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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(6): 824-832, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879737

RESUMO

Drugs of abuse leads to adaptive changes in the brain stress system, and produces negative affective states including aversion and anxiety after drug use is terminated. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the main transmitter in control of response to stressors and is neuronal enriched in the central amygdala (CeA), a sub-region of the extended amygdala playing an important role in integrating emotional information and modulating stress response. The effect of CRH neurons in CeA on the negative emotions on morphine naïve and withdrawal mice is unclear. Thus, we utilized CRH-Cre transgenic mice injected with AAV-mediated Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated By Designer Drugs (DREADDs) to chemogenetically manipulate CRH neurons in CeA. And methods of behavior analysis, including conditioned place aversion (CPA), elevated plus maze and locomotor activity tests, were used to investigate morphine withdrawal-induced negative emotions in mice. The results showed that, inhibiting CRH neurons of CeA decreased the formation of morphine withdrawal-induced CPA, as well as the anxiety level of CRH-Cre mice. Furthermore, specifically activating CRH neurons in CeA evoked CPA and anxiety of morphine naïve mice. Neither inhibiting nor activating CRH neurons had effects on their locomotor activity. These results suggest that CRH neurons in CeA are involved in the mediation of morphine withdrawal-induced negative emotion in mice, providing a theoretical basis for drug addiction and relapse mechanism.


Assuntos
Núcleo Central da Amígdala , Emoções , Morfina , Neurônios , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Animais , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Emoções/fisiologia , Camundongos , Morfina/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880767

RESUMO

The paper presents a review of the literature data reflecting the relevance and current views on the problem of facial feedback. It considers the relationship between the bioelectric activity of facial muscles and neuropsychic stress. The modern issues dedicated to the study of the correlation between the indicators assessing the tonic activity of facial muscles and psycho-emotional stress are highlighted. Particular emphasis is placed on the scientific concept of emotional proprioception, according to which facial muscle activity through the trigeminal and facial nerves affects the emotional centers of the brain, by improving or worsening the emotional state. The currently known methods for the correction of psychoemotional states, which are based on the feedback mechanism, are analyzed. The possibilities of using neuromuscular relaxation of the facial muscles to correct psychoemotional conditions are considered.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 545-564, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705513

RESUMO

Recently, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) methodologies, including TMS and tDCS, have been considered as efficacious, safe, and innovative treatments and alternatives to conventional therapies for some psychiatric disorders. Developing evidence suggests that applying rTMS and tDCS over the cognitive control network (CCN), particularly the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), may improve core symptoms in various psychiatric disorders via direct impact on the cognitive control processes involved in emotion regulation. Therefore, neuromodulation of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of emotion by NIBS approaches could contribute to a paradigm shift in psychiatry. The available evidence suggests that development of effective treatment alternatives to enhance cognition is critical for patients with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this chapter is to review the cognition-enhancing properties of tDCS and TMS and the impact of these treatments on cognitive control processes, especially those related to emotion regulation in psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Humanos
4.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 29-32, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603840

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that while we are sleeping, our brain is very busy processing all information we have acquired along the day. Lack of sleep has shown to produce deficits in memory consolidation and plays an important role in brain development and brain plasticity in the several developmental stages of the human brain. At the cellular level, circadian cycles coordinate complex mechanism that "turn on and off" genes and cellular structures regulating individual cell functions to impact global organ and systems physiological activities. At the end a perfect and coordinated equilibrium in the mental, emotional and physiological is the goal of this complex process. Sleep impacts memory, learning, mood, behavior, immunological responses, metabolism, hormone levels, digestive process and many more physiological functions. We present a review of three basic aspects related with sleep: a. brain electrical activity during the sleep and neuroanatomic correlation with mechanism related with memory and learning; b. circadian cycles and impact in several physiological systems; c some examples of clinical disorders associated with sleep disorders and impact in learning and memory.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1586-1597, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551602

RESUMO

Emotional learning and memory are functionally and dysfunctionally regulated by the neuromodulatory state of the brain. While the role of excitatory and inhibitory neural circuits mediating emotional learning and its control have been the focus of much research, we are only now beginning to understand the more diffuse role of neuromodulation in these processes. Recent experimental studies of the acetylcholine, noradrenaline and dopamine systems in fear learning and extinction of fear responding provide surprising answers to key questions in neuromodulation. One area of research has revealed how modular organization, coupled with context-dependent coding modes, allows for flexible brain-wide or targeted neuromodulation. Other work has shown how these neuromodulators act in downstream targets to enhance signal-to-noise ratios and gain, as well as to bind distributed circuits through neuronal oscillations. These studies elucidate how different neuromodulatory systems regulate aversive emotional processing and reveal fundamental principles of neuromodulatory function.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Animais , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia
6.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 69(5): 207-209, 1 sept., 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184458

RESUMO

El reconocimiento facial de emociones hace referencia a la interpretación de una persona sobre los rasgos faciales de otra para identificar un determinado estado emocional. Es esencial en la evolución humana y abarca distintas redes neuronales. A pesar de que el reconocimiento facial de emociones se ve alterado en la mayoría de las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, la bibliografía sólo se centra en patologías neurológicas individuales o en limitadas comparaciones con patologías psiquiátricas. Se desconoce si existe un patrón común de alteración entre las patologías o si el reconocimiento facial de emociones cambia según el trastorno subyacente. Esta revisión describe su desarrollo en población sana y sintetiza los estudios de reconocimiento facial de emociones en relación con las enfermedades neurológicas más comunes, así como los hallazgos más relevantes de neuroimagen y los tratamientos actuales. El reconocimiento facial de emociones, especialmente en emociones negativas, está alterado en todas las enfermedades neurodegenerativas descritas y podría constituir en algunos casos un marcador temprano de deterioro cognitivo


Facial emotion recognition refers to a person’s interpretation of facial features of another to identify a particular emotional state. It is essential in human evolution and encompasses distinct neural networks. Facial emotion recognition is altered in most neurodegenerative diseases, but literature just focus on single neurological pathologies or limited comparison with psychiatric pathologies. It is unknown if a common pattern of affection through pathologies exists or if facial emotion recognition changes according to the underlying pathology. This review discusses its development in healthy population, synthesizes facial emotion recognition studies regarding most common neurological diseases, as well as most relevant findings in neuroimaging and current treatments. Facial emotion recognition, especially negative emotions, is altered in all described neurodegenerative diseases and could constitutes an early marker of cognitive deterioration


Assuntos
Humanos , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia
7.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 176-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383436

RESUMO

The present study examines the effect of the Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence Program (PINEP), adapted to the virtual learning platform Moodle where participants receive Mindfulness training in 12 sessions lasting an hour and a half. The sample consists of 89 people, assigned randomly to a control group on the waiting list and to an experimental group that undertakes the training. The results indicate that the participants who completed PINEP showed improvement in the variables of health, empathy and mindfulness, in comparison with the participants of the group on the waiting list.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Realidade Virtual , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Atenção Plena/educação , Atenção Plena/métodos
8.
Health Psychol ; 38(10): 936-947, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of mutual emotional spousal support given for health concerns. We examined the hypotheses that: (a) mutual support (both spouses giving and receiving support) compared to one-sided or no support, would decrease blood pressure and heart rate in both spouses during a recovery period; and (b) wives would benefit more from mutual support than would husbands. A second aim was to examine gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity, distress, and closeness in response to receiving support regardless of mutuality. METHOD: In 98 married couples (Age 50+), spouses discussed health concerns and were assigned randomly to one of four conditions: neither spouse received support (n = 26), only the wife received support from the husband (n = 22), only the husband received support from the wife (n = 23), or both received support (n = 27). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured during baseline, the discussions, and recovery. Distress, closeness, and support were self-reported. Support quality was observationally coded. RESULTS: Mutual support did not affect cardiovascular reactivity. When husbands received support from wives, husbands' blood pressure and distress decreased, and both partners' closeness increased. When wives received support, husbands and wives felt closer, but both partners' heart rate remained elevated and wives felt more distressed. CONCLUSIONS: Receiving support individually may be more important than receiving support mutually for older adult spouses coping with their health concerns. Also, support interventions for couples coping with health conditions should take into account that husbands receive greater benefits from spousal support than wives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Casamento/psicologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2451-2471, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we reviewed translational studies concerned with environmental influences on the rewarding effects of heroin versus cocaine in rats and humans with substance use disorder. These studies show that both experienced utility ('liking') and decision utility ('wanting') of heroin and cocaine shift in opposite directions as a function of the setting in which these drugs were used. Briefly, rats and humans prefer using heroin at home but cocaine outside the home. These findings appear to challenge prevailing theories of drug reward, which focus on the notion of shared substrate of action for drug of abuse, and in particular on their shared ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission. AIMS: Thus, in the second part of the paper, we verified whether our findings could be accounted for by available computational models of reward. To account for our findings, a model must include a component that could mediate the substance-specific influence of setting on drug reward RESULTS: It appears of the extant models that none is fully compatible with the results of our studies. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that this paper will serve as stimulus to design computational models more attuned to the complex mechanisms responsible for the rewarding effects of drugs in real-world contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Modelos Psicológicos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Neurociências , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1173-1190, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290736

RESUMO

Developing the ability to regulate one's emotions in accordance with contextual demands (i.e., emotion regulation) is a central developmental task of early childhood. These processes are supported by the engagement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), a physiological hub of a vast network tasked with dynamically integrating real-time experiential inputs with internal motivational and goal states. To date, much of what is known about the ANS and emotion regulation has been based on measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a cardiac indicator of parasympathetic activity. In the present study, we draw from dynamical systems models to introduce two nonlinear indices of cardiac complexity (fractality and sample entropy) as potential indicators of these broader ANS dynamics. Using data from a stratified sample of preschoolers living in high- (i.e., emergency homeless shelter) and low-risk contexts (N = 115), we show that, in conjunction with respiratory sinus arrhythmia, these nonlinear indices may help to clarify important differences in the behavioral manifestations of emotion regulation. In particular, our results suggest that cardiac complexity may be especially useful for discerning active, effortful emotion regulation from less effortful regulation and dysregulation.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(7): 500-507, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295029

RESUMO

A growing literature suggests that problematic Internet use (PIU) is associated with defective inhibitory control. In this study, we sought to investigate the ability to inhibit prepotent motor responses in an emotional context in individuals with PIU, and to examine the relationship between inhibitory control and resting heart rate variability (HRV), which is regarded as a measure of self-regulation and adaptability. Problematic users (PU, n = 20) and nonproblematic users (non-PU, n = 20) completed an emotional Go/NoGo task, involving the presentation of unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral pictures. The electrocardiogram was recorded at rest for a 3-minute period. PU showed lower resting HRV, relative to non-PU. Although reaction times (RTs) to Go task stimuli were not faster in PU, relative to non-PU, accuracy rates were significantly lower among PU, irrespective of pictures' emotional content. Only among PU did lower resting HRV predict lower response accuracy in pleasant and unpleasant Go trials and less efficient task performance (combining RTs to Go trials and accuracy to NoGo trials) upon presentation of unpleasant stimuli. Our findings suggest that reduced HRV is a potential indicator of defective inhibitory control in an emotional context in PIU.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Descanso/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102880, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301575

RESUMO

A dual-process theory postulates that belief and emotions about moral assertions can affect one another. The present study corroborated this prediction. Experiments 1, 2 and 3 showed that the pleasantness of a moral assertion - from loathing it to loving it - correlated with how strongly individuals believed it, i.e., its subjective probability. But, despite repeated testing, this relation did not occur for factual assertions. To create the correlation, it sufficed to change factual assertions, such as, "Advanced countries are democracies," into moral assertions, "Advanced countries should be democracies". Two further experiments corroborated the two-way causal relations for moral assertions. Experiment 4 showed that recall of pleasant memories about moral assertions increased their believability, and that the recall of unpleasant memories had the opposite effect. Experiment 5 showed that the creation of reasons to believe moral assertions increased the pleasantness of the emotions they evoked, and that the creation of reasons to disbelieve moral assertions had the opposite effect. Hence, emotions can change beliefs about moral assertions; and reasons can change emotions about moral assertions. We discuss the implications of these results for alternative theories of morality.


Assuntos
Cultura , Emoções/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2405-2412, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230144

RESUMO

The nascent field computational psychiatry has undergone exponential growth since its inception. To date, much of the published work has focused on choice behaviors, which are primarily modeled within a reinforcement learning framework. While this initial normative effort represents a milestone in psychiatry research, the reality is that many psychiatric disorders are defined by disturbances in subjective states (e.g., depression, anxiety) and associated beliefs (e.g., dysmorphophobia, paranoid ideation), which are not considered in normative models. In this paper, we present interoceptive inference as a candidate framework for modeling subjective-and associated belief-states in computational psychiatry. We first introduce the notion and significance of modeling subjective states in computational psychiatry. Next, we present the interoceptive inference framework, and in particular focus on the relationship between interoceptive inference (i.e., belief updating) and emotions. Lastly, we will use drug craving as an example of subjective states to demonstrate the feasibility of using interoceptive inference to model the psychopathology of subjective states.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Cultura , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Comportamento de Escolha , Fissura/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria/tendências
14.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 1-14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220844

RESUMO

Of the main principles of human neuropsychology, the best known may be cerebral specialization: the left and right hemispheres play different roles in language and other higher-order functions. This chapter discusses when and how and by whom the differences were found. It begins with an account of Gall's cortical localization theory, which set the stage. It then describes the discoveries themselves, reviews how the differences were explained, and concludes with a summary of further developments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Demência/psicologia , Neuropsicologia/história , Fala/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos
15.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 15-22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220852

RESUMO

In neurology and neuropsychology, behavior refers to the way human beings act and make decisions in contact with their environment. Behavioral impairment is therefore defined as a pathology, following brain lesion, that impacts the interactions between the brain-lesioned individual and his/her surrounding social world. First descriptions of behavioral disorders, including neuroanatomical correlates, date back to the mid-19th century. However, attempts towards their systematic identification and analysis only began at the turn of the 19th to 20th century. In this chapter, we shall span 3 main themes by introducing the first case reports based on thorough clinical descriptions, dating back to the 19th century. We then examine the emergence of checklist questionnaires and their application to large cohorts of individuals starting after World War II. Finally, we outline how, over the last 3 decades, the pace has significantly accelerated in the pursuit of defining the fine-grained processes underlying behavioral functioning, as well as the development of new and more complex measures, along with the emergence of the social cognition and social brain concepts. As the assessment tools have expanded and become more specific, an increasing complexity of mechanisms underlying behavior has begun to emerge.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neurologia/história , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pacientes/psicologia
16.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(4): 329-337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179537

RESUMO

Understanding envy and schadenfreude requires complex interpersonal social cognitive abilities, such as social comparison and evaluating the Self, but also understanding agency and intentionality. Previous studies of children's development of envy/schadenfreude addressed whether children understand and experience schadenfreude as opposed to compassion/sympathy or whether children's attribution of schadenfreude is a consequence of envy provoked by a disadvantageous social comparison. In this study, we take a step further and investigate the roles that agency and severity of the damage play in mediating children's attribution of schadenfreude. The participants were 144 Danish children aged 3-9 years divided into two age groups. Children were presented with eight stories supported by pictures showing intentional versus accidental and irreparable versus reparable damage to envied objects. The results show that the intensity of envy/schadenfreude, as well as the happy victimizer phenomenon, varies depending on the severity of damage, agency and intentionality. When damage is accidental, schadenfreude is expressed with less intensity compared to when damage is intentional (led by an agent). When damage is irreparable, children attribute less intense feelings of schadenfreude compared to when it is reparable. In addition, only the older children expressed reparable damage carrying more intense schadenfreude and only in the accidental condition. In general, children consider intentional and reparable damage more intense than accidental and irreparable damage, and this is mediated by age. The results are important for understanding the developmental trajectory of children's complex emotions and for educational programmes directed towards supporting this development.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Ciúmes , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Psychol Aging ; 34(5): 655-664, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180698

RESUMO

Research has shown that remembering emotional information can occur at the expense of surrounding neutral background information; this emotional memory trade-off occurs similarly in both younger and older adults. We investigated how levels of cortisol, a hormone that acts on the central nervous system, impact emotional memory with age. Younger and older adult participants incidentally encoded emotional (positive, negative, or neutral) items placed on neutral backgrounds and later completed recognition tests for both the items and the backgrounds. Cortisol was measured at multiple time points to assess basal cortisol. Results are reported for prelearning levels, as findings were comparable across time points. Results revealed that higher levels of cortisol predicted a lower memory trade-off effect for older adults compared to younger adults and that this age difference in the role of cortisol tended to be strongest for memory for negative items (rather than for backgrounds or neutral items). No such interaction emerged for the positive trade-off effect. These results suggest that cortisol levels play a different role in supporting emotional memory across the life span, with lower levels of cortisol potentially more adaptive for memory for negative emotional information and higher levels indicating potential impairment with age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/efeitos adversos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1085-1099, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156078

RESUMO

Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala-ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Emoções/fisiologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Gêmeos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1157-1171, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156081

RESUMO

One generation's experience of childhood maltreatment is associated with that of the next. However, whether this intergenerational transmission is specific to distinct forms of maltreatment and what factors may contribute to its continuity remains unclear. Borderline personality pathology is predicted by childhood maltreatment and characterized by features (e.g., dysregulated emotion, relationship instability, impulsivity, and inconsistent appraisals of others) that may contribute to its propagation. Among 364 older adults and 573 of their adult children (total n = 937), self-reported exposure to distinct forms of childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) showed homotypic and heterotypic associations across generations with little evidence that latent factors unique to specific forms of maltreatment show generational continuity. General nonspecific indices of childhood maltreatment showed evidence of intergenerational transmission after accounting for demographic factors and parent socioeconomic status (b = 0.126, p = 9.21 × 10-4). This continuity was partially mediated by parental borderline personality pathology (assessed longitudinally through a variety of measures and sources, indirect effect: b = 0.031, 95% confidence interval [0.003, 0.060]). The intergenerational continuity of childhood maltreatment may largely represent general risk for nonspecific maltreatment that may, in part, be propagated by borderline personality pathology and/or shared risk factors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(4-5): 293-301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157577

RESUMO

Background: The impairments in metacognitive functions and emotion recognition are considered as liable factors in anxiety disorders. Aims: The better understanding of these cognitive abilities might lead to develop more accurate treatment methods for patients who suffer from anxiety. Methods: Forty-four patients with panic disorder (PD), 37 individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 44 healthy control (HC) were participated in our study. Metacognition questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), Reading The Mind From The Eyes Test and symptom severity tests were administered. Results: Statistical analyses estimated the dysfunctional metacognitive beliefs and disrupted emotion recognition in patients relative to HC. The 'need to control thoughts' aspect of metacognitive beliefs was accounted for symptom severity in GAD. Improper metacognitive beliefs were significantly predicted the PD and GAD. In addition, impoverished emotion recognition predicted the GAD. Conclusions: Our study revealed the role of inconvenient metacognitive beliefs and distorted emotion recognition in PD and GAD. These findings might facilitate the treatment management in cognitive therapies of anxiety disorders via pointing out more reasonable targets across improper cognitive fields.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia
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