Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.374
Filtrar
1.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113595, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296817

RESUMO

Undocumented immigrants have disproportionately suffered during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic due to factors including limited medical access and financial insecurity, which can exacerbate pandemic-associated distress. Psychological outcomes for immigrant outpatients were assessed after transition to telepsychiatry in March 2020. Mental health was assessed with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) inventories, a novel coronavirus-specific survey, and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10+). Feedback on telepsychiatry sessions and access to non-clinical resources were also gathered, after which multivariable linear regression modeling identified psychosocial factors underlying changes in distress levels. 48.57% and 45.71% of participants reported worsened anxiety and depression levels due to the pandemic, respectively. From March to April, PHQ-2 and GAD-2 scores significantly increased by 0.81 and 0.63 points, respectively. The average total psychological distress score was 23.8, with 60% of scores reflecting serious mental illness. Factors that most influenced K10+ scores included a pre-existing depressive disorder, food insecurity, and comfort during telepsychiatry visits. 93.75% of participants believed access to remote psychiatry helped their mental health during COVID-19. The negative impact of COVID-19 on mental health in vulnerable populations stems from medical and psychosocial factors such as pre-existing psychiatric conditions and unmet essential needs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(1): 116-126, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many immigrants are susceptible to varicella on arrival to Canada because of different transmission dynamics in their countries of origin and scarcity of vaccination. Universal childhood vaccination programmes decrease varicella incidence rates through herd immunity, but the accumulating number of susceptible adult immigrants could remain at risk for severe varicella. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of varicella among immigrants and non-immigrants before and after childhood varicella vaccination. METHODS: We did a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all varicella cases in Quebec, Canada, diagnosed between 1996 and 2014 in administrative health databases linked to immigration data. Cases of varicella met diagnostic codes in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revision Canadian modifications. Cases with a co-occurring zoster diagnostic code and immigrants from Australia, New Zealand, the USA, and western European countries were excluded. Vaccination periods included pre-vaccination (1996-98), private vaccination (1999-2005), and public vaccination (2006-14). Incidence rate and comparative rate ratios were estimated using census data. FINDINGS: A total of 231 339 varicella cases diagnosed between Jan 1, 1996, and Dec 31, 2014, were linked to 1 115 696 immigrants who arrived between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2014. 1444 herpes zoster cases and 1276 immigrants from Australia, western Europe, New Zealand, and the USA were excluded. Among 228 619 varicella cases, 13 315 (5·8%) occurred in immigrants. In pre-vaccination versus public vaccination periods, varicella incidence declined in immigrants by 87% (95% CI 86·6-87·9; 324·3 cases per 100 000 person-years to 40·9 cases per 100 000 person-years) and in non-immigrants by 93% (92·4-92·7; 484 cases per 100 000 person-years to 36 cases per 100 000 person-years). Mean age at diagnosis increased in both groups (15·1 vs 19·4 years in immigrants and 8·4 vs 12·0 years in non-immigrants). In the public vaccination period, immigrants younger than 50 years had higher varicella rates than non-immigrants, with relative risk ranging from 1·53 (95% CI 1·37-1·72) to 4·64 (3·90-5·53) with the highest risk in adolescents and young adults, and people from Latin America and the Caribbean (age-specific incidence rate ratio [aIRR]I-NI pre-vaccination 2·19 and post-vaccination aIRRI-NI6·07) and south Asia (aIRRI-NI pre-vaccination 3·41 and aIRRI-NI post-vaccination 4·46) and in childbearing women (15-40 years; IRRI-NI 2·48). INTERPRETATION: Immigrant adolescents, young adults, and women of childbearing age had higher age-standardised rates of varicella than non-immigrants, with increasing disparities following vaccine introduction. Immigrants younger than 50 years of age would benefit from targeted vaccination upon arrival to host countries. FUNDING: The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and The Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.


