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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15828, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985537

RESUMO

One of the biggest threats to humanity are pandemics. In our global society they can rage around the world with an immense toll in terms of human, economic and social impact. Forecasting the spreading of a pandemic is, therefore, paramount in helping governments to enforce a number of social and economic measures, apt at curbing the pandemic and dealing with its aftermath. We demonstrate that the epidemic renormalisation group approach to pandemics provides an effective and simple way to investigate the dynamics of disease transmission and spreading across different regions of the world. The framework also allows for reliable projections on the impact of travel limitations and social distancing measures on global epidemic spread. We test and calibrate it on reported COVID-19 cases while unveiling the mechanism that governs the delay in the relative peaks of newly infected cases among different regions of the globe. We discover that social distancing measures are more effective than travel limitations across borders in delaying the epidemic peak. We further provide the link to compartmental models such as the time-honoured SIR-like models. We also show how to generalise the framework to account for the interactions across several regions of the world, replacing or complementing large scale simulations.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1462, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that immigration may influence the experience of pain. OBJECTIVE: This population-based study examines whether immigration status is associated with chronic pain (CP), chronic widespread pain (CWSP), and severe CP at a two-year follow-up. We also tested mediation by mood status (i.e., anxiety and depression). METHODS: 15, 563 participants from a representative stratified random sample of 34,000 individuals living in south-eastern Sweden completed a postal survey, during 2013-2015, that included the following data: immigration status; presence of CP (pain lasting at least 3 months) and CWSP (a modified classification of widespread pain for use in epidemiological studies); severity of CP based on a numeric rating scale; and depression, anxiety, economic situation, and sociodemographic information. We applied logistic regressions using the generalized estimating equations (GEE), with Swedish-born as the reference group and path analyses models. RESULTS: Compared to the Swedish-born participants (n = 14,093;90%), the immigrants (n = 1470;10%) had an elevated risk of all pain outcomes (CP: odds ratio [OR] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI = 1.04-1.33, CWSP: OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.15-1.69 and severe CP: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.23-1.87) after adjustments. Path analyses showed that baseline age, immigrant status, and financial hardship had a significant influence on chronic pain outcomes at follow-up with baseline mood status as the mediator. Immigration status was also associated with age and financial hardship. CONCLUSION: Immigrants may have increased risk of chronic pain, widespread pain, and severe pain and this risk is mediated by mood status. Targeted interventions better tailored to the socio-economic and psychological status of immigrants with chronic pain are warranted.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Populacionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Awareness-raising and pre-migration training are popular strategies to prevent human trafficking. Programmatic theories assume that when prospective migrants are equipped with information about risks, they will make more-informed choices, ultimately resulting in safe migration. In 2016, India was estimated to have 8 million people in modern slavery, including those who migrate internally for work. Work in Freedom (WiF) was a community-based trafficking prevention intervention. This study evaluated WiF's pre-migration knowledge-building activities for female migrants in Odisha to prevent future labour-related exploitation. METHODS: Pre- and post- training questionnaires were administered to women (N = 347) who participated in a two-day pre-migration training session. Descriptive analysis and unadjusted analyses (paired t-tests, McNemar's tests, Wilcoxon signed ranks tests) examined differences in women's knowledge scores before and after training. Adjusted analyses used mixed effects models to