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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e287, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896355

RESUMO

The target article carefully describes the memory system, centered on the temporal lobe that builds specific memory traces. It does not, however, mention the laterality effects that exist within this system. This commentary briefly surveys evidence showing that clear asymmetries exist within the temporal lobe structures subserving the core system and that the right temporal structures mainly underpin face familiarity feelings.


Assuntos
Memória , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e299, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896373

RESUMO

The memory impairment of neurological and psychiatric patients is seen as occurring mainly in the autobiographical-episodic memory domain and this is considered to depend on limbic structures such as the amygdala or the septal nuclei. Especially the amygdala is a hub for giving an emotional flavor to personal memories. Bastin et al. fail to include the amygdala in their integrative memory model.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
3.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 138-158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265373

RESUMO

It is unquestioned that reaching the hypnotic state is helped along by relational factors and that, conversely, relational experiences can be deepened through hypnosis. It is also true that deepening the experience of being in a relationship with another person is neither comfortable nor indicated for every patient or therapist. Most humans feel ambivalent about closeness. People vary in their desire for and their skill in sustaining mature intimacy. When we move along the continuum from rudimentary notions about relational factors in psychotherapy, such as rapport, to complex concepts, such as enactments, we move along a corresponding continuum of increasing need for specialized training, supervised experience, and personal therapy. The field of psychotherapy has been plagued from its inception by not knowing what to do with the tensions that emerge when two people listen to and look at each other. Avoiding relational factors may be a very human response to a very daunting matter.


Assuntos
Medo , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Emoções , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Hipnose , Relações Interpessoais , Psicanálise , Aliança Terapêutica
4.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 52-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860490

RESUMO

This article summarizes a pilot simulation using standardized patients that was designed to develop skills necessary to care for the critically ill mental health patient nearing the end of life. Although the simulation was found to be a valuable teaching strategy, additional research, with a rigorous design, is recommended to further develop this teaching method. The authors suggest adopting a theoretical framework for debriefing that would elicit emotions, address the emotional needs of students, and assist them to develop coping strategies and skills necessary to care for patients at the end of life.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Transtornos Mentais , Assistência Terminal , Competência Clínica , Emoções , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Simulação de Paciente , Assistência Terminal/normas
5.
Science ; 366(6472): 1444-1445, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857465
6.
Rev Infirm ; 68(256): 33-34, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870477

RESUMO

Emotional skills refer to the ability to identify, understand, express, use one's emotions and those of others. For caregivers, who are experiencing increasingly stressful work conditions and who are accompanying people going through painful moments in their lives, emotional skills are a valuable tool. They make it easier to take a step back from the professional and personal experience and thus promote a better quality of life at work. They concern health students in their initial training.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Estresse Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho , Cuidadores/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880767

RESUMO

The paper presents a review of the literature data reflecting the relevance and current views on the problem of facial feedback. It considers the relationship between the bioelectric activity of facial muscles and neuropsychic stress. The modern issues dedicated to the study of the correlation between the indicators assessing the tonic activity of facial muscles and psycho-emotional stress are highlighted. Particular emphasis is placed on the scientific concept of emotional proprioception, according to which facial muscle activity through the trigeminal and facial nerves affects the emotional centers of the brain, by improving or worsening the emotional state. The currently known methods for the correction of psychoemotional states, which are based on the feedback mechanism, are analyzed. The possibilities of using neuromuscular relaxation of the facial muscles to correct psychoemotional conditions are considered.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 784-802, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047568

RESUMO

O câncer ainda é associado a dor, morte e sofrimento, e muitos cidadãos, com medo de um diagnóstico, adotam comportamento de esquiva de médicos e exames. Com o surgimento das mídias sociais, o tema tem sido tratado em plataformas como Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, entre outras. O objetivo deste estudo é averiguar se há um padrão de conteúdo sobre câncer que gere engajamento no aplicativo de imagens Instagram. Foram selecionados dois perfis brasileiros de instituições de câncer no Instagram, e um estudo qualitativo de análise de conteúdo de posts e comentários foi aplicado, sendo associado posteriormente a análises estatísticas. Foi selecionado todo o conteúdo de dois hospitais oncológicos brasileiros durante quatro anos, totalizando 1.935 postagens no Instagram. Além dos posts, buscamos entender o comportamento dos usuários dessas mídias quando o tema é câncer, por meio dos 2.239 comentários e dos 4.603 Emojis. Podemos afirmar que há interesse pelo tema, o qual é abordado sem preconceitos por internautas e que muitos buscam formas diferenciadas de gratificação no uso do aplicativo.


