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1.
Exp Psychol ; 67(3): 194-201, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900297

RESUMO

Complex scenes from standardized stimuli databases such as the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) are organized dimensionally rather than discretely. Further, the potentially unique function of socially relevant scenes is often overlooked. This study sought to identify discrete categories of complex scenes from the IAPS and to explore if there were qualitative features that make the emotional content of some social scenes identifiable with higher levels of agreement. One hundred and three participants (53.4% female, mean age 24.4) judged 118 IAPS scenes as reflecting fear, happy, sad, or neutral. A second judgment study was conducted with a separate group of participants (N = 117; 79.2% female; mean age 30.41) to further characterize valid affective scenes across the full range of basic emotions. Sixty images received agreement on their emotional category from >70% of judges and were considered valid. IAPS identifier codes for these images are available for reference (along with the supplementary material from the second judgment study), organized by emotional and social content. An incidental observation was such that compared to nonsocial scenes, lower agreement rates were observed for social scenes across the board. Qualitative features of social scenes that were classified into emotional categories based on higher levels of agreement are discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866184

RESUMO

The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing the ability to recognize emotion. To examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the RMET and to explore the possible implications of poor performance on this task, 200 adults aged 19-32 years completed the RMET and the Korean version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), the cognitive empathy domain of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C), and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Aggression (BDHI-A). In the present study, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor solution based on three different emotional valences of the items (positive, negative, or neutral) had a good fit to the data. The Korean version of the RMET also showed good test-retest reliability over a 4-week time interval. Convergent validity was also supported by significant correlations with subscales of the TAS-20K, and discriminant validity was identified by nonsignificant associations with IRI-C scores. In addition, no difference was found in RMET performance according to the sex of the photographed individuals or the sex or educational attainment of the participants. Individuals with poor RMET performance were more likely to experience alexithymia and aggression. The current findings will facilitate not only future research on emotion processing but also the assessment of conditions related to the decreased ability to decode emotional stimuli.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Leitura , República da Coreia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at determining the EEG correlates of concentration on either low or high-distressed tinnitus. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (36 women, mean age = 50.34 ± 12.94 years) with chronic tinnitus were assigned to either a high (HD) or low (LD) tinnitus-related distress group based on THI results. All participants took part in the EEG study comprising two 3-4 min blocks of focusing on either tinnitus (Tinnitus Focus Condition, TFC) or the sensations from one's own body (Body Focus Condition, BFC). The absolute power and current density of 8 frequency bands in 7 clusters were compared between conditions and groups. RESULTS: The most pronounced differences were found in the HD patients in the TFC, relative to the BFC, i.e. reduced power of frontally distributed low alpha (8-10 Hz) and posterior high alpha (10-12 Hz) as well as lower current density of 8-10 Hz rhythm over the right frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and higher middle beta (15-18 Hz) density in the precuneus. The HD, relative to LD patients, in both conditions, exhibited increased low beta (12-15 Hz) power over the left middle area and greater higher beta (15-25 Hz) power in the left posterior region. CONCLUSIONS: The present study contrasted bioelectrical activity, acquired when concentrating on tinnitus with EEG data collected whilst patients focused on their body. Decreased alpha power and current density in the frontal/cingulate cortex when listening to bothersome tinnitus might reflect greater cortical arousal whereas increased beta power and density in the precuneus/posterior cingulate activity in this condition could be indicative for elevated tension or augmented cognitive/emotional processing of tinnitus sound. Enhanced beta rhythm in patients with high versus low tinnitus distress, observed independently of the study condition, may be due to greater self-focused attention or more active processing of sensations derived from the own body.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zumbido/complicações , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785258

RESUMO

Active learning pedagogies decrease failure rates in undergraduate introductory biology courses, but these practices also cause anxiety for some students. Classroom anxiety can impact student learning and has been associated with decreased student retention in the major, but little is known about how students cope with anxiety caused by active learning practices. In this study, we investigated student coping strategies for various types of active learning (clickers, volunteering to answer a question, cold calling, and group work) that were used in 13 introductory Biology courses at a large public university in 2016-2017. A survey asked students to rate their anxiety regarding the four active learning practices and over half of the students explained the coping strategies they used to manage their active learning anxieties. Coping responses from 880 students were sorted into pre-defined categories of coping strategies: problem solving, information seeking, self-reliance, support seeking, accommodation, helplessness, escape, delegation, and isolation. We found that a different category of coping was dominant for each type of active learning. The dominant coping strategies for anxiety associated with clickers, cold calling, and group work were adaptive coping strategies of information seeking, self-reliance, and support-seeking, respectively. The dominant coping strategy for volunteering to answer a question was escape, which is a maladaptive strategy. This study provides a detailed exploration of student self-reported coping in response to active learning practices and suggests several areas that could be foci for future psychosocial interventions to bolster student regulation of their emotions in response to these new classroom practices.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Biologia/normas , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 47-53, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193246

RESUMO

En la actualidad se defiende la interacción entre la cognición, la emoción y la motivación en el desarrollo de la alta capacidad intelectual; sin embargo, pocos son los estudios que describen los niveles de función corticales y subcorticales superpuestos para explicar su manifestación. Esta revisión pretende integrar los mecanismos neurobiológicos que facilitan la motivación y la práctica en los niños con altas capacidades durante las primeras fases de su aprendizaje. La alta sensibilidad al entorno parece estar relacionada con unas neuronas piramidales y espinosas más rápidas y eficientes, la detección y la búsqueda de la novedad con la actividad de los sistemas neuromoduladores dopaminérgicos, noradrenérgicos y glutamatérgicos en el hipocampo y el sistema mesolímbico, la mayor predisposición al desafío con un mayor número de conexiones en la corteza cingulada anterior, la motivación intrínseca y la perseverancia con la maduración precoz y la mayor plasticidad de las vías frontoparietales, frontoestriales y mesolímbicas


The interaction between cognition, emotion and motivation in giftedness development is currently advocated; however, few studies describe the levels of cortical and subcortical functions superimposed to explain their manifestation. This review aims to integrate neurobiological mechanisms that facilitate motivation and practice in giftedness children during the early stages of their learning. High sensitivity to the environment seems to be related to faster and more efficient pyramidal and spiny neurons, detection and search for novelty with the activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuromodulator systems in the hippocampus and the mesolimbic system, the greater predisposition to the challenge with a greater number of connections in the anterior cingulate cortex, the intrinsic motivation and the perseverance with the early maturation and greater plasticity of the frontoparietal, frontostriatal and mesolimbic net


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Motivação , Propriedade Intelectual , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neurobiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Criança Superdotada/psicologia
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare olfactory functions between unipolar and bipolar patients according to the thymic states (depressed, euthymic) and determine specific olfactory variations between these different states. METHODS: We recruited 176 participants in 5 groups: depressed bipolar (DB), euthymic bipolar (EB), depressed unipolar (DU), euthymic unipolar (EU), and controls (HC). They were assessed using the Sniffin' sticks threshold and identification tests. Odors' pleasantness, intensity, familiarity and emotion were assessed. Clinical evaluation explored dimensions of depression, mania, anxiety, and anhedonia. RESULTS: Smell identification was lower in DU compared to EU patients and controls. Pleasant odors received lower hedonic rating in DU and DB patients compared to EU and EB patients respectively. Negative correlation was found in EB patients between hedonic rating and social anhedonia. In EU patients hedonic rating was negatively correlated with anxiety-state, and anhedonia. CONCLUSIONS: Odor identification of pleasant odors is altered in both depressive states. Only unipolar patients would recover a regular identification level in symptomatic remission, while bipolar subjects would keep their deficits. Hedonic rating is lower in bipolar depressed patients compared to unipolar ones, and these deficits improve after remission. Hedonic rating of pleasant odors may distinguish bipolar depression from unipolar depression during periods of decompensation and phases of remission. Olfactory assessment may be useful to screen unipolar and bipolar depression, leading to possible future sensory markers in mood disorders.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 25(5): 348-363, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One route to advancing psychological treatments is to harness mental health science, a multidisciplinary approach including individuals with lived experience and end users (e.g., Holmes, E. A., Craske, M. G., & Graybiel, A. M. (2014). Psychological treatments: A call for mental-health science. Nature, 511(7509), 287-289. doi:10.1038/511287a). While early days, we here illustrate a line of research explored by our group-intrusive imagery-based memories after trauma. METHOD/RESULTS: We illustrate three possible approaches through which mental health science may stimulate thinking around psychological treatment innovation. First, focusing on single/specific target symptoms rather than full, multifaceted psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., intrusive trauma memories rather than all of posttraumatic stress disorder). Second, investigating mechanisms that can be modified in treatment (treatment mechanisms), rather than those which cannot (e.g., processes only linked to aetiology). Finally, exploring novel ways of delivering psychological treatment (peer-/self-administration), given the prevalence of mental health problems globally, and the corresponding need for effective interventions that can be delivered at scale and remotely for example at times of crisis (e.g., current COVID-19 pandemic). CONCLUSIONS: These three approaches suggest options for potential innovative avenues through which mental health science may be harnessed to recouple basic and applied research and transform treatment development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imagens, Psicoterapia/tendências , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia
10.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 676-696, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744850

RESUMO

Available evidence suggests enhanced spontaneous emotion regulation in healthy aging, but the effects of specific strategies and the associated age-related neural mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, younger and older participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, after explicit instructions or implicit priming to engage emotional suppression as an emotion regulation strategy, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded. Participants' memory for the images was also tested 1 week later. Behaviorally, younger and older adults were similarly successful in using explicit suppression to inhibit immediate emotional responses. However, this was associated with reduced long-term memory only for younger adults. fMRI data showed dissociable activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) coupled with similar activity in the amygdala in younger and older adults after the engagement of emotional suppression. Results also identified a lateral-to-medial shift in the functional connectivity of the PFC in aging, linked to the engagement of explicit suppression. Regarding memory, younger adults uniquely showed bilateral modulation of encoding-related activity in the hippocampus (HC), as well as a left-lateralized decrease of the HC-PFC functional connectivity after explicit emotional suppression. This is consistent with diminished involvement of typical mechanisms associated with emotional memory because of successful engagement of explicit suppression in younger adults. Taken together, these findings identified similar and differential effects of suppression on immediate emotional responses and long-term memory for emotional information, in younger and older adults, and provide insights into the neural mechanisms by which younger and older adults adaptively cope with emotional challenges. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841260

RESUMO

It is now widely accepted that the perception of emotional expression in music can be vastly different from the feelings evoked by it. However, less understood is how the locus of emotion affects the experience of music, that is how the act of perceiving the emotion in music compares with the act of assessing the emotion induced in the listener by the music. In the current study, we compared these two emotion loci based on the psychophysiological response of 40 participants listening to 32 musical excerpts taken from movie soundtracks. Facial electromyography, skin conductance, respiration and heart rate were continuously measured while participants were required to assess either the emotion expressed by, or the emotion they felt in response to the music. Using linear mixed effects models, we found a higher mean response in psychophysiological measures for the "perceived" than the "felt" task. This result suggested that the focus on one's self distracts from the music, leading to weaker bodily reactions during the "felt" task. In contrast, paying attention to the expression of the music and consequently to changes in timbre, loudness and harmonic progression enhances bodily reactions. This study has methodological implications for emotion induction research using psychophysiology and the conceptualization of emotion loci. Firstly, different tasks can elicit different psychophysiological responses to the same stimulus and secondly, both tasks elicit bodily responses to music. The latter finding questions the possibility of a listener taking on a purely cognitive mode when evaluating emotion expression.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Música/psicologia , Psicofisiologia , Respiração , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Exp Psychol ; 67(2): 140-149, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729401

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress has been shown to alter social perception and behavior. In the present study, we investigated whether a standardized psychosocial stressor modulates the perceptual sensitivity for positive and negative facial emotions and the tendency to allocate attention to facial expressions. Fifty-four male participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a nonstressful control condition before they performed a facial emotions detection task and a facial dot-probe task to assess attention for positive and negative facial expressions. Saliva samples were collected over the course of the experiment to measure free cortisol and alpha amylase. In response to the TSST-G, participants showed marked increases in subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase compared to the control condition. In the control condition, detection performance was higher for angry compared to happy facial expressions, while in the stressful condition this difference was reversed. Here, participants were more sensitive to happy compared to angry facial expressions. Attention was unaffected by psychosocial stress. The results suggest that psychosocial stress shifts social perception in terms of detection sensitivity for facial expressions toward positive social cues, a pattern that is consistent with the tendency to seek social support for coping with stress.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658900