Assuntos
Varicela/epidemiologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 53: 56-62.e2, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927056

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between counties' COVID-19 cases and racial-ethnic and nativity composition, considering heterogeneity across Latin American-origin subgroups and regions of the United States. METHODS: Using county-level data and multilevel negative binomial models, we evaluate associations between COVID-19 cases and percentages of residents that are foreign-born, Latinx, Black, or Asian, presenting estimates for all counties combined and stratifying across regions. Given varying risk factors among Latinx, we also evaluate associations for percentages of residents from specific Latin American-origin groups. RESULTS: Percentage of foreign-born residents is positively associated with COVID-19 case rate (IRR = 1.106; 95% CI: 1.074-1.139). Adjusted associations for percentage Latinx are nonsignificant for all counties combined, but this obscures heterogeneity. Counties with more Central Americans have higher case rates (IRR = 1.130; 95% CI: 1.067-1.197). And, in the Northeast and Midwest, counties with more Puerto Ricans have higher case rates. Associations with percentage Asians are nonsignificant after adjusting for percentage foreign-born. With the confirmation of prior evidence, the percentage of Black residents is positively and robustly associated with COVID-19 case rate (IRR = 1.031; 95% CI: 1.025-1.036). CONCLUSIONS: Counties with more immigrants, as well as more Central American or Black residents, have more COVID-19 cases. In the Northeast and Midwest, counties with more Puerto Rican residents also have more COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Governo Local , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(10): 764-778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283840

RESUMO

As of 27 October 2020, there have been 57,980 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Singapore, with 28 fatalities. To summarise the Singapore experience in managing and containing COVID-19 based on available published data and from relevant sources, a review of literature using research databases such as PubMed and OVID Medline, along with non-peer-reviewed articles and other sources, was conducted with the search terms 'COVID-19' and 'Singapore'. Research conducted in Singapore has provided insight into the clinical manifestations and period of infectivity of COVID-19, demonstrated evidence of pre-symptomatic transmission, linked infection clusters using serological tools, and highlighted aspects of hospital-based environmental contamination. It has also provided guidance for diagnostic testing and has described immune and virologic correlates with disease severity. Evidence of effectiveness of containment measures such as early border control, rigorous contact training, and calibrated social distancing measures have also been demonstrated. Singapore's multipronged strategy has been largely successful at containing COVID-19 and minimising fatalities, but the risk of re-emergence is high.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /fisiopatologia , /terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Desinfecção/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Respiração Artificial , Medição de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Ventilação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1906-1910, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332291

RESUMO

Numerous recent assessments indicate that meat and poultry processing facility workers are at increased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-4). Physical proximity to other workers and shared equipment can facilitate disease transmission in these settings (2-4). The disproportionate number of foreign-born workers employed in meat and poultry processing reflects structural, social, and economic inequities that likely contribute to an increased COVID-19 incidence in this population* (5). In May 2020, the Maryland Department of Health and CDC investigated factors that might affect person-to-person SARS-CoV-2 transmission among persons who worked at two poultry processing facilities.† A survey administered to 359 workers identified differences in risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection between workers born outside the United States and U.S.-born workers. Compared with U.S.-born workers, foreign-born workers had higher odds of working in fixed locations on the production floor (odds ratio [OR] for cutup and packaging jobs = 4.8), of having shared commutes (OR = 1.9), and of living with other poultry workers (OR = 6.0). They had lower odds of participating in social gatherings (OR for visits to family = 0.2; OR for visits to friends = 0.4), and they visited fewer businesses in the week before the survey than did their U.S.-born coworkers. Some workplace risk factors can be mitigated through engineering and administrative controls focused on the production floor, and this will be of particular benefit to the foreign-born workers concentrated in these areas. Employers and health departments can also partner with local organizations to disseminate culturally and linguistically tailored messages about risk reduction behaviors in community settings, including shared transportation§ and household members dwelling in close quarters.¶.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aves Domésticas , Fatores de Risco
6.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 427-433, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308509