Cancer is a disease still associated with pain, death and suffering and many people, afraid of a diagnosis, adopt dodging behavior from doctors and tests. Despite this phenomenon as old as the disease, the emergence of social media has brought the topic to platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, among others. T77he goal of this study is to determine if there is a cancer content standard that creates more engagement on Instagram. Two Brazilian cancer institutions Instagram profiles were selected and a qualitative study of content analysis was applied, later associating it with statistical analysis. During four years, the entire contents of two Brazilian cancer hospitals were selected, totaling 1,935 posts on Instagram. In addition to the posts produced by the two institutions, we sought to understand user behavior on this media when the topic is cancer, through 2,239 comments and 4,603 Emojis. Given the fact that the two profiles attract about 120,000 users, we can affirm that there is interest on the topic, Internet users address the topic with no prejudice and many seek different ways of gratification using the app.


El cáncer es una enfermedad aún asociada al dolor, muerte y sufrimiento y muchos ciudadanos, con miedo de un diagnóstico, adoptan comportamiento de esquiva de médicos y exámenes. A pesar de ese fenómeno tan antiguo cuanto a la enfermedad, el surgimiento de las Redes Sociales trajo el tema a plataformas como Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, entre otras. El objetivo de este estudio es averiguar si hay un estándar de contenido sobre cáncer que genera engagement en la aplicación de imágenes Instagram. Dos perfiles brasileños de instituciones de cáncer en el Instagram fueran seleccionados y un estudio cualitativo de análisis de contenido de posts y comentarios fue aplicado, asociado posteriormente a análisis estadísticos. Durante cuatro años, fue seleccionado todo el contenido de dos hospitales oncológicos brasileños, totalizando 1.935 posts en el Instagram. Además de los posts producidos por las dos instituciones, buscamos entender el comportamiento de los usuarios de esos medios cuando el tema es cáncer, a través de 2.239 comentarios y de 4.603 Emojis. Ante los dos perfiles que atraen a cerca de 120 mil usuarios, podemos afirmar que hay interés por el tema, que el tema es abordado sin prejuicios por internautas y que muchos buscan formas diferenciadas de gratificación en el uso de la aplicación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Emoções , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Promoção da Saúde , Neoplasias , Estudo Comparativo , Comunicação , Discurso , Desenho , Correio Eletrônico , Hospitais
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 251-261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705498

RESUMO

Mood disorders include all types of depression and bipolar disorder, and mood disorders are sometimes called affective disorders. We will discuss newly developing two issues in affective disorders in children and adolescents. Those are the new diagnostic challenges using neuroimaging techniques in affective disorders and the introduction of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). During the 1980s, mental health professionals began to recognize symptoms of mood disorders in children and adolescents, as well as adults. However, children and adolescents do not necessarily have or exhibit the same symptoms as adults. It is more difficult to diagnose mood disorders in children, especially because children are not always able to express how they feel. Child mental health professionals believe that mood disorders in children and adolescents remain one of the most underdiagnosed mental health problems. We are currently trying to introduce the new diagnostic technique-machine learning in children and adolescents with MDD. We will discuss the current progress in the clinical application of machine learning for MDD. After that, we would also discuss a new challenging diagnosis-DMDD. We are still suffering from a lack of evidence when trying to treat the patients with DMDD. In addition, there are some debates about the diagnostic validity of DMDD. We will explain the current situation of DMDD studies and the future directions in the study of DMDD.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Criança , Depressão , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Neuroimagem
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 453-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705508

RESUMO

This chapter aims to provide a perspective of the complex formation of emotion and its operational usage in neuroscience. In the first section, the essence and function of emotion will be introduced from different perspectives. After an overview of historical and ongoing debates in the second section, the neuroscientific findings regarding emotional instances in healthy subjects and psychiatric patients will be outlined throughout the third and fourth sections. In the last section, a comprehensive approach of the newly developing field of computational psychiatry to emotion will be introduced.