explore whether receiving information on workers' rights or working away from home prior to the training was associated with changes in scores. Additionally, we used data from a household survey (N = 4,671) and survey of female migrants (N = 112) from a population sample in the same district to evaluate the intervention's rationale and implementation strategy. RESULTS: Female participants were on average 37.3 years-old (SD 11) and most (67.9%) had no formal education. Only 11 participants (3.2%) had previous migration experience. Most participants (90.5%) had previously received information or advice on workers' rights or working away from home. Compared to female migrants in the population, training participants were different in age, caste and religion. Awareness about migration risks, rights and collective bargaining was very low initially and remained low post-training, e.g. of 13 possible migration risks, before the training, participants named an average of 1.2 risks, which increased only slightly to 2.1 risks after the training (T(346) = -11.64, p<0.001). Changes were modest for attitudes about safe and risky migration practices, earnings and savings. Before the training, only 34 women (10.4%) considered migrating, which reduced to 25 women (7.7%) post-training (X2 = 1.88, p = 0.169)-consistent with the low prevalence (7% of households) of female migration locally. Women's attitudes remained relatively fixed about the shame associated with paid domestic work. Survey data indicated focusing on domestic work did not correspond to regional migration trends, where women migrate primarily for construction or agriculture work. CONCLUSION: The apparent low effectiveness of the WiF short-duration migration training may be linked to the assumption that individual changes in knowledge will lead to shifts in social norms. The narrow focus on such individual-level interventions may overestimate an individual's agency. Findings indicate the importance of intervention development research to ensure activities are conducted in the right locations, target the right populations, and have relevant content. Absent intervention development research, this intervention suffered from operating in a site that had very few migrant women and a very small proportion migrating for domestic work-the focus of the training. To promote better development investments, interventions should be informed by local evidence and subjected to rigorous theory-based evaluation to ensure interventions achieve the most robust design to foster safe labour migration for women.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/educação , Adulto , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 109, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic met coincidentally with massive migration before Lunar New Year in China in early 2020. This study is to investigate the relationship between the massive migration and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in China. METHODS: The epidemic data between January 25th and February 15th and migration data between Jan 1st and Jan 24th were collected from the official websites. Using the R package WGCNA, we established a scale-free network of the selected cities. Correlation analysis was applied to describe the correlation between the Spring Migration and COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: The epidemic seriousness in Hubei (except the city of Wuhan) was closely correlated with the migration from Wuhan between January 10 and January 24, 2020. The epidemic seriousness in the other provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions was largely affected by the immigration from Wuhan. By establishing a scale-free network of the regions, we divided the regions into two modules. The regions in the brown module consisted of three municipalities, nine provincial capitals and other 12 cities. The COVID-19 epidemics in these regions were more likely to be aggravated by migration. CONCLUSIONS: The migration from Wuhan could partly explain the epidemic seriousness in Hubei Province and other regions. The scale-free network we have established can better evaluate the epidemic. Three municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), eight provincial capitals (including Nanjing, Changsha et al.) and 12 other cities (including Qingdao, Zhongshan, Shenzhen et al.) were hub cities in the spread of COVID-19 in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Viagem , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 995-1003, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620731

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the emigration plans after graduation of clinical medical students of Ebonyi State University Abakaliki, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. All clinical medical students of the University willing to participate were included. Information was obtained using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measure included proportion of students willing to emigrate and those willing to practice in rural areas after graduation. Results: A total of 285 students participated in the study, (response rate, 92.5%). Majority, 93.3% intend to pursue specialist training after graduation. Minor proportion, 13.9% intend to specialize in Nigeria, whereas 74.4% prefer to specialize outside Nigeria. Major reasons for preferring specialist training abroad included good equipment/facilities, 33.8%, better remuneration/quality of life, 27.8%; and improved skills, 18.7%. Countries of interest for training outside Nigeria included Canada, 28.3%; United Kingdom, 23.2%; and the United States of America, 18.2%. Minor proportion, 17.2% intend to practice in rural area after graduation. Predictors of willingness to emigrate included being in 400 level class, (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-4.1), being single, AOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.2-13.3) and having decided on specialty of choice, (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.5-4.5). Predictors of willingness to serve in rural area included family residence in urban area, (AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.2-0.8) and intention to specialize in Nigeria, (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6-8.5). Conclusions: Majority of students intend to pursue specialist training and prefer training abroad. Minor proportions were willing to specialize in Nigeria and serve in rural areas. The students may have perceived medical practice in Nigeria as serving in rural areas hence students willing to work in rural areas were more likely to specialize in Nigeria. This may adversely affect health service delivery in Nigeria if left unchecked. Nigerian authorities should ensure that medical graduates willing to practice in Nigeria are not deterred. Also, plans to encourage doctors to practice in Nigeria should receive desired attention.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Especialização , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
6.
Surgery ; 168(3): 550-557, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of access to essential surgical care in low-income countries is aggravated by emigration of locally-trained surgical specialists to more affluent regions. Yet, the global diaspora of surgeons, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists from low-income and middle-income countries has never been fully described and compared with those who have remained in their country of origin. It is also unclear whether the surgical workforce is more affected by international migration than other medical specialists. In this study, we aimed to quantify the proportion of surgical specialists originating from low-income and middle-income countries that currently work in high-income countries. METHODS: We retrieved surgical workforce data from 48 high-income countries and 102 low-income and middle-income countries using the database of the World Health Organization Global Surgical Workforce. We then compared this domestic workforce with more granular data on the country of initial medical qualification of all surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians made available for 14 selected high-income countries to calculate the proportion of surgical specialists working abroad. RESULTS: We identified 1,118,804 specialist surgeons, anesthesiologists, or obstetricians from 102 low-income and middle-income countries, of whom 33,021 (3.0%) worked in the 14 included high-income countries. The proportion of surgical specialists abroad was greatest for the African and South East Asian regions (12.8% and 12.1%). The proportion of specialists abroad was not greater for surgeons, anesthesiologists, or obstetricians than for physicians and other medical specialists (P = .465). Overall, the countries with the lowest remaining density of surgical specialists were also the countries from which the largest proportion of graduates were now working in high-income countries (P = .011). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of all surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians from low-income and middle-income countries currently work in high-income countries. In addition to decreasing migration from areas of surgical need, innovative strategies to retain and strengthen the surgical workforce could involve engaging this large international pool of surgical specialists and instructors.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologistas/economia , Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/economia , Cirurgiões/economia , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18638, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of February 2020, the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China had drastically slowed and appeared to be under control compared to the peak data in early February of that year. However, the outcomes of COVID-19 control and prevention measures varied between regions (ie, provinces and municipalities) in China; moreover, COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, and the spread of the disease has accelerated in countries outside China. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish valid models to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control and prevention among various regions in China. These models also targeted regions with control and prevention problems by issuing immediate warnings. METHODS: We built a mathematical model, the Epidemic Risk Time Series Model, and used it to analyze two sets of data, including the daily COVID-19 incidence (ie, newly diagnosed cases) as well as the daily immigration population size. RESULTS: Based on the results of the model evaluation, some regions, such as Shanghai and Zhejiang, were successful in COVID-19 control and prevention, whereas other regions, such as Heilongjiang, yielded poor performance. The evaluation result was highly correlated with the basic reproduction number (R0) value, and the result was evaluated in a timely manner at the beginning of the disease outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The Epidemic Risk Time Series Model was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control and prevention in different regions in China based on analysis of immigration population data. Compared to other methods, such as R0, this model enabled more prompt issue of early warnings. This model can be generalized and applied to other countries to evaluate their COVID-19 control and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18638, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of February 2020, the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China had drastically slowed and appeared to be under control compared to the peak data in early February of that year. However, the outcomes of COVID-19 control and prevention measures varied between regions (ie, provinces and municipalities) in China; moreover, COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, and the spread of the disease has accelerated in countries outside China. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish valid models to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control and prevention among various regions in China. These models also targeted regions with control and prevention problems by issuing immediate warnings. METHODS: We built a mathematical model, the Epidemic Risk Time Series Model, and used it to analyze two sets of data, including the daily COVID-19 incidence (ie, newly diagnosed cases) as well as the daily immigration population size. RESULTS: Based on the results of the model evaluation, some regions, such as Shanghai and Zhejiang, were successful in COVID-19 control and prevention, whereas other regions, such as Heilongjiang, yielded poor performance. The evaluation result was highly correlated with the basic reproduction number (R0) value, and the result was evaluated in a timely manner at the beginning of the disease outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The Epidemic Risk Time Series Model was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control and prevention in different regions in China based on analysis of immigration population data. Compared to other methods, such as R0, this model enabled more prompt issue of early warnings. This model can be generalized and applied to other countries to evaluate their COVID-19 control and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18638, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At the end of February 2020, the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China had drastically slowed and appeared to be under control compared to the peak data in early February of that year. However, the outcomes of COVID-19 control and prevention measures varied between regions (ie, provinces and municipalities) in China; moreover, COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, and the spread of the disease has accelerated in countries outside China. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish valid models to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control and prevention among various regions in China. These models also targeted regions with control and prevention problems by issuing immediate warnings. METHODS: We built a mathematical model, the Epidemic Risk Time Series Model, and used it to analyze two sets of data, including the daily COVID-19 incidence (ie, newly diagnosed cases) as well as the daily immigration population size. RESULTS: Based on the results of the model evaluation, some regions, such as Shanghai and Zhejiang, were successful in COVID-19 control and prevention, whereas other regions, such as Heilongjiang, yielded poor performance. The evaluation result was highly correlated with the basic reproduction number (R0) value, and the result was evaluated in a timely manner at the beginning of the disease outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The Epidemic Risk Time Series Model was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of COVID-19 control and prevention in different regions in China based on analysis of immigration population data. Compared to other methods, such as R0, this model enabled more prompt issue of early warnings. This model can be generalized and applied to other countries to evaluate their COVID-19 control and prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 592, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detained asylum seekers are at increased risk of self-harm, and the type of detention in which they are held may further exacerbate this risk. In Australia, there are four types of closed (or held) immigration detention for people seeking asylum, with varying levels of security and supports: Immigration Detention Centres [IDCs], Immigration Transit Accommodation [ITAs], Immigration Residential Housing [IRH], and Alternative Places of Detention [APODs]. The objective of this study was to examine the variation in the incidence and method(s) of self-harm among asylum seekers in Australian onshore immigration detention, according to the type of detention in which they are held. METHODS: We obtained data on all self-harm incidents reported among asylum seekers in Australian onshore immigration detention according to held detention type, as well as individual facility, between 1 August 2014 and 31 July 2015, by Freedom of Information. We calculated self-harm episode rates per 1000 asylum seekers using the average population figures for held detention type, as well as for each individual facility comprising the main types of held detention. Method(s) used to self-harm was also extracted for the main sub-populations. RESULTS: The study included 560 episodes of self-harm. Individual facility rates of self-harm ranged from 91 per 1000 asylum seekers (95% CI 72-110) in Yongah Hill IDC to 533 per 1000 asylum seekers (95% CI 487-578) in Perth IDC. On average, calculated self-harm episode rates were highest among asylum seekers in: Immigration Transit Accommodation facilities, 452/1000 (95% CI 410-493); Alternative Places of Detention, 265/1000 (95% CI 233-296); and Immigration Detention Centres, 225/1000 (95% CI 195-254). The most frequently reported methods of self-harm across the main types of held detention were: cutting (35.2%), self-battery (34.8%), and attempted hanging (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Self-harm rates for asylum seekers in all types of closed immigration detention were many times higher than rates found in the general population. Average rates were not lower in facilities with lower security features.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 629, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have observed that recent Latino immigrants tend to have a physical health advantage compared to immigrants who have been in the US for many years or Latinos who are born in the United States. An explanation of this phenomenon is that recent immigrants have positive health behaviors that protect them from chronic disease risk. This study aims to determine if trends in positive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk behaviors extend to Latino immigrants in California according to citizenship and documentation status. METHODS: We examined CVD behavioral risk factors by citizenship/documentation statuses among Latinos and non-Latino US-born whites in the 2011-2015 waves of the California Health Interview Survey. Adjusted multivariable logistic regressions estimated the odds for CVD behavioral risk factors, and analyses were stratified by sex. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, using US-born Latinos as the reference group, undocumented Latino immigrants had the lowest odds of current smoking, binge drinking, and frequency of fast food consumption. There were no differences across the groups for fruit/vegetable intake and walking for leisure. Among those with high blood pressure, undocumented immigrants were least likely to be on medication. Undocumented immigrant women had better patterns of CVD behavioral risk factors on some measures compared with other Latino citizenship and documentation groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study observes that the healthy Latino immigrant advantage seems to apply to undocumented female immigrants, but it does not necessarily extend to undocumented male immigrants who had similar behavioral risk profiles to US-born Latinos.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 800-810, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424257

RESUMO

The geographic variation of human movement is largely unknown, mainly due to a lack of accurate and scalable data. Here we describe global human mobility patterns, aggregated from over 300 million smartphone users. The data cover nearly all countries and 65% of Earth's populated surface, including cross-border movements and international migration. This scale and coverage enable us to develop a globally comprehensive human movement typology. We quantify how human movement patterns vary across sociodemographic and environmental contexts and present international movement patterns across national borders. Fitting statistical models, we validate our data and find that human movement laws apply at 10 times shorter distances and movement declines 40% more rapidly in low-income settings. These results and data are made available to further understanding of the role of human movement in response to rapid demographic, economic and environmental changes.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Geografia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 8836-8844, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253307

RESUMO

Deportation has become more commonplace in the United States since the mid-2000s. Latin American noncitizens-encompassing undocumented and documented immigrants-are targeted for deportation. Deportation's threat also reaches naturalized and US-born citizens of Latino descent who are largely immune to deportation but whose loved ones or communities are deportable. Drawing on 6 y of data from the National Survey of Latinos, this article examines whether and how Latinos' deportation fears vary by citizenship and legal status and over time. Compared with Latino noncitizens, Latino US citizens report lower average deportation fears. However, a more complex story emerges when examining this divide over time: Deportation fears are high but stable among Latino noncitizens, whereas deportation fears have increased substantially among Latino US citizens. These trends reflect a growing national awareness of-rather than observable changes to-deportation policy and practice since the 2016 US presidential election. The article highlights how deportation or its consequences affects a racial group that the US immigration regime targets disproportionately.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Medo , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003081, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporary labor migration is an increasingly important mode of migration that generates substantial remittance flows, but raises important concerns for migrant well-being. The migration and health literature has seen a growing call for longitudinal, binational surveys that compare migrants to relevant non-migrant counterfactual groups in the sending country, in order to answer the basic question "Is migration good for health?" This study compares the health of male international migrants, internal migrants, and non-migrants using a unique representative panel survey of the Matlab subdistrict of Bangladesh. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 5,072 respondents born 1958-1992 were interviewed in 1996-1997, and reinterviewed in 2012-2014. Extensive migrant follow-up yielded a 92% reinterview rate. We explored health and income outcomes for respondents who at the time of the follow-up interview were current international migrants (n = 790), returned international migrants (n = 209), internal migrants (n = 1,260), and non-migrants (n = 2,037). Compared to non-migrants, current international migrants were younger (mean 32.9 years versus 35.8 years), had more schooling (7.6 years versus 5.8 years), and were more likely to have an international migrant father (9.7% versus 4.0%) or brother (49.1% versus 30.3%). We estimated multivariate ordinary least squares and logistic regression models controlling for a wide range of control variables measured as far back as 1982. Results show that current international migrants had substantially better health status on factors that likely relate to self-selection such as grip strength and self-rated health. Current international migrants had no excess risk of injury in the past 12 months compared to non-migrants (adjusted mean risk = 6.0% versus 9.3%, p = 0.084). Compared to non-migrants, current international migrants had roughly twice the risk of overweight/obesity (adjusted mean risk = 51.7% versus 23.3%, p < 0.001), obesity (6.9% versus 3.4%, p = 0.012), and stage 1 or higher hypertension (13.0% versus 7.0%, p = 0.014). Compared to internal migrants, current international migrants had significantly higher levels of overweight/obesity (adjusted mean risk = 51.7% versus 37.7%, p < 0.001). Current international migrants showed above average levels of depressive symptoms on a 12-item standardized short-form Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (+0.220 SD, 95% CI 0.098-0.342), significantly higher than internal migrants (-0.028 SD, 95% CI -0.111, 0.055; p < 0.001). Depressive symptoms differed significantly from those reported by non-migrants when restricting to items on negative emotions (international migrant score = 0.254 SD, non-migrant score = 0.056 SD, p = 0.004). Key limitations include the descriptive nature of the analysis, the use of both in-person and phone survey data for international migrants, the long recall period for occupational and mental health risk measures, and the coverage of a single out-migration area of origin. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that international migrants had comparable or lower injury and mortality risks compared to respondents remaining in Bangladesh, due in part to the high risks present in Bangladesh. International migrants also showed higher levels of self-rated health and physical strength, reflective of positive self-selection into migration. They had substantially higher risks of overweight/obesity, hypertension, and depression. Negative health impacts may reflect the effects of both harsh migration conditions and assimilation into host population conditions. Our results suggest the need for bilateral cooperation to improve the health of guest workers.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 40, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak (2013-2016), WHO developed a preparedness checklist for its member states. This checklist is currently being applied for the first time on a large and systematic scale to prepare for the cross border importation of the ongoing EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo hence the need to document the lessons learnt from this experience. This is more pertinent considering the complex humanitarian context and weak health system under which some of the countries such as the Republic of South Sudan are implementing their EVD preparedness interventions. MAIN TEXT: We identified four main lessons from the ongoing EVD preparedness efforts in the Republic South Sudan. First, EVD preparedness is possible in complex humanitarian settings such as the Republic of South Sudan by using a longer-term health system strengthening approach. Second, the Republic of South Sudan is at risk of both domestic and cross border transmission of EVD and several other infectious disease outbreaks hence the need for an integrated and sustainable approach to outbreak preparedness in the country. Third, a phased and well-prioritized approach is required for EVD preparedness in complex humanitarian settings given the costs associated with preparedness and the difficulties in the accurate prediction of outbreaks in such settings. Fourth, EVD preparedness in complex humanitarian settings is a massive undertaking that requires effective and decentralized coordination. CONCLUSION: Despite a very challenging context, the Republic of South Sudan made significant progress in its EVD preparedness drive demonstrating that it is possible to rapidly scale up preparedness efforts in complex humanitarian contexts if appropriate and context-specific approaches are used. Further research, systematic reviews and evaluation of the ongoing preparedness efforts are required to ensure comprehensive documentation and application of the lessons learnt for future EVD outbreak preparedness and response efforts.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Ebolavirus/genética , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Socorro em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Rev Genet ; 21(6): 355-366, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127690

RESUMO

In the field of human history, ancient DNA has provided answers to long-standing debates about major movements of people and has begun to inform on other important facets of the human experience. The field is now moving from mostly large-scale supraregional studies to a more local perspective, shedding light on socioeconomic processes, inheritance rules, marriage practices and technological diffusion. In this Review, we summarize recent studies showcasing these types of insights, focusing on methods used to infer sociocultural aspects of human behaviour. This approach often involves working across disciplines - such as anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and genetics - that have until recently evolved in separation. Multidisciplinary dialogue is important for an integrated reconstruction of human history, which can yield extraordinary insights about past societies, reproductive behaviours and even lifestyle habits that would not be possible to obtain otherwise.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Genética Populacional/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , História Antiga , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196524

RESUMO

Adolescent girls in West Africa are migrating in search of educational and livelihood opportunities. In Mali, early marriage (before the legal age of 16) is a common practice. This paper builds on prior research on female migration that focused on the direct influences of migration on marriage and explores the wider social impact of rising female migration in sending communities by examining direct and indirect effects and intended and unintended consequences. This study examines perceptions about migration among girls and their parents including how it influences marital timing, marriage preparations, marriage practices, and marital relations. Qualitative data were collected from 140 adolescent girls and 115 parents of adolescent girls in rural areas in focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 31) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) (n = 41) to inform how girls' migration patterns might influence program recruitment strategies and content for an intervention aimed at addressing early marriage in Mali. Our findings concur with earlier studies that migration has direct effects on marriage because it allows girls to both avoid early marriage and prepare for marriage through the assembly of goods and wares to bring to their conjugal homes. Despite some of the perceived risks of migration on marriage, the indirect effects of migration include allowing girls to see different types of marriage practices and marital relationships between husbands and wives and potentially allowing migrant girls to exert more influence over the marital process compared to non-migrants. However, migration can expose girls to new ideas and alternatives that may be incongruent with cultural expectations for them once they return to their communities. This study suggests that migration is seen as an inevitable part of life for many adolescent girls in Mali. Girls who migrate may return to their villages with not only items or income that provide direct benefits to a marriage, but also viewpoints on the expectations for women and girls in their communities that indirectly influence marital relationships. Although this can be challenging for individual returned girls in terms of reintegration, these new expectations may, over time, lead to social changes that influence migrants and non-migrants. Program strategies and approaches must consider the possibility of migration as an important aspect of every adolescent girl's opportunity structure. The qualitative data suggests that certain skills are critical for adolescent girls. Programs should emphasize the acquisition of relevant skills such as communication, risk assessment, negotiation and money management in ways that are relevant for migrants and non-migrants.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Mali , Casamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084178

RESUMO

Venezuela is going through the worst economical, political and social crisis in its modern history. Basic products like food or medicine are scarce and hyperinflation is combined with economic depression. This situation is creating an unprecedented refugee and migrant crisis in the region. Governments and international agencies have not been able to consistently leverage reliable information using traditional methods. Therefore, to organize and deploy any kind of humanitarian response, it is crucial to evaluate new methodologies to measure the number and location of Venezuelan refugees and migrants across Latin America. In this paper, we propose to use Facebook's advertising platform as an additional data source for monitoring the ongoing crisis. We estimate and validate national and sub-national numbers of refugees and migrants and break-down their socio-economic profiles to further understand the complexity of the phenomenon. Although limitations exist, we believe that the presented methodology can be of value for real-time assessment of refugee and migrant crises world-wide.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Venezuela
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 200, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to describe and evaluate management, performance and results of Tuberculosis (TB)-screening among refugees and asylum seekers in a rural area in Germany in 2015. METHODS: Refugees or asylum seekers, staying in shared-accommodation are obligated to participate on screening chest X-ray (CXR) in order to screen for signs of potentially infectious pulmonary TB (German Protection against Infection Act and German Asylum Procedure Act). n = 705 individuals underwent screening chest X-ray (CXR) to detect pulmonary TB in September and October 2015 on site. One experienced radiologist interpreted and reported each CXR within 24 h after the enrollment in the screening program and results were sent to the local Public Health Department for potential further medical care. Image abnormalities suggestive for TB were defined according to established radiographic criteria such as pleural effusion, cavitation, consolidation, fibrous scarring or calcification. Only in case of TB-suggestive findings on CXR, further diagnostics were arranged (pulmonological examination, follow-up CXR, sputum culture, interferon-gamma release assay, bronchoscopy). Follow-up data was collected in collaboration with the local Public Health Department. Descriptive statistics were calculated using GraphPad Prism software. RESULTS: n = 637 CXR examinations (90%) did not show abnormal findings, n = 54 CXR (8%) showed incidental findings, and n = 14 CXR (2%) were suspicious for acute TB. Of these, n = 14 individuals, eight underwent further TB diagnostics. Active TB was confirmed in one individual (0.001% of the screening cohort). CONCLUSIONS: Our cohort reflects current immigrations statistics in Europe and illustrates an overall low TB prevalence amongst individuals entering Germany in 2015. However, our findings support the improvement of diagnostic algorithms.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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