RESUMO

Racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, age, and sex-related health disparities in kidney disease are prominent in the United States. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected marginalized populations. Older adults, people experiencing unstable housing, racial and ethnic minorities, and immigrants are potentially at increased risk for infection and severe complications from COVID-19. The direct and societal effects of the pandemic may increase risk of incident kidney disease and lead to worse outcomes for those with kidney disease. The rapid transition to telemedicine potentially limits access to care for older adults, immigrants, and people experiencing unstable housing. The economic impact of the pandemic has had a disproportionate effect on women, minorities, and immigrants, which may limit their ability to manage kidney disease and lead to complications or kidney disease progression. We describe the impact of COVID-19 on marginalized populations and highlight how the pandemic may exacerbate existing disparities in kidney disease.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Status Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Equidade em Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/etnologia , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article explores mental health services in Norway and their availability for women subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). The article focus on the system of communication and referrals from the perspective of health workers, and aims to identify bottlenecks in the system, what and where they are to be found, and analyze how different mental health services deal with Sub Saharan African (SSA) women in general, but in particular with respect to FGM/C. METHOD: The study was conducted in Oslo, Norway, using a qualitative fieldwork research design, with the use of purposeful sampling, and a semi-structural guideline. One hundred interviews were done with general practitioners (GPs), gynecologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, midwives and nurses. ANALYSIS: A system analysis is applied using socio-cybernetics as a tool to identify the flow of communication and referrals of patients. FINDINGS: The study shows that borders of subsystems, silencing mechanisms, regulations and "attitudes" of the system can lead to women with SSA background having difficulty getting access to the specialist services. High standards for referral letters, waiting lists, out pushing to the lower levels, insecurities around treatment and deference rules silencing mental health issues during consultancies, have a negative impact on the accessibility of services. Consequences are that mental health problems due to FGM/C are under-investigated, under-referred, and under-treated and a silenced problem within the mental health services for women. CONCLUSION: A better integration of subsystems at the specialist level with the GP scheme is necessary, as well as providing competence on FGM/C to the different levels. It is also important to strengthen and integrating the services at the Municipal level and provide information to SSA women about the low threshold services.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina/reabilitação , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Análise de Sistemas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052932

RESUMO

As of August 2020, the United States is the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging data suggests that "essential" workers, who are disproportionately more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants, bear a disproportionate degree of risk. We used publicly available data to build a series of spatial autoregressive models assessing county level associations between COVID-19 mortality and (1) percentage of individuals engaged in farm work, (2) percentage of households without a fluent, adult English-speaker, (3) percentage of uninsured individuals under the age of 65, and (4) percentage of individuals living at or below the federal poverty line. We further adjusted these models for total population, population density, and number of days since the first reported case in a given county. We found that across all counties that had reported a case of COVID-19 as of July 12, 2020 (n = 3024), a higher percentage of farmworkers, a higher percentage of residents living in poverty, higher density, higher population, and a higher percentage of residents over the age of 65 were all independently and significantly associated with a higher number of deaths in a county. In urban counties (n = 115), a higher percentage of farmworkers, higher density, and larger population were all associated with a higher number of deaths, while lower rates of insurance coverage in a county was independently associated with fewer deaths. In non-urban counties (n = 2909), these same patterns held true, with higher percentages of residents living in poverty and senior residents also significantly associated with more deaths. Taken together, our findings suggest that farm workers may face unique risks of contracting and dying from COVID-19, and that these risks are independent of poverty, insurance, or linguistic accessibility of COVID-19 health campaigns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2021876, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084899

RESUMO

Importance: The association of state-level immigrant policies with uninsurance among Latino youths remains unknown. Objective: To assess the association of state-level immigrant integration and criminalization policies with health insurance coverage among US-born Latino youths by maternal citizenship. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed secondary data from the American Community Survey, January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2018, for US-born Latino youths (age, ≤17 years) and their mothers (age, 18-64 years) as well as state-level indicators of immigrant integration and criminalization policies (in all 50 states and the District of Columbia). Exposures: Immigrant integration and criminalization policies. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was maternal reports of youth uninsurance status at the time of the American Community Survey interview. Variation in youth uninsurance by maternal citizenship, state immigrant integration policy context, and state immigrant criminalization policy context were examined. All analyses were conducted with weighted survey data. Results: Of the 226 691 US-born Latino youths (115 431 [50.92%] male; mean [SD] age, 7.66 [4.92] years) included in the study, 36.64% (95% CI, 36.21%-36.92%) had noncitizen mothers. Overall, 7.09% (95% CI, 6.78%-7.41%) of noncitizen mothers reported that their youths were uninsured compared with 4.68% (95% CI, 4.49%-4.88%) of citizen mothers. Of uninsured youths who resided in states with a low level of immigrant integration policies, 9.10% (8.22%-10.06%) had noncitizen mothers and 4.75% (95% CI, 4.19%-5.37%) had citizen mothers; of uninsured youths who resided in states with high criminalization policies, 9.37% (95% CI, 8.90%-9.87%) had noncitizen mothers and 5.91% (95% CI, 5.64%-6.20%) had citizen mothers. In states with few immigrant integration policies, the probability of uninsurance among youths with noncitizen mothers was 3.3% (95% CI, 2.3%-4.4%) higher than that among youths with citizen mothers. Among youths with noncitizen mothers, the difference in the probability of uninsurance between those residing in states with a low level vs a high level of immigrant integration policies was 2.1% (95% CI, 0.6%-3.6%). Among youths residing in states with high levels of immigrant criminalization policies, those with noncitizen mothers had a 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9%-3.0%) higher probability of being uninsured compared with those whose mothers were citizens. Among youths with noncitizen mothers, the difference in the probability of uninsurance between those who resided in a state with a low level vs a state with a high level of immigrant criminalization policies was 1.7% (95% CI, 0.7%-2.7%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cross-sectional study suggest that among US-born Latino youths, disparities in uninsurance by maternal citizenship are associated with state-level immigrant integration and criminalization policies and that anti-immigrant policies may be associated with disparities in health care access for US-born Latino youths.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Políticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/etnologia
12.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193595