RESUMO

Various motivational theories emphasize that desired emotional outcomes guide behavioral choices. Although motivational theory and research has emphasized that behavior is affected by desired emotional outcomes, little research has focused on the impact of anticipated feelings about engaging in behavior. The current research seeks to partly fill that void. Specifically, we borrow from affective forecasting research in suggesting that forecasts about engaging in performance-relevant behaviors can be more or less accurate. Furthermore, we suggest that the degree of accuracy has implications for self-reported task performance. To examine these ideas, we conducted two studies in which individuals made affective predictions about engaging in tasks and then later reported how they actually felt during task engagement. We also assessed their self-reported task performance. In Study 1, 214 workers provided affective forecasts about upcoming work tasks, and in Study 2, 185 students made forecasts about studying for an exam. Results based on polynomial regression were largely consistent across the studies. The accuracy of the forecasts did not conform to the pattern of affective forecasting accuracy typically found outside the performance domain. Furthermore, anticipated and experienced affect jointly predicted self-reported task performance in a consistent manner. Collectively, these findings suggest that taking into account anticipated affect, and its relationship with later experienced affect, provides a more comprehensive account of affect's role in task performance.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic feelings of emptiness is an under-researched symptom of borderline personality disorder (BPD), despite indications it may be central to the conceptualisation, course, and outcome of BPD treatment. This systematic review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of chronic feelings of emptiness in BPD, identify key findings, and clarify differences between chronic feelings of emptiness and related constructs like depression, hopelessness, and loneliness. METHOD: A PRISMA guided systematic search of the literature identified empirical studies with a focus on BPD or BPD symptoms that discussed chronic feelings of emptiness or a related construct. RESULTS: Ninety-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. Key findings identified there were significant difficulties in defining and measuring chronic emptiness. However, based on the studies reviewed, chronic emptiness is a sense of disconnection from both self and others. When experienced at frequent and severe levels, it is associated with low remission for people with BPD. Emptiness as a construct can be separated from hopelessness, loneliness and intolerance of aloneness, however more research is needed to explicitly investigate these experiences. Chronic emptiness may be related to depressive experiences unique to people with BPD, and was associated with self-harm, suicidality, and lower social and vocational function. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We conclude that understanding chronic feelings of emptiness is central to the experience of people with BPD and treatment focusing on connecting with self and others may help alleviate a sense of emptiness. Further research is required to provide a better understanding of the nature of chronic emptiness in BPD in order to develop ways to quantify the experience and target treatment. Systematic review registration number: CRD42018075602.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Afeto/classificação , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos
16.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 71, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness programmes as a potential avenue of enhancing pupil wellbeing are beginning to show great promise. However, research concerning the effectiveness of mindfulness training for primary aged school children (7-11 years of age) has been neglected. METHODS: Building on methodological limitations of prior research, this study employed an active controlled design to assess the longer term wellbeing and emotion regulation outcomes after a 6 week mindfulness programme (Living Mindfully Programme, UK), for a group of school children aged between 9 and 10. The programme was delivered by class teachers as part of their normal curriculum entitlement. One hundred and eight children took part from across three schools in North East of England. Participants formed a treatment group (n = 64), active control (n = 19) and wait list control (n = 25). Self-report measures of wellbeing, mindfulness and emotion regulation were collected at pre and post training as well as at 3 months follow up. RESULTS: Reliable findings, judged by medium to large effect sizes across both post intervention, follow-up and between both controls, demonstrated enhancement in a number of domains. Immediately after training and follow up, when compared with the wait list control, children who received mindfulness training showed significant improvements in mindfulness (d = .76 and .77), Positive Outlook (d = .55 and .64) and Life Satisfaction (d = .65 and 0.72). Even when compared to an active control, the effects remained although diminished reflecting the positive impact of the active control condition. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship was found between changes in mindfulness and changes in cognitive reappraisal. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this study provides preliminary evidence that the Living Mindfully Primary Programme is feasibly delivered by school staff, enjoyed by the children and may significantly improve particular components of wellbeing. Importantly, higher levels of mindfulness as a result of training may be related to effective emotional regulatory and cognitive reappraisal strategies.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Atenção Plena , Otimismo , Satisfação Pessoal , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 31(2): 81-85, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193888

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conocer y analizar aquellas publicaciones que se orientan en explorar los significados que el adulto mayor atribuye al envejecimiento y su vejez. MÉTODO: La revisión fue realizada en bases de datos; las que se consultaron fueron APS physics, EBSCO, Elsevier, Scopus y Wiley. Se incluyeron investigaciones de tipo cualitativas y mixtas, publicadas en el periodo entre 2008 a 2018. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron un total de 265 artículos, llegando a una muestra final de 12; fueron evidentes las diversas temáticas que se exploraron, siendo los significados del bienestar de la vejez los más destacados. CONCLUSIÓN: Tener una mayor comprensión de la vejez en sus diversas facetas contribuye a la creación de mejores vínculos entre el profesional de enfermería y el adulto mayor, lo que facilita otorgar cuidados de enfermería que respondan a sus necesidades particulares


OBJECTIVE: To know and analyze those publications that focus on exploring the meanings that older adults attribute to aging. METHOD: the revision was made in different Databases; those consulted were APS physics, EBSCO, Elsevier, Scopus and Wiley. Qualitative and mixed researches were included, published in the period that corresponded between 2008 to 2018.RESULTS: A total of 265 articles were found, reaching a final sample of 12, the various themes that were explored were evident, with the meanings of the well-being of old age being the most prominent. CONCLUSION: Have a greater understanding of old age in its various facets contributes to the creation of better relationships between the nurse and the elderly, facilitating to grant nursing care that responds to their particular needs


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento , Saúde do Idoso , Emoções/fisiologia , Conforto do Paciente/métodos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Promoção da Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584831

RESUMO

The importance of social connection to well-being is underscored by individuals' reactivity to events highlighting the potential for rejection and exclusion, which extends even to observing the social exclusion of others ("vicarious ostracism"). Because responses to vicarious ostracism depend at least in part on empathy with the target, and individuals tend to empathize less readily with outgroup than ingroup members, the question arises as to whether there is a boundary condition on vicarious ostracism effects whereby individuals are relatively immune to observing ingroup-on-outgroup ostracism. Of particular interest is the case where members of a dominant ethnic group observe fellow ingroup members ostracize a member of a disadvantaged ethnic minority group, as here there is a compelling potential alternative: Perceived violation of contemporary social norms condemning prejudice and discrimination might instead lead dominant group members to be especially upset by "dominant-on-disadvantaged" ostracism. Accordingly, the present research examines, across four studies and 4413 participants, individuals' affective reactions to observing dominant-on-disadvantaged versus dominant-on-dominant ostracism. In each study, dominant group members (White/Europeans) observed dominant group members include or ostracize a fellow dominant group member or a disadvantaged ethnic minority group member (a Black individual) in an online Cyberball game. Results revealed that dominant group members felt more guilt, anger, and sadness after observing severe ostracism of a disadvantaged as opposed to dominant group member. Although no direct effects emerged on behavioral outcomes, exploratory analyses suggested that observing ostracism of a disadvantaged (versus dominant) group member had indirect effects on behavior via increased feelings of anger. These results suggest that observing ostracism may be a sufficiently potent and relatable experience that when it occurs across group boundaries it awakens individuals' sensitivity to injustice and discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Distância Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Identificação Social , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuron ; 107(1): 17-21, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562660

RESUMO

Although pain is defined as a sensory and emotional experience, it is traditionally researched and clinically treated separately from emotion. Conceptual and mechanistic relationships between these constructs highlight the need for better understanding of their bi-directional influences and the value of bridging the pain and emotion research and clinical communities.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235088, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574228

RESUMO

Understanding health beliefs is important to facilitate health promotion and disease prevention as they influence health behaviors, outcomes, and disease management. Given the rise of hypertension-related diseases in the Dominican Republic, the purpose of our study was to identify hypertension-related health beliefs of Dominicans in order to inform the development of culturally appropriate interventions for hypertension prevention, care, and treatment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 Dominicans, 15 of whom were receiving treatment for hypertension. Operating within the interpretative paradigmatic framework, we conducted thematic analyses of interview data to identify hypertension-related health beliefs and practices. Iterative data analysis revealed the following themes: 1) Negative emotions are a primary cause of hypertension, 2) Medication is the best treatment but adherence is challenging, 3) Systemic barriers impede treatment access, 4) Hypertension negatively impacts mental and physical well-being, and 5) Lifestyle changes, relaxation, and social support help manage hypertension. Data gathered from member checking validated these findings. This study enhances understanding of the beliefs and experiences of Dominicans and emphasize the importance of implementing culturally competent health programming and care.


Assuntos
Cultura , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , República Dominicana , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social
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