related risk and protective factors, at individual and school levels.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Diversidade Cultural , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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