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: describir conocimientos y percepciones de profesionales de Atención Primaria sobre el acceso al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante, así como analizar diferencias entre categorías profesionales. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta a 352 profesionales sanitarios y no sanitarios en centros de salud de la Comunidad de Madrid, y residentes de Medicina y Enfermería de la Unidad Docente Multiprofesional de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria Sur de Madrid (UDMAFyC Sur) entre febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: respondieron 179 profesionales (50,9%). El 50,3% opinó que los inmigrantes tienen frecuentes dificultades de acceso y el 65,9% que el estatus migratorio condiciona su salud, señalando el idioma como barrera relevante el 80,4%. El 72,7% de los sanitarios afirmó que no consumen más recursos. Expresaron nulo/escaso conocimiento del Real Decreto-Ley (RDL) 16/2012 el 72%, y del RDL 7/2018, un 66,7%. Un 30,7% consideró que el RDL 16/2012 tuvo efectos negativos en salud, y el 28,5%, que el RDL 7/2018 recuperó la universalidad. Un 54,9% de sanitarios apoyó la universalidad del SNS, contrastando con el 19,1% de personal no sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: la mitad de profesionales percibe frecuentes dificultades de la población inmigrante en su acceso al SNS, aunque el conocimiento de las normativas es limitado. Una ajustada mayoría respalda la universalidad, existiendo posicionamientos restrictivos con relativa frecuencia, especialmente entre el personal no sanitario. Se reproducen ciertos mitos sobre la atención a población inmigrante, no así acerca del consumo de recursos sanitarios


OBJECTIVES: To report the knowledge and perceptions of Primary Care professionals regarding access to the Spanish National Healthcare System and healthcare assistance provided to the immigrant population, as well as to analyse differences by professional categories. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 352 professionals: healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) from primary health care centres in the southern region of the Community of Madrid and resident doctors and nurses assigned to this primary healthcare area, from February to March 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 179 professionals (50.9%) replied. Of these, 50.3% thought that migrants face frequent difficulties in access, whereas 65.9% considered that migrants' health is conditioned by their migratory status. Moreover, 80.4% identified language as a relevant barrier and 72.7% of HCWs believed that migrants do not consume more resources. Regarding the Spanish Royal Decree-laws (RDL), 72% admitted having no or little knowledge of Spanish RDL 16/2012, and 66.7% of Spanish RDL 7/2018. However, 30.7% considered that Spanish RDL 16/2012 had negative effects on health, 28.5% agreed that Spanish RDL 7/2018 recovered universal healthcare coverage (UHC). Overall, 54.9% of HCWs support UHC in comparison to 19.1% of non-HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Half the professionals perceive that immigrants encounter frequent difficulties when accessing the Spanish Healthcare System, although their knowledge of legislation is limited. A slight majority supports UHC and finds a large number of restrictive stances, especially among non-HCWs. Certain misconceptions regarding care provided to immigrants persist, but not those related to health resources consumption


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Percepção Social , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(4): 304-307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921037

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the anti-tuberculosis vaccine, can be protective against Covid-19. Using data of performed swabs and RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in the Reggio Emilia province (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) from March 6th to March 26th, 2020, we computed age, gender, and place of birth (Italy or abroad) specific risk of being tested, prevalence of positive tests, and probability of testing positive given that a swab has been taken during the epidemic peak. We report that immigrants resident in Reggio Emilia province, mostly coming from Countries with high BCG vaccination coverage, and Italians had a similar prevalence of infection (odds ratio - OR 0.99; 95%CI 0.82-1.20) and similar probability of being tested (OR 0.93; 95%CI 0.81-1.10). Our data do not support the hypothesis that immigrants from Countries where BCG vaccination is recommended have a lower risk of Covid-19 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , Ásia/etnologia , Vacina BCG , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia/etnologia , Prevalência , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Cobertura Vacinal
15.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(11): 1061-1066, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998184

