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1.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(328): 34-40, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039091

RESUMO

Ethical questioning and reflection are a requirement for the psychiatric caregiver, a particular discipline which is both clinical and political. Ethics is a safeguard that allows the professional to refocus on the core of their profession. It is not synonymous with morality and is situational. It is a combat sport against oneself and against those who reduce the patient to a human-machine to be repaired.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psiquiatria/ética , Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/ética , Empatia/ética , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886710

RESUMO

The present study focuses on an analysis of the efficacy of the online intervention program called "Hero" for promoting prosociality and other socioemotional variables related to prosocial behavior, such as empathy, positive emotions, and forgiveness, in two Latin American countries: Argentina and Uruguay. The final Argentinean sample consisted of 579 adolescents (experimental group = 319 and control group = 260), and the Uruguayan sample consisted of 330 adolescents (experimental group = 140 and control group = 169), aged 12 to 15 years old. The 'Hero' program provided evidence of efficacy for the promotion of prosociality, empathy, positive emotions, and attitudes of forgiveness. It impacted each of the dimensions comprising these variables differently depending on the country where it was applied. We discuss the differences found in each country.


Assuntos
Empatia/ética , Perdão/ética , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Adolescente , Argentina , Atitude , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Uruguai
3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 93-106, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-192096

RESUMO

L'educació, tant en els primers nivells de socialització com en les seves etapes posteriors d'educació formal, està posant en risc el desenvolupament de l'autonomia individual tan necessària perquè l'alumne arribi a la maduresa pròpia de l'etapa adulta. Les polítiques educatives, els nous models educatius I la societat mateixa estan desvinculant l' autonomia progressiva de la responsabilitat, els sentiments de la raó, l'emoció de la voluntat I la motivació del deure en la seva praxi educativa. Les conseqüències són que els alumnes queden ancorats en actituds infantils d'omnipotència amb incapacitat de fer un ajustament adequat amb la realitat I reaccionant en la majoria de casos amb agressivitat. La bioètica I l'educació tenen una relació necessària amb la construcció de subjectes morals I autònoms És urgent traçar una línia per sota de la qual no es donin les condiciones necessaries pel desenvolupament ple de la nostra joventut. La bioètica, que té un caràcter multidisciplinar I interdisciplinar, ha d' atendre als problemes actuals I complexos de l' educació I contribuir a pensar models educatius que formin ciutadans compromesos, responsables I solidaris. Un model educatiu s'ha de construir dins d'un debat bioètic i, en el marc de l'ètica del cuidar, sense desvincular-se de les ètiques de caràcter normatiu


La educación, tanto en los primeros niveles de socialización como en sus etapas posteriores de educación formal, está poniendo en riesgo el desarrollo de la autonomía individual tan necesaria para que el alumno llegue a la madurez propia de la etapa adulta. Las políticas educativas, los nuevos modelos educativos y la sociedad misma están desvinculando la autonomía progresiva de la responsabilidad, los sentimientos de la razón, la emoción de la voluntad y la motivación del deber en su praxis educativa. Las consecuencias son que los alumnos quedan anclados en actitudes infantiles de omnipotencia con incapacidad de hacer un ajuste adecuado con la realidad y reaccionando en la mayoría de casos con agresividad. La bioética y la educación tienen una relación necesaria con la construcción de sujetos morales y autónomos. Es urgente trazar una línea por debajo de la cual no se den las condiciones necesarias para el desarrollo pleno de nuestra juventud. La bioética, que tiene un carácter multidisciplinar e interdisciplinar, debe atender a los problemas actuales y complejos de la educación y contribuir a pensar modelos educativos que formen ciudadanos comprometidos, responsables y solidarios. Un modelo educativo debe construirse dentro de un debate bioético y, en el marco de la ética del cuidar, sin desvincularse de las éticas de carácter normativo


Education, both at the early levels of socialization and in the later stages of formal education, is putting at risk the development of the individual autonomy so necessary for the student to reach the maturity of adulthood. Educational policies, the new educational models and society itself are dissociating progressive autonomy from responsibility, feelings of reason, emotion from will and motivation of duty in their educational practice. The consequences are that students are anchored in childish attitudes of omnipotence with an inability to adjust accordingly to reality and reacting, in most cases, aggressively. Bioethics and education have a necessary relationship with the construction of moral and autonomous subjects. Bioethics, which has a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character, must address the current and complex problems of education and contribute to thinking about educational models that form committed, responsible and supportive citizens. An educational model must be constructed within a bioethical debate and, within the framework of the ethics of care, without dissociating itself from normative ethics


Assuntos
Humanos , Empatia/ética , Modelos Educacionais , Bioética/educação , Comportamento Infantil/ética , Socialização , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação/ética , Agressão/ética
4.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 19(1): 143-153, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1099152

RESUMO

Introduction: Empathy with the patient is an important attribute that contributes to the success of treatment. This attribute must be object of teaching in the training stage of the student of the health sciences. Objective: To evaluate the levels of empathy and its components in students of the Obstetrics course at the University of Norbert Wiener, Peru. Material and Methods: Design: cross-sectional study. Participants: The sample was composed of 219 first-year to fifth-year students. Measurements: The Jefferson Empathy Scale, S version for students was applied. The internal reliability of the data was estimated using the general Cronbach's alpha, interclass correlation coefficient, Hotelling's T2, and Tukey non-additive test; the mean and standard deviation were estimated. A bi-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA), model III was applied in the academic years, the genders and the interaction of these two factors. Results: The empathic level of obstetrics students has an average of 105,95 points, out of a maximum of 140, and it is higher (in absolute values) than other values observed in analogous measurements in Latin America. In general, there are no significant differences in empathy between academic years and genders, and in the components of empathy. Conclusions: The average level of empathy among obstetrics students at Wiener University shows relative little growth per year of study(AU)


Introducción: La empatía con el paciente es un importante atributo que contribuye al éxito del tratamiento. Este atributo debe ser objeto de enseñanza en la etapa de formación del estudiante de ciencias de la salud. Objetivo: Evaluar los niveles de empatía y de sus componentes en estudiantes del curso de Obstetricia de la Universidad Norbert Wiener, Perú. Material y métodos: Diseño: estudio transversal; Participantes: la muestra fue de 219 estudiantes que estaban en el primer a quinto año de su carrera; Medidas: se aplicó la escala de empatía de Jefferson, versión S para estudiantes. La confiabilidad interna de los datos se estimó utilizando el alfa general de Cronbach, el coeficiente de correlación interclase, el T2 de Hotelling y la prueba no aditiva de Tukey, estimando las medias y la desviación estándar. Se aplicó un análisis bifactorial de varianza (ANOVA), modelo III entre los años académicos, entre los géneros y en la interacción de estos dos factores. Resultado: El nivel empático de los estudiantes de obstetricia examinados tiene un promedio de 105,95 puntos de un máximo de 140 y es mayor (en valores absolutos) a otros valores observados en mediciones análogas en América Latina. En general, no hay diferencias significativas entre los años académicos y entre los géneros en la empatía y en los componentes de la empatía. Conclusiones: El nivel promedio de empatía entre los estudiantes de obstetricia en la Universidad de Wiener muestra un crecimiento relativamente pequeño por año de estudio(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Empatia/ética , Obstetrícia/ética , Estudos Transversais , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923273

RESUMO

Attachment theories postulate that during adolescence, peer relationships become more important as a predictor of positive social, emotional and behavioral outcomes. Adolescents develop the ability to empathize with others, which is related to healthy functioning and positive peer relationships. Empathy has been studied as a potential mechanism that may help to explain how strong and healthy emotional bonds are associated with less emotional disorders and conduct problems in youth. The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between peer attachment and strengths and difficulties during adolescence, considering empathy as a potential mediator of this association. A total of 800 Spanish adolescents (56.65% girls), aged between 12 and 15 years (M = 14.02, SD = 1.21), completed measures of peer attachment, empathy, conduct problems, emotional difficulties and prosocial behavior. Structural equation models indicated that peer attachment was negatively associated with conduct problems and emotional difficulties but positively related to prosocial behavior. In general, empathy mediated the link between peer attachment and both emotional and behavioral outcomes, without significant group differences between boys and girls. The discussion focuses on the importance of healthy peer relationships as a powerful predictor of emotional well-being and psychological problems in adolescence.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/ética , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Espanha
7.
Cult. cuid ; 23(57): 52-60, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195905

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo de carácter reflexivo es analizar cómo se sostiene la relación entre el cuidado de enfermería y la ética de la compasión y algunos efectos de la protocolización del cuidado en dicha relación. METODOLOGÍA: La delimitación del tema de análisis surge en el marco de un ejercicio de narrativa de experiencias de cuidado, en el que las categorías conceptuales cuidado de enfermería - compasión - protocolo se encuentran interrelacionadas. Se realiza un análisis teórico reflexivo principalmente desde la fenomenología de M. Heidegger y la filosofía de la finitud de JC Melich. CONCLUSIÓN: la relación entre cuidado y compasión es consustancial. No puede haber cuidado sin compasión y tampoco puede haber compasión sin cuidado, la compasión exalta el cuidado de enfermería y este a su vez es la cúspide de una ética de la compasión. Sin embargo, esta puede verse disgregada por la protocolización del cuidado y las practicas de enfermería, alejando al cuidado de su verdadera esencia, la ética de la compasión


The objective of this reflective article is to analyze how the relationship between nursing care and comparison ethics is maintained and some effects of the protocolization of care in said relationship. METHODOLOGY: The delimitation of the analysis topic arises within the framework of a narrative exercise of care experiences, in the conceptual categories nursing care - comparison - protocol are interrelated. A reflective theoretical analysis is carried out mainly from the phenomenology of M. Heidegger and the philosophy of finitude from JC Melich. CONCLUSION: the relationship between caring and compassion is inherent. You can't be careful without compassion and you can't have compassion without care, compassion exalts nursing care and this is your time is the hope of an ethic of compassion. However, this can be broken down by the protocolization of nursing care and practices, taking care away from its true essence, the ethics of compassion


O objetivo deste artigo reflexivo é analisar como se mantém a relação entre o cuidado de enfermagem e a ética da comparação e alguns efeitos da protocolização do cuidado nesse relacionamento. METODOLOGIA: A delimitação do tópico de análise surge no marco de um exercício narrativo de experiências de cuidado, nas categorias conceituais protocolo de assistência de enfermagem - comparação - protocolo. Uma análise teórica reflexiva é realizada principalmente a partir da fenomenologia de M. Heidegger e da filosofia da finitude de JCMelich. CONCLUSÃO: a relação entre cuidar ecompaixão é inerente. Você não pode seimportar sem compaixão e não pode tercompaixão sem se importar, a compaixãoexalta os cuidados de enfermagem e este é oseu tempo é a esperança de uma ética dacompaixão. No entanto, isso pode ser quebrado pela protocolização dos cuidados e práticas de enfermagem, afastando o cuidado de sua verdadeira essência, a ética da compaixão


Assuntos
Humanos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/ética , Empatia/ética , Avaliação em Enfermagem/ética , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente/ética
8.
Physis (Rio J.) ; 30(1): e300105, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101313

RESUMO

Resumo Este artigo parte de uma discussão internacional sobre a intransmissibilidade do vírus HIV, quando a pessoa soropositiva está em tratamento e com carga viral indetectável. Trata-se de um dos resultados da pesquisa qualitativa sobre sociabilidades de jovens vivendo com HIV, com ênfase nos novos discursos/práticas biomédicos e seu impacto nas relações afetivo-sexuais desses/as jovens. Durante os meses de março a novembro de 2017, houve a interação com pessoas vivendo com HIV/Aids (PVHA), com idade entre 18 e 30 anos, e médicos/as infectologistas de um Serviço de Assistência Especializada em Salvador-BA. Para além das mudanças significativas em relação ao HIV, decorrentes dos avanços atuais das biotecnologias, colocamos em pauta algumas controvérsias em torno da intransmissibilidade do vírus do ponto de vista de quatro médicos/as infectologistas. Realizamos entrevistas abertas e a leitura exploratória das narrativas, identificando temas, questões e atores que se deslocavam nos relatos em torno da condição de indetectável. Discutimos que a carga viral indetectável aparece como um assunto delicado/controverso nos consultórios médicos, atualizando a posição de PVHA como potencialmente perigosas, podendo reincidir em práticas sexuais desprotegidas ou "relaxar" no cuidado consigo e com o outro. São narrativas que suscitam questões éticas fundamentais na relação de cuidado, tais como o direito à informação na perspectiva da saúde como um direito humano.


Abstract This article is based on an international discussion on HIV non-transmissibility when the HIV-positive person is under treatment and has an undetectable viral load. This is one of the results of research on the sociability of young people living with HIV, with emphasis on new biomedical discourses/practices and their impact on the affective-sexual relationships of young people. From March to November of 2017, the researchers interacted with people living with HIV (PLHIV), aged between 18 and 30 years, and infectologists in a Specialized Service in Salvador-BA, Brazil. Beyond significant changes in relation to HIV due to advances in biotechnology, the study focused on some controversies surrounding the non-transmissibility of the virus from the viewpoint of four infectologists. Open interviews and exploratory reading of the narratives were conducted, identifying themes, issues and actors that moved in the reports on the condition of undetectable. The article argues that undetectable viral load appears as a sensitive/controversial subject in medical offices, updating the PLHIV's position as potentially dangerous that may engage in unprotected sexual practices or "relax" in mutual care. Such narratives raise fundamental ethical issues in care relations, such as the right to information from the perspective of health as a human right.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Autocuidado , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Carga Viral , Infectologia , Relações Interpessoais , Biotecnologia/métodos , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sexo sem Proteção , Empatia/ética , Comunicação em Saúde
9.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096998

RESUMO

Iniciamos esse editorial dirigindo-nos aos profissionais de enfermagem que hoje já não estão entre nós. Foram calados pela pandemia, sobretudo pela falta de recursos, de proteção, pela indiferença. Justamente quando a Organização Mundial da Saúde declara 2020 como o Ano Internacional da Enfermagem, alertando que o mundo precisa de mais nove milhões de enfermeiros e parteiras para atingir a meta de cobertura universal de saúde até 2030; quando serão celebrados os 200 anos de Florence Nigthingale, a precursora da Enfermagem Moderna


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Congressos como Assunto , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Empatia/ética
10.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 810, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carers play an important role within the UK mental health system. Those carers who support persons with psychosis can experience a reduction in their own physical and mental health. As part of the Caring for Caregivers (C4C) trial, we piloted a writing intervention (Positive Written Disclosure) that has been shown to improve wellbeing in other populations. Although we reached our recruitment target, we encountered several barriers that made recruitment slower than anticipated. This paper synthesises the process data collected during the C4C trial that relates to the barriers to recruiting and retaining psychosis carers. RESULTS: We encountered four main carer-specific barriers to the recruitment and retention of participants in our study. These were: (1) poor relationship with mental health clinicians, (2) conflicting with the care recipient's (CR) needs, (3) lack of spare time, and (4) lack of services for mental health carers. The interventions to assist carers need to be informed by robust evidence and this requires trials that reach their recruitment targets. By sharing our practical experiences other researchers and clinicians can modify their practices to minimise recruitment difficulties and delay. Trial registration ISRCTN79116352. Retrospectively registered (before the final participant was recruited) on 23rd January 2017.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Cuidadores/ética , Cuidadores/organização & administração , Empatia/ética , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Seleção de Pessoal , Transtornos Psicóticos/enfermagem , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 28(3): 131-138, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-187443

RESUMO

The aim of the study was testing the differential effectiveness of two interventions to improve Majorcan primary care professionals' quality of life: Mindful-Based Stress Reduction Training (MBSRT) and Compassion Cultivation Training (CCT). 50 professionals participated in the study; 81% were women. We evaluated mindfulness, empathy, self-compassion, and professional quality of life. Results showed statistically significant effects of the programs on the improvement of mindfulness, self-compassion, and professional quality of life, and differential effects on two dimensions of mindfulness, acting with awareness and non-reacting to inner experience, and on the dimension of burnout of the professional quality of life, in all the cases favoring the MBSRT group. The study concludes that this type of interventions is adequate to improve the aforementioned variables, with better efficacy of the MBSRT for this type of participants


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia diferencial de dos intervenciones para mejorar la calidad de vida de profesionales de atención primaria de Mallorca: un programa de reducción del estrés basado en mindfulness (MBSRt) y un entrenamiento en cultivo de la compasión (CCT). Participaron 50 profesionales, el 81% de los cuales eran mujeres. Se evaluó mindfulness, empatía, auto-compasión y calidad de vida profesional. Los resultados mostraron efectos estadísticamente significativos de los programas para la mejora del mindfulness, la empatía, la auto-compasión y la calidad de vida profesional, con un efecto diferencial sobre dos dimensiones del mindfulness, actuar con autoconciencia y no reaccionar a la experiencia interna y la dimensión de burnout de la calidad de vida profesional, en todos los casos a favor del entrenamiento MBSR. El estudio concluye que este tipo de intervenciones es adecuado para la mejora de las variables señaladas, con mayor eficacia de los programas MBSR en este tipo de participantes


Assuntos
Humanos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Empatia/ética , Bullying/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Análise de Dados , Análise de Variância
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671887

RESUMO

Drawing on psychological contract theory, this research contributes to the unethical behavior literature by exploring employees' turnover intentions as a mediator of the relationship between abusive supervision and employees' unethical behavior and the moderating role of the caring climate in the relationship between turnover intentions and unethical behavior. The results from a sample of 679 reveal that turnover intentions mediate relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' unethical behavior, and caring climate moderates the positive relationship between turnover intentions and subordinates' unethical behavior. We also find that the indirect effect is moderated by the caring climate. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Bullying/ética , Bullying/psicologia , Empatia/ética , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
ANS Adv Nurs Sci ; 42(4): 278-288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299687

RESUMO

Nursing ethics are fundamental principles to nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to analyze patients' complaints filed against nurses from a nursing ethics perspective. This is a qualitative study. The data source is the patients' complaints filed in a university-affiliated hospital in China. The complaints are categorized into 4 themes: uncompassionate attitudes, unprofessional communication, disrespect of patient rights, and unsatisfactory quality of nursing care. The ethic of belonging reflects nurse-patient relations. Patients expect to be treated with dignity. This study sends out a call for nurse leaders and educators to reevaluate the practice and education of the nursing professional identity.


Assuntos
Ética em Enfermagem , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente/ética , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Empatia/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Food Res Int ; 122: 167-173, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229069

RESUMO

The study aims to enrich the knowledge on the consumer's decision-making process towards fair-trade products. Starting from Theory of Planned Behaviour and Norm Activation Theory basic assumptions, the systemic effect of awareness of consequences, emotional empathy, attitude and personal norms on purchase intention is considered. The empirical research builds on an online survey with a sample of 215 consumers. The proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling. Results showed a positive effect of attitude towards the product, personal norms and empathy on purchase intention. Personal norms were, in turn, influenced by awareness of consequences of fair practices and emotional empathy and positively impacted on attitude towards the product. The paper offers recommendations to governments, industries and non-profit organisations for better marketing and promoting fair-trade products.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Países em Desenvolvimento , Empatia/ética , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/ética , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 111(5): 546-554, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In spite of emphasis on patient-centered cares and promotion of their quality, shortcomings have been seen in health systems due to lack of compassion. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to determine the definition, fields, facilitating and inhibiting factors of compassionate care in healthcare systems and the interventions designed to promote it. METHODS: This study was conducted through narrative synthesis which is supposed to do systematic and synthesized review. Searching was done in English databases including Pub Med, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane library, Ovid, Science Direct, WILEY by using keywords of Compassionate Care, Delivery of Health Care, Healthcare Systems, Compassion and Health Care Providers from 1987 to 2017. RESULTS: Compassionate care has some dimensions including ethical, professional, effective communication, human, spiritual/religious and getting involve with patients. Facilitating and inhibiting factors consisted of the nurse's personal characteristics, patients' behavior and organizational factors included workload, role model, and value of compassionate care in healthcare systems. Educational interventions such as providing feedback and reorienting have been mostly used to improve the compassionate care. CONCLUSIONS: Although compassionate care has been known as the main element of improving services quality in health care system, it has been studied restrictively from the viewpoints of the patients and all personnel in healthcare systems. The improvement of compassionate care through education cannot remove completely the gap between theory and practice, because it seems that clinical environment and organizational values of healthcare system are the largest facilitating and inhibiting factors for filling this gap. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures for promoting organizational culture.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Empatia , Cultura Organizacional , Melhoria de Qualidade , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comunicação , Empatia/ética , Humanismo , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Profissionalismo , Espiritualidade , Carga de Trabalho
17.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(98): 35-42, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180693

RESUMO

El final de la vida va acompañado de sufrimiento y penalidades que pueden ser aliviados en las unidades de Cuidados Paliativos (CP) con una atención compasiva. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en describir el concepto de "anticipación compasiva" como una forma de cuidar al paciente y a su familia al final de la vida desde la perspectiva tanto de los profesionales, profesores y estudiantes de las ciencias de la salud, como de las personas con enfermedad avanzada y sus familiares. Se ha empleado para ello una metodología cualitativa. Los datos se recogieron a través de entrevistas en profundidad y de grupos focales, siendo analizados y codificados usando la técnica de la teoría fundamentada. Se obtuvo la aprobación de un Comité de Ética. La muestra intencionada fue de 29 participantes: pacientes y familiares de pacientes con enfermedad avanzada, profesionales asistenciales de CP y expertos en bioética, profesores universitarios y estudiantes de Ciencias de la Salud. Los datos se recogieron en un Hospital de CP en Madrid, España. Los participantes valoran positivamente la anticipación compasiva de los profesionales que supone estudiar y reflexionar sobre las posibles complicaciones que pueden derivarse de la situación de enfermedad avanzada que padece el enfermo y dialogar con él acerca de las posibles actuaciones al respecto. El artículo concluye que la compasión es una virtud que implica adelantarse a las necesidades de los pacientes para que el enfermo pueda tomar decisiones compartidas acertadas. Es lo que se denomina anticipación compasiva. Son necesarios ulteriores estudios que profundicen en las características de la anticipación compasiva y cómo desarrollarla de forma óptima en los pacientes al final de la vida


End of life is frequently accompanied by suffering and hardships that can be alleviated in the Palliative Care (PC) units by applying compassionate advance care. It is the aim of this paper to describe the concept of "compassionate advance care" as a way of caring for the patient and his family at the end of life from the perspective of both professionals, teachers and students of the health sciences, and persons with advanced disease and their families. A qualitative methodology was used. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and focus groups, and analysed and coded using the theory of Grounded Theory. Approval of an Ethics Committee was obtained. The intentional sample consisted of 29 participants, who were patients and relatives of patients with advanced disease, PC professionals and experts in bioethics, university professors and Health Sciences students. Data were collected in a PC Hospital in Madrid, Spain. The participants positively valued the compassionate advance care provided by professionals: analysing and reflecting on possible complications that may arise from the advanced disease situation suffered by the patient and establishing a dialogue with him about possible actions in this regard. The paper concludes that compassion is a virtue that implies anticipating the needs of patients, thus allowing the patient to make the right shared decisions. This is what the term Compassionate Advance Care Planning entails. Further studies are needed to delve into the characteristics of compassionate Advance Care Planning and how to optimally implement it in patients at the end of life. To admit the opposite is to enter a spiral where the dignity of the human being would become an object of weighting with respect to another value, which, in a hypothetical conflict could be postponed by another. However, Palliative Care takes into account the social dimension of the end of life of the human being. They take care of the sick human being in its entirety. That is why they are the option most in line with the dignity of the human being at the end of his life


Assuntos
Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/ética , Conforto do Paciente/ética , Empatia/ética , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213766, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers have key roles in the prevention of, detection of, and interventions for human trafficking. Yet caring for trafficked persons is particularly challenging: patients whose identities are unknown, unreliable, or false could receive subpar care from providers delivering care in a vacuum of relevant information. The application of precision medicine principles and integration of biometric data (including genetic information) could facilitate patient identification, enable longitudinal medical records, and improve continuity and quality of care for this vulnerable patient population. Scant empirical data exist regarding healthcare system preparedness and care for the needs of this vulnerable population nor data on perspectives on the use and risks of biometrics or genetic information for trafficked patients. METHODS: To address this gap, we conducted mixed-methods research involving semi-structured interviews with key informants, which informed a subsequent broad survey of physicians and registered nurses. RESULTS: Our findings support the perception that trafficked persons obtain care yet remain unnoticed or undocumented in the electronic health record. Our survey findings further reveal that healthcare providers remain largely unaware of human trafficking issues and are inadequately prepared to provide patient-centered care for trafficked and unidentified patients. CONCLUSION: Meaningful efforts to design and implement precision medicine initiatives in an inclusive way that optimizes impacts are unlikely to succeed without concurrent efforts to increase general awareness of and preparedness to care for trafficked persons. Additional research is needed to examine properly the potential utility for biometrics to improve the delivery of care for trafficked patients.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Empatia/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Tráfico de Pessoas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Psychol ; 54(2): 188-196, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726268

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position. Results show that both personal and past situational similarity to the transgressor determine less severe moral judgements, while personal and past situational similarity with the victim have the opposite effect. We also tested several potential mediators of these effects, derived from competing theoretical accounts of the influence of similarity on perceived responsibility. Empathy emerged as mediating most of the effects of similarity on moral judgements, except those induced by past situational similarity with the victim. The foreseen probability of being in a similar situation mediated only the effects of similarity to the transgressor, and not those of similarity to the victim. Overall, results highlight the complex mechanisms of the influences of similarity on moral judgements.


Assuntos
Empatia/ética , Julgamento/ética , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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