Assuntos
Emoções , Neurociências , Humanos , Pesquisa
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 545-564, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705513

RESUMO

Recently, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methodologies, including TMS and tDCS, have been considered as efficacious, safe, and innovative treatments and alternatives to conventional therapies for some psychiatric disorders. Developing evidence suggests that applying rTMS and tDCS over the cognitive control network (CCN), particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), may improve core symptoms in various psychiatric disorders via direct impact on the cognitive control processes involved in emotion regulation. Therefore, neuromodulation of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of emotion by NIBS approaches could contribute to a paradigm shift in psychiatry. The available evidence suggests that development of effective treatment alternatives to enhance cognition is critical for patients with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to review the cognition-enhancing properties of tDCS and TMS and the impact of these treatments on cognitive control processes, especially those related to emotion regulation in psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Humanos
12.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 623-638, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711398

RESUMO

Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury - the Impact of Emotion Regulation Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common phenomenon in adolescence. Furthermore, it is often associated with maltreatment during childhood. One factor determining the relation between childhood maltreatment and NSSI is maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The current study examines this relation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients (n = 97). Adolescents engaging in NSSI present maladaptive strategies in emotion regulation more frequently. In addition, they experienced maltreatment in childhood more often than inpatients not engaging in NSSI. Further, partial mediation was established among childhood emotional abuse and neglect, NSSI and maladaptive emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
13.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 606-622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711400

RESUMO

What Causes Future-Related Stress in Immigrant and German Adolescents and how do they Cope with these Stressors? In the present study, the stress perception and coping of German and immigrant adolescents with regard to future stress were compared. The 1,789 adolescents (164 immigrated, 1,625 German adolescents) at the age of fifteen completed questionnaires on the assessment of stress and coping with regard to future stress. Immigrated youth show a higher stress burden in the domain future than German adolescents. The fear of becoming unemployed was a major stressor in both groups, and both groups were also very active in tackling future-related problems. However, German youths show an even more active approach to coping with future stress and involve parents or friends more often. Migrant youth have higher levels of the coping style withdrawal, especially in emotion regulation and resignative withdrawal. The ability to reflect on the solution of future-related stressors is quite high in both groups. Worries about the increasing destruction of the environment are more important for German youth, while migrant youth care more about how they should reconcile work and family life later.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Emoções , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
14.
Nature ; 575(7781): 9, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695216

Assuntos
Cognição , Emoções
15.
J Music Ther ; 56(4): 381-402, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742643

RESUMO

The MAP is an innovative receptive music therapy intervention derived from psychomusical relaxation methods that aims to foster the well-being and recovery of youths with mental health problems by providing them with an adaptive and effective music-assisted means to regulate their mood states. In this quasi-experimental pilot study, we assessed the mood-enhancing potential of participation in MAP sessions delivered by a music therapist in an in-patient mental health facility for children and adolescents. Using short standardized self-reported questionnaires, 20 participants aged 9-17 years old (M = 14, SD = 2.4), mainly girls (13 = 65%), rated their affective state immediately before and after two to four MAP sessions and a similar number of regular unit activity sessions used as comparison. This created a 2 × 2 (Time × Condition) single-group within-individual design. We analyzed pre-post session changes in affect using multilevel mixed models and found participation in MAP sessions to be associated with systematic reductions in self-reported general negative affect and state anxiety. These variations were of modest-to-large magnitude and significantly greater than those associated to participation in regular unit activities. While only a first step towards the validation of the MAP as an effective intervention to foster more adaptive and effective day-to-day mood regulation in youths with mental health problems, this study supports its specific potential to alleviate negative affects and provides a rare demonstration of the putative benefits of music therapy in a pediatric mental health inpatient context.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adolescente , Afeto , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 23(4): 415-432, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586496

RESUMO

This paper introduces a new measure to evaluate heart output from a dynamical systems approach. The measure is based on the time delay technique for two-dimensional state space reconstruction from time series of interbeat intervals. The system's trajectories within this space are depicted and the mean distance, as well as the total and maximum distances travelled by the system, are calculated in pixels. Preliminary data from adolescents with highly positive emotional regulation (HPER) style (n=10) and adolescents with highly negative (HNER) style (n=10) who underwent a protocol of stress induction show the usefulness of the new metrics to distinguish the dynamical behavior of the heart systems from these groups. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that changes in all three distances across conditions (baseline, anticipation of stress, exposure to stress, and recovery) were significant in the HPER group but not in the HNER group. As to the physiological meaning of the new measure a correlational analysis revealed that associations with time-domain HRV measures were stronger than associations with frequency-domain HRV measures in both groups. Because of the small sample size, bootstrap resampling was used to obtain confidence intervals. Distances calculated with the new measure are sensitive to the ER-related cardiac flexibility under acute stress conditions. However, the physiological meaning of the new indices remains unclear.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos
17.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 29-32, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603840