RESUMO

AIM: Studies regarding the impact of adult children's migration on older parents left-behind have focused on physical and mental health. This study assessed the relationship between migration of adult children and quality of life (QOL) of older parents left-behind in Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out (May-July 2019) among 791 randomly selected older adults aged ≥60 years. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-abbreviated scale, and migration status was assessed into three categories: no migration, internal migration only and any international migration. A range of sociodemographic characteristics were measured for adjustment. Associations between migration of children and each domain of the QOL were examined by multilevel mixed regression. RESULTS: Scores for QOL were; 58.8 ± 19.8 for physical, 63.7 ± 18.0 for psychological, 60.7 ± 16.2 for social, and 61.8 ± 15.0 for environmental domains. This study identified positive and null associations between the migration of children and QOL for parents, with higher scores for physical (b = 5.16, P = 0.017) and environmental (b = 3.19, P = 0.046) domains among left-behind parents whose children migrated internally compared with parents whose children did not migrate. CONCLUSIONS: The findings differ from previous research showing poorer QOL among left-behind older parents. Migration plays a significant role in shaping physical and environmental QOL among left-behind parents living in rural areas with important implications for migrants, their families, researchers and social scientists. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 1061-1066..


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Nepal , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Med Care ; 58(11): 974-980, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in health access and utilization among Middle Eastern American adults by White racial identity and citizenship. METHODS: Data from the 2011 to 2018 National Health Interview Surveys (N=1013) and survey-weighted logistic regression analyses compare Middle Eastern immigrants by race and citizenship on access and utilization of health care in the United States. RESULTS: White respondents had 71% lower odds of delaying care [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.13, 0.71] and 84% lower odds of being rejected by a doctor as a new patient (AOR=0.16; 95% CI=0.03, 0.88) compared to non-White respondents. US citizens had higher odds of visiting the doctor in the past 12 months compared with noncitizens (AOR=1.76; 95% CI=1.25, 2.76). CONCLUSION: Middle Eastern immigrants who do not identify as White and who are not US citizens are significantly less likely to access and utilize health care compared with those who identify as White and are US citizens. POLICY IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that racial and citizenship disparities persist among Middle Eastern Americans at a national-level, playing a critical role in access to and use of health care.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 378-389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959805

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study was implemented to provide guidance to decision-makers and clinicians by describing hospital care offered to women who gave birth with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National population-based prospective cohort study involving all women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who gave birth between February 25 and April 22, 2020 in any Italian hospital. RESULTS: The incidence rate of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in women who gave birth was 2.1 per 1000 maternities at a national level and 6.9/1000 in the Lombardy Region. Overall one third of the women developed a pneumonia and 49.7% assumed at least one drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Caesarean rate was 32.9%, no mothers nor newborns died. Six percent of the infants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 in women who gave birth are similar to those described for the general population, most women developing mild to moderate illness.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/congênito , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Pneumonia Viral/congênito , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Natimorto/epidemiologia
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113450, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977052

RESUMO

Although research suggests that Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are associated with emotional problems, individuals with higher resilience experience less emotional problems. This relation has yet to be examined in the growing Latinx immigrant youth population in the United States. To study the relation between ACEs, emotional problems, and resilience, recently immigrated Latinx youth (N=85) were interviewed using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Resilience Scale. Moderation analyses revealed ACEs were directly associated with emotional problems, as was resilience. While the interaction effect was not significant, conditional effects indicated a buffering effect such that the relation between ACEs and emotional problems was non-significant at high levels of resilience. In addition to the relatively small sample size, available measures for assessing ACEs and emotional problems are limited in capturing difficulties experienced by Latinx immigrants. Results indicate that individuals with higher resilience do not experience higher emotional problems in the context of childhood adversity. This study contributes to the growing literature on protective factors in Latinx immigrant youth, indicating that assessment of resilience may be beneficial in treating individuals exposed to adversity to mitigate the development of emotional problems.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/etnologia , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA