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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068684

RESUMO

Results over the last decades have provided evidence suggesting that HPA axis dysfunction is a major risk factor predisposing to the development of psychopathological behaviour. This susceptibility can be programmed during developmental windows of marked neuroplasticity, allowing early-life adversity to convey vulnerability to mental illness later in life. Besides genetic predisposition, also environmental factors play a pivotal role in this process, through embodiment of the mother's emotions, or via nutrients and hormones transferred through the placenta and the maternal milk. The aim of the current translational study was to mimic a severe stress condition by exposing female CD-1 mouse dams to abnormal levels of corticosterone (80 µg/mL) in the drinking water either during the last week of pregnancy (PreCORT) or the first one of lactation (PostCORT), compared to an Animal Facility Rearing (AFR) control group. When tested as adults, male mice from PostCORT offspring and somewhat less the PreCORT mice exhibited a markedly increased corticosterone response to acute restraint stress, compared to perinatal AFR controls. Aberrant persistence of adolescence-typical increased interest towards novel social stimuli and somewhat deficient emotional contagion also characterised profiles in both perinatal-CORT groups. Intranasal oxytocin (0 or 20.0 µg/kg) generally managed to reduce the stress response and restore a regular behavioural phenotype. Alterations in density of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, oxytocin and µ- and κ-opioid receptors were found. Changes differed as a function of brain areas and the specific age window of perinatal aberrant stimulation of the HPA axis. Present results provided experimental evidence in a translational mouse model that precocious adversity represents a risk factor predisposing to the development of psychopathological behaviour.


Assuntos
Corticosterona/genética , Ocitocina/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Animais , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Angústia Psicológica , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/genética , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia
2.
Psychol Aging ; 36(3): 322-337, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939449

RESUMO

Feeling younger than one's chronological age is associated with various beneficial health outcomes. However, apart from these direct health effects, little is known about the role of subjective age as a potential "buffer" and compensatory resource that might counteract the detrimental effect of health risk factors. We investigated whether the effect of perceived stress as a major health risk factor on change in functional health is smaller among individuals who feel younger. Additionally, we analyzed whether this "stress buffer effect" of subjective age varies by chronological age. Longitudinal data from the German Ageing Survey comprising 3 years (2014-2017) were used (N = 5,039; mean age at baseline: M = 63.91 years, SD = 10.80 years, range 40-95 years). Latent change score models revealed that, controlling for baseline functional health as well as for sociodemographic variables, greater perceived stress was associated with a steeper decline in functional health. This effect increased in size with advancing chronological age. Moreover, a younger subjective age was associated with a less steep decline in functional health. Subjective age additionally exhibited a stress buffer effect: Among individuals who felt younger, the association of greater perceived stress with steeper functional health decline was weaker. This stress buffer effect of subjective age became larger with increasing age. Our findings thus suggest that, particularly among older adults, a younger subjective age might help to buffer functional health decline, not only by directly affecting functional health, but also by compensating and counteracting the detrimental effect of stress on functional health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Psychopathology ; 54(3): 150-158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research on body aspects in depression primarily focuses on somatic complaints, while phenomenologists emphasize the pre-reflective bodily experience of depression as relevant for the psychopathology of it. Despite this increasing acknowledgement of the subjective body's impact on depression, empirically, it remains rarely studied. METHODS: Relying on the psychotherapy method of Focusing (Gendlin, 1982), interviews were developed, which enable participants with depression to get in contact with pre-reflective bodily experiences through turning inward, attentively observing all bodily feelings that arise, and finding symbolizations for these feelings. RESULTS: In 501 codings of the conducted interviews, the theme of passivity emerged on a continuum ranging from inhibition of drive to lack of drive. It can be split into 5 components (heaviness, emptiness, paralysis, blockage, and alienation), which were felt in the head or the whole body. Moreover, participants reported active, pressuring feelings in the chest and stomach areas, which were associated with specific emotions in some participants. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, through focusing, participants were able to take note of their pre-reflective bodily feelings and described feelings of passivity, active, pressuring feelings, and an ambivalence between these two parts. Results support the notion that depression is associated with specific pre-reflective bodily experiences and lay a foundation for future research.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Psychopathology ; 54(3): 144-149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People suffering from fibromyalgia syndrome report various difficulties in emotional processing, possibly resulting from changes in bodily perception (interoception). In our study, we investigated the relationships between interoceptive sensibility (IS) and two disease-relevant emotional components (alexithymia and emotion regulation) in fibromyalgia sufferers compared to healthy individuals. METHODS: Fifty-five fibromyalgia sufferers and 55 healthy individuals, matched with regard to age and gender, participated in our cross-sectional study. All participants completed the following self-report measures: the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire. Depression and anxiety scores served as confounding variables. RESULTS: Fibromyalgia sufferers reported a stronger tendency to note as well as to avoid (unpleasant) body sensations. IS and psychopathology each explained about thirty percent of the variance in emotion regulation in fibromyalgia sufferers. Alexithymia was related to IS and emotion regulation in controls but not in fibromyalgia sufferers. CONCLUSION: Disturbances in interoception could be seen as the starting point of emotional difficulties in people with fibromyalgia. Following the fear-avoidance-model, experiential avoidance may restrict patients' ability to adaptively regulate emotional states, possibly initiating a vicious cycle of psychological distress and pain.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Interocepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113918, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164351

RESUMO

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. The findings provide a candidate hypothesis for the reaction characteristics to pathogen threats in individuals with ASD and expand the understanding of individual differences in response to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Percepção , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(2): 263-273, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion, from the perspective of Hobfoll's theory of conservation of resources (COR). According to the COR theory, critical events (e.g., the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleeping troubles, which over time results in an increase in exhaustion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance workers, and wardens. Three measures were used: the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (the sleeping trouble subscale) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (the exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleeping problems depleted healthcare providers' resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients. Therefore, research into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety is needed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(2):263-73.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(2): 263-273, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect - mediated through insomnia - effect of coronavirus anxiety on exhaustion, from the perspective of Hobfoll's theory of conservation of resources (COR). According to the COR theory, critical events (e.g., the coronavirus epidemic) make people fearful of losing their valuable resources. A prolonged state of anxiety may lead to sleeping troubles, which over time results in an increase in exhaustion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 440 Polish healthcare providers, including nurses and midwives, doctors, paramedics, medical assistance workers, and wardens. Three measures were used: the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (the sleeping trouble subscale) and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (the exhaustion subscale). Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: The obtained results fully support the hypotheses. Both the direct and indirect relationships between coronavirus anxiety and exhaustion were observed. Specifically, high coronavirus anxiety increased insomnia, which in turn contributed to the development of exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the COR theory. Prolonged coronavirus anxiety and sleeping problems depleted healthcare providers' resources and made them feel exhausted. Exhaustion among these workers can have serious consequences not only for themselves but also for the health of their patients. Therefore, research into effective ways to deal with coronavirus anxiety is needed. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(2):263-73.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/complicações , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 300: 113918, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831811

RESUMO

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. The findings provide a candidate hypothesis for the reaction characteristics to pathogen threats in individuals with ASD and expand the understanding of individual differences in response to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Percepção , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807276

RESUMO

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is marked by uncontrollable, persistent worry and exaggerated response to uncertainty. Here, we review and summarize the findings from the GAD literature that employs functional neuroimaging methods. In particular, the present review focuses on task-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We find that select brain regions often regarded as a part of a corticolimbic circuit (e.g., amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex) are consistently targeted for a priori hypothesis-driven analyses, which, in turn, shows varying degrees of abnormal BOLD responsivity in GAD. Data-driven whole-brain analyses show the insula and the hippocampus, among other regions, to be affected by GAD, depending on the task used in each individual study. Overall, while the heterogeneity of the tasks and sample size limits the generalizability of the findings thus far, some promising convergence can be observed in the form of the altered BOLD responsivity of the corticolimbic circuitry in GAD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia
10.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202158

RESUMO

El presente tra­bajo centra su interés en aquellos aspectos del periodo perinatal que permiten poner en marcha la prevención primaria y secundaria en un intento de reducir al máximo la aparición de psicopatología temprana, tanto en el bebé (problemas en el acceso a la intersubjetividad, en la adquisición de la capacidad de autorregulación, y en el desarrollo del sistema de apego) como en sus padres (1) (establecimiento del vínculo, fragilidad narcisista, de­presión perinatal, dificultades en la crianza; en resumen, conflictos relacionados con el acceso a la parentalidad). Señalaremos cuatro momentos clave tomados desde la experiencia de la consulta perinatal, que van a poder ayudar a detectar riesgos en el camino del desarrollo emocional del bebé


This paper focuses on those aspects of the perinatal period that allow the implementation of primary and secondary prevention trying to minimize the appearance of early psychopathology, both in the baby (problems in accessing intersubjectivity, in acquiring the capacity for self-regulation, and in the development of the bonding system) and in the parents (1) (bonding, narcissistic fragility, perinatal depression, parenting difficulties; in short, conflicts related to the access to parenthood). We will point out four key moments taken from the experience of the perinatal consultation, which will help to detect risks in the baby's emotional development


El present treball centra l'interès en aquells aspectes del període perinatal que permeten posar en marxa la prevenció primària I secundària en un intent de reduir al màxim l'aparició de psicopatologia primerenca, tant en el nadó (problemes d'accés a la intersubjectivitat, en l'adquisició de la capacitat d'autoregulació, I en el desenvolupament del sistema d'aferrament) així com en els seus pares (establiment del vincle, fragilitat narcisista, depressió perinatal, dificul­tats en la criança; en resum, conflictes relacionats amb l'accés a la parentalitat). Assenyalarem quatre moments clau presos des de l'experiència de la consulta perinatal que podran ajudar a detectar riscos en el camí del des­envolupament emocional del nadó


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Marcha , Fatores Etários , Apego ao Objeto , Psicologia da Criança
11.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 2021-2029, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceiving accurately that others are looking away from us (averted gaze) is as important, for social interactions, as perceiving that others are looking at us (direct gaze). However, previous studies have revealed that when the deflection angle of averted gaze is small, individuals tend to falsely perceive it as direct gaze. Oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to increase orientation to the eye region. Therefore, a critical question is whether and how OXT would facilitate the perception of ambiguous averted gaze. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to measure the effects of OXT on the performance of males and females in distinguishing ambiguous averted gaze from direct gaze of different emotional faces. METHODS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover experiment, 48 participants were presented successively two emotional faces with direct gaze (defined as 0, indicating the center of the eye) or averted gaze (defined as ±4, indicating the corner of the eye; +4 means that the iris moves 4 steps to the right; and -4 means that the iris moves 4 steps to the left) following intranasal oxytocin or placebo treatment and asked to make judgments on whether or not the two faces were the same in terms of identity. The interference effect of gaze direction was calculated by subtracting the mean accuracy and reaction time in the congruent gaze condition from those in the incongruent gaze condition. The logic of the measurement was if intranasal OXT would facilitate the detection of ambiguous averted gaze, we would observe a larger interference effect in the gaze incongruent condition compared with the gaze congruent condition, leading to longer RT or/and lower accuracy for identification judgment in the gaze incongruent condition. RESULTS: While there were no OXT effects in accuracy, we found a significant interaction between treatment, sex, and gaze congruency in reaction times. That is, following OXT as compared to placebo, women displayed stronger interference of gaze direction, whereas in men no significant difference was observed. Besides, this interaction did not vary across different emotional expressions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the first evidence for sex-dependent effects of OXT on the perception of ambiguous averted gaze. Given potential therapeutic applications of OXT to patients with developmental and psychiatric disorders, who are characterized as atypical in encoding gaze features, the findings suggest that rather different treatment outcomes could be anticipated in males and females.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Percepção/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Caracteres Sexuais , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Julgamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672413

RESUMO

Despite the overwhelming interest in clinical genomics, uptake has been slow. Implementation science offers a systematic approach to reveal pathways to adoption and a theory informed approach to addressing barriers presented. Using case study methodology, we undertook 16 in-depth interviews with nongenetic medical specialists to identify barriers and enablers to the uptake of clinical genomics. Data collection and analysis was guided by two evidence-based behaviour change models: the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), and the Capability, Opportunity Motivation Behaviour model (COM-B). Our findings revealed the use of implementation science not only provided a theoretical structure to frame the study but also facilitated uncovering of traditionally difficult to access responses from participants, e.g., "safety in feeling vulnerable" (TDF code emotion/COM-B code motivation). The most challenging phase for participants was ensuring appropriate patients were offered genomic testing. There were several consistent TDF codes: professional identity, social influences, and environmental context and resources and COM-B codes opportunity and motivation, with others varying along the patient journey. We conclude that implementation science methods can maximise the value created by the exploration of factors affecting the uptake of clinical genomics to ensure future interventions are designed to meet the needs of novice nongenetic medical specialists.


Assuntos
Genômica , Ciência da Implementação , Motivação/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e27078, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological stress experienced by the general public in various degrees worldwide. However, effective, tailored mental health services and interventions cannot be achieved until we understand the patterns of mental health issues emerging after a public health crisis, especially in the context of the rapid transmission of COVID-19. Understanding the public's emotions and needs and their distribution attributes are therefore critical for creating appropriate public policies and eventually responding to the health crisis effectively, efficiently, and equitably. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to detect the temporal patterns in emotional fluctuation, significant events during the COVID-19 pandemic that affected emotional changes and variations, and hourly variations of emotions within a single day by analyzing data from the Chinese social media platform Weibo. METHODS: Based on a longitudinal dataset of 816,556 posts published by 27,912 Weibo users in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to April 31, 2020, we processed general sentiment inclination rating and the type of sentiments of Weibo posts by using pandas and SnowNLP Python libraries. We also grouped the publication times into 5 time groups to measure changes in netizens' sentiments during different periods in a single day. RESULTS: Overall, negative emotions such as surprise, fear, and anger were the most salient emotions detected on Weibo. These emotions were triggered by certain milestone events such as the confirmation of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19. Emotions varied within a day. Although all emotions were more prevalent in the afternoon and night, fear and anger were more dominant in the morning and afternoon, whereas depression was more salient during the night. CONCLUSIONS: Various milestone events during the COVID-19 pandemic were the primary events that ignited netizens' emotions. In addition, Weibo users' emotions varied within a day. Our findings provide insights into providing better-tailored mental health services and interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5577, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125020

RESUMO

Covid-19 pandemics has fostered a pervasive use of facemasks all around the world. While they help in preventing infection, there are concerns related to the possible impact of facemasks on social communication. The present study investigates how emotion recognition, trust attribution and re-identification of faces differ when faces are seen without mask, with a standard medical facemask, and with a transparent facemask restoring visual access to the mouth region. Our results show that, in contrast to standard medical facemasks, transparent masks significantly spare the capability to recognize emotional expressions. Moreover, transparent masks spare the capability to infer trustworthiness from faces with respect to standard medical facemasks which, in turn, dampen the perceived untrustworthiness of faces. Remarkably, while transparent masks (unlike standard masks) do not impair emotion recognition and trust attribution, they seemingly do impair the subsequent re-identification of the same, unmasked, face (like standard masks). Taken together, this evidence supports a dissociation between mechanisms sustaining emotion and identity processing. This study represents a pivotal step in the much-needed analysis of face reading when the lower portion of the face is occluded by a facemask.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Emoções/fisiologia , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Masculino , Máscaras/tendências , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Percepção Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Osteopath Med ; 121(5): 455-461, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127811

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. Due to the rapid spread, strong contagion, high incidence of lethality in severe cases, and the lack of a pharmaceutical prevention or cure, COVID-19 has posed a serious threat to human life and health. It has also had a tremendous impact on mental health, including fear and worry, difficulty sleeping or concentrating, and increased use of poor coping mechanisms. Osteopathic medical students have had additional concerns regarding the interruption of their studies, closing of clinical rotations, and postponed licensing exams. To date, few reports have focused on osteopathic medical students and their reactions to the outbreak. OBJECTIVES: To assess resilience, coping, health behaviors, and emotional wellbeing of osteopathic medical students during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we distributed an anonymous online survey to all medical students enrolled at Nova Southeastern University in May 2020 (n=1,310) via an e-mail invitation using the institution's student listservs. Our major study variables were based on published reports and anecdotal evidence; we subsequently developed the Emotional Wellbeing in Healthcare Professions Students Questionnaire (EWB-Q). This EWB-Q contained validated scales to assess the contribution of levels of coping strategies used, personal resilience, and health behaviors on the emotional wellbeing of osteopathic medical students. Multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS v0.26. RESULTS: Of the 1,310 students invited to participate, 335 (25.5%) surveys were returned. Of those, 133 had more than 33% of the necessary data missing and were removed, resulting in 202 (15.4%) completed questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years. About half (n=92; 45.5%) were in the clinical phase (years 3 and 4) of their medical school training (in rotations). A significant regression equation was found (F[4,171]=17.481, p<0.000, R 2 =0.290, R 2adjusted=0.274), indicating that levels of coping, personal resilience, and health behaviors (i.e., not sleeping more than usual, not exercising less than usual) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in emotional wellbeing scores in osteopathic medical students. Higher levels of resilience, greater use of coping strategies, not sleeping more than usual, and not exercising less than usual were predictors of emotional wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: Cultivating positive mental health should be a high priority for medical educators as they develop and implement curriculum-based initiatives to help medical students bolster their personal resilience and to encourage healthy coping behaviors during times of crisis and beyond. A proactive position that assists with building personal resilience and developing stress management habits is paramount in assisting students who are grappling not only with the challenges of rigorous medical training, but also with the uncertainty and stress that exists during any major global health or socioeconomic crisis.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Medicina Osteopática/educação , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Resiliência Psicológica
16.
Psychol Assess ; 33(6): 541-551, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764119

RESUMO

Psychopathology has been associated with patient reports of poor outcome and an algorithm has been useful in predicting short-term outcomes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether a pre-surgical psychological algorithm could predict 1-year spine surgery outcome reports, including pain, functional disability, and emotional functioning. A total of 1,099 patients consented to participate. All patients underwent spine surgery (e.g., spinal fusion, discectomy, etc.). Pre-operatively, patients completed self-report measures prior to surgery. An algorithm predicting patient prognosis based on data from the pre-surgical psychological evaluation was filled out by the provider for each patient prior to surgery. Post-operatively, patients completed self-report measures at 3- and 12-months after surgery. Longitudinal latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was used to derive patient outcome groups. These outcome groups were then compared to pre-surgical predictions made. LCGA analyses derived three groups of patients from the reported outcome data (entropy = .84): excellent outcomes, good outcomes, and poor outcomes. The excellent and good groups demonstrated improvements over time, but the poor outcome groups, on some measures, reported worsening of pain, functional disability, and emotional functioning over time. The pre-surgical algorithm yielded good concordance with the statistically derived outcome groups (Kendall's W = .81). Using a pre-surgical psychological evaluation algorithm for predicting long-term spine surgery outcomes can identify patients who are unlikely to report good outcomes, and point to areas for psychological intervention that can either improve surgery results or to be utilized as alternatives to elective spine surgery. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções/fisiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e25024, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655973

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: An irrational belief is the direct cause of negative emotions and behavioral disorders in patients with breast cancer. Thus, this article examines these patients' irrational beliefs, which helps improve the emotions and behavioral disorders of breast cancer patients. Chinese breast cancer patients have unique irrational beliefs due to the influence of Chinese traditional culture. To understand the irrational beliefs surrounding breast cancer diagnosis in young Chinese patients, we conducted an interpretative phenomenological study.Semi-structured interviews were conducted in young Chinese breast cancer patients. According to Colaizzi method modified by Edward and Welsh, transcribed interviews were analyzed to understand patients' irrational beliefs. Based on the theoretical framework, this study adopted interpretative phenomenology. Interpretive description was used to construct participants' experiences of irrational beliefs. Thematic sufficiency was confirmed after 17 interviews.Owing to the lack of knowledge about breast cancer, all participants were more susceptible to traditional Chinese culture, empiric theory, family reassurance, and healthcare providers' behaviors, leading to patients' irrational beliefs, negative emotions, and behavioral disorders.This research confirms that irrational beliefs in young Chinese breast cancer patients are profoundly influenced by traditional Chinese culture. Chinese healthcare providers can use this information to provide targeted nursing, supportive services, and research, and help women identify their beliefs and understand how these beliefs affect their health.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Cultura , Emoções/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5577, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692417

RESUMO

Covid-19 pandemics has fostered a pervasive use of facemasks all around the world. While they help in preventing infection, there are concerns related to the possible impact of facemasks on social communication. The present study investigates how emotion recognition, trust attribution and re-identification of faces differ when faces are seen without mask, with a standard medical facemask, and with a transparent facemask restoring visual access to the mouth region. Our results show that, in contrast to standard medical facemasks, transparent masks significantly spare the capability to recognize emotional expressions. Moreover, transparent masks spare the capability to infer trustworthiness from faces with respect to standard medical facemasks which, in turn, dampen the perceived untrustworthiness of faces. Remarkably, while transparent masks (unlike standard masks) do not impair emotion recognition and trust attribution, they seemingly do impair the subsequent re-identification of the same, unmasked, face (like standard masks). Taken together, this evidence supports a dissociation between mechanisms sustaining emotion and identity processing. This study represents a pivotal step in the much-needed analysis of face reading when the lower portion of the face is occluded by a facemask.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Emoções/fisiologia , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Masculino , Máscaras/tendências , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Percepção Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e212624, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739432

RESUMO

Importance: Executive functions are critical for school and social success. Although these functions are adversely affected by pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), recovery patterns are not well established. Objective: To examine 3-year trajectories of selected children's executive functions after TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted from January 22, 2013, to September 30, 2015, with 3-year follow-up at the level I pediatric trauma centers Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas. Study participants included children aged 2 to 15 years with TBI or orthopedic injury (OI) who were treated at the participating hospitals. Children were consecutively recruited and stratified by injury severity and age group. A total of 625 children consented and completed a baseline survey; 559 (89%) children completed at least 1 follow-up and composed the analysis cohort. It was hypothesized that recovery would differ by injury severity, age at injury, and sex. Data analyses were performed from June to October 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Growth curve models examined the pattern of change in the Emotional Control, Inhibit, Working Memory, and Plan-Organize subscales of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) or BRIEF-Preschool. For all BRIEF subscales, higher scores indicate worse symptoms, and a score of 65 or greater represents clinical impairment. Results: A total of 559 children (mean [SD] age, 8.6 [4.4] years; 356 boys [64%], 328 non-Hispanic White children [59%]) were included in the study: 155 (28%) children had mild TBI, 162 (29%) had complicated mild or moderate TBI, 90 (16%) had severe TBI, and 152 (27%) had OI. Growth curve trajectories varied by BRIEF subscale and injury severity. Overall, children with TBI did not return to their preinjury baseline, with a stepwise worsening of each outcome at 36 months by TBI severity compared with OI. Among children with severe TBI, trajectories accelerated fastest, indicating increased problems, from injury to 12 months for the Emotional Control (9.0 points; 95% CI, 6.0-11.9 points), Inhibit (3.6 points; 95% CI, 1.6-5.6 points), and Working Memory (7.0 points; 95% CI, 4.1-9.9 points) subscales. Their trajectories plateaued, with a secondary acceleration before 36 months for the Emotional Control and Working Memory subscales. Children with mild TBI had worse 36-month scores on all subscales except Inhibit compared with OI. Recovery patterns were similar for boys and girls. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study of children with TBI, trajectory analysis revealed that some children worsen after a recovery plateau, suggesting a need for longitudinal reassessment beyond 1 year postinjury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e27078, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological stress experienced by the general public in various degrees worldwide. However, effective, tailored mental health services and interventions cannot be achieved until we understand the patterns of mental health issues emerging after a public health crisis, especially in the context of the rapid transmission of COVID-19. Understanding the public's emotions and needs and their distribution attributes are therefore critical for creating appropriate public policies and eventually responding to the health crisis effectively, efficiently, and equitably. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to detect the temporal patterns in emotional fluctuation, significant events during the COVID-19 pandemic that affected emotional changes and variations, and hourly variations of emotions within a single day by analyzing data from the Chinese social media platform Weibo. METHODS: Based on a longitudinal dataset of 816,556 posts published by 27,912 Weibo users in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to April 31, 2020, we processed general sentiment inclination rating and the type of sentiments of Weibo posts by using pandas and SnowNLP Python libraries. We also grouped the publication times into 5 time groups to measure changes in netizens' sentiments during different periods in a single day. RESULTS: Overall, negative emotions such as surprise, fear, and anger were the most salient emotions detected on Weibo. These emotions were triggered by certain milestone events such as the confirmation of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19. Emotions varied within a day. Although all emotions were more prevalent in the afternoon and night, fear and anger were more dominant in the morning and afternoon, whereas depression was more salient during the night. CONCLUSIONS: Various milestone events during the COVID-19 pandemic were the primary events that ignited netizens' emotions. In addition, Weibo users' emotions varied within a day. Our findings provide insights into providing better-tailored mental health services and interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
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