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that while we are sleeping, our brain is very busy processing all information we have acquired along the day. Lack of sleep has shown to produce deficits in memory consolidation and plays an important role in brain development and brain plasticity in the several developmental stages of the human brain. At the cellular level, circadian cycles coordinate complex mechanism that "turn on and off" genes and cellular structures regulating individual cell functions to impact global organ and systems physiological activities. At the end a perfect and coordinated equilibrium in the mental, emotional and physiological is the goal of this complex process. Sleep impacts memory, learning, mood, behavior, immunological responses, metabolism, hormone levels, digestive process and many more physiological functions. We present a review of three basic aspects related with sleep: a. brain electrical activity during the sleep and neuroanatomic correlation with mechanism related with memory and learning; b. circadian cycles and impact in several physiological systems; c some examples of clinical disorders associated with sleep disorders and impact in learning and memory.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
18.
J Music Ther ; 56(4): 348-380, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605612

RESUMO

Music therapy research with youth who are grieving often reports on a combination of interventions, such as lyric analysis, improvisation, and/or songwriting. Unfortunately, the lack of theoretical transparency in how and why these interventions affect targeted outcomes limits interpretation and application of this important research. In this exploratory study, the authors evaluated the impact of an 8-session, theory-driven group songwriting program on protective factors in adolescent bereavement, and also sought to better understand adolescents' experiences of the program. Using a single-group, pretest-posttest convergent mixed methods design, participants were enrolled from three study sites and included 10 adolescents (five girls and five boys), ages 11-17 years, who self-identified as grieving a loss. Outcomes measured included grief, coping, emotional expression, self-esteem, and meaning making. Qualitative data were captured through in-session journaling and semi-structured interviews. There were no statistically significant improvements for grief, self-esteem, coping, and meaning making. Individual score trends suggested improvements in grief. The majority of the participants reported greater inhibition of emotional expression, and this was statistically significant. Thematic findings revealed that the program offered adolescents a sense of togetherness, a way to safely express grief-related emotions and experiences verbally and nonverbally, and opportunities for strengthening music and coping skills. These findings suggest that engaging in collaborative therapeutic songwriting with grieving peers may decrease levels of grief, enhance creative expression, and provide social support. More research is needed on measuring self-esteem, emotional expression, coping, and meaning making outcomes in ways that are meaningful to adolescents.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Luto , Emoções , Musicoterapia/métodos , Redação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Apoio Social
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 325-332, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite much attention in the clinical literature, research on alexithymia in the treatment setting has only recently gained traction. While several reports indicate limited benefit from therapy amongst patients with high alexithymia, this seems to be less so in the context of group therapy. This study considers a specific aspect of the group therapy process - family re-enactment - in facilitating improvement in overall quality of life for patients with high levels of alexithymia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Family re-enactment was examined as a potential mediator of the relationship between alexithymia and change in quality of life among 50 patients who completed treatment in an intensive, integrative group therapy programme. Patients completed three self-report measures: Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (baseline), Quality of Life Inventory (baseline, post-therapy), and Therapeutic Factors Inventory-Short Form (week 8). Regression with mediation analysis was employed using the change score for the QOLI as the dependent variable, alexithymia scores as the independent variable, and the family re-enactment score as the mediator; baseline quality of life was included in the model as a control variable. RESULTS: Family re-enactment emerged as a significant mediator of the relationship between alexithymia and treatment outcome, implicating it as a contributing mechanism of change for alexithymic patients who participate in group therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients with higher levels of alexithymia (in particular, difficulty identifying and describing feelings) were more likely to positively endorse aspects of family re-enactment during group therapy, which in turn were significantly associated with greater improvement in patients' overall quality of life.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Família/psicologia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Qualidade de Vida , Emoções , Humanos
20.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(14): 917-921, 2019.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662105

RESUMO

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa Abstract. Abstract:: Cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders is an evidence-based effective method for the treatment of bulimia nervosa. It is based on a multifactorial and behavioal disorder model in which causes, triggering and maintaining conditions are considered and summarized in a behavioral analysis. Symptom-oriented standard procedures are used in the therapy process. Skills such as emotion regulation, interpersonal competence and cognitive techniques are taught. The low self-esteem and body dissatisfaction are of particular importance. Finally, personal goals are worked on with the patient, taking into account individual needs.


Assuntos
Bulimia Nervosa , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Emoções , Humanos
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