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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445789

RESUMO

The study analyzes sensory processing sensitivity and the compassion satisfaction as risk/protective factors against burnout and compassion fatigue, during the first period of the COVID-19 health emergency. A sample of 1566 Spanish adult healthcare (n = 694) and education (n = 872) professionals was evaluated. An ad hoc questionnaire for sociodemographic data, and the highly sensitive person scale (HSPS), Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) and professional quality of life scale (ProQOL-vIV) were administered. Burnout and compassion fatigue were observed in the healthcare and education professionals, where personal realization and depersonalization were higher in healthcare and compassion fatigue in education. The protective role of compassion satisfaction was confirmed, as was sensory processing sensitivity as a risk factor, except for its low sensory threshold dimension, which positively influenced personal realization. The findings of this study demonstrate the presence of burnout and compassion fatigue in healthcare and education professionals, displaying compassion fatigue as an emerging psychosocial risk in education, which was made more severe under the conditions of study, which is at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The importance of incorporating adequate management strategies for high sensitivity, empathy and compassion satisfaction in prevention programs is emphasized.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Science ; 371(6525): 153-159, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414216

RESUMO

Empathy is an essential component of social communication that involves experiencing others' sensory and emotional states. We observed that a brief social interaction with a mouse experiencing pain or morphine analgesia resulted in the transfer of these experiences to its social partner. Optogenetic manipulations demonstrated that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) were selectively involved in the social transfer of both pain and analgesia. By contrast, the ACC→NAc circuit was not necessary for the social transfer of fear, which instead depended on ACC projections to the basolateral amygdala. These findings reveal that the ACC, a brain area strongly implicated in human empathic responses, mediates distinct forms of empathy in mice by influencing different downstream targets.


Assuntos
Analgesia/psicologia , Comunicação , Empatia/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Animais , Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Optogenética , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 60(1): 116-128, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acquired brain damage is associated with a reduced capacity for empathy, and emerging evidence indicates that there may also be elevated levels of schizotypy. However, although a relationship between schizotypy and empathy has been identified in other populations, no study to date has tested whether this relationship is also evident following acquired brain damage, and if so, whether it is specific to certain types of brain damage, or specific types of empathy. METHODS: People with acquired brain damage restricted to either frontal (N = 18) or non-frontal (N = 24) neural structures and demographically matched controls (N = 48) completed an assessment of schizotypy and a measure of empathy that differentiated between cognitive, emotional, and social skills empathy. RESULTS: Relative to the control group, people with frontal and non-frontal brain injuries reported elevated schizotypy, with the frontal group also reporting lower social skills empathy. Only in the frontal group was there support for an association between schizotypy and empathy, and this was specific to the social skills component of empathy. CONCLUSIONS: Schizotypy levels are elevated following brain damage, and frontal brain injury is linked to greater difficulties with the social skills component of empathy. Schizotypy appears to be an important consideration when understanding the link between empathy and frontal brain damage, with higher schizotypy levels associated with reduced social skills empathy in this population. Future research is now needed to establish whether problems with more implicit aspects of social understanding are relevant to understanding the relationship between schizotypy and poor social behavioural outcomes identified in other clinical groups that present with frontal brain damage. PRACTITIONER POINTS: People with an acquired brain injury experience deficits in empathic processing as well as elevated levels of schizotypal traits. Schizotypy levels and social skills empathy were inversely related in people who had experienced a frontal acquired brain injury, suggesting that schizotypy might be important for understanding social skill difficulties in this particular population. These findings highlight the potential benefit of including social cognitive assessments and schizotypy measures in standard neuropsychological assessment batteries.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Empatia/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia
5.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117650, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338612

RESUMO

Subjective happiness (well-being) is a multi-dimensional construct indexing one's evaluations of everyday emotional experiences and life satisfaction, and has been associated with different aspects of trait empathy. Despite previous research identifying the neural substrates of subjective happiness and empathy, the mechanisms mediating the relationship between the two constructs remain largely unclear. Here, we performed a data-driven, multi-voxel pattern analysis of whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity to reveal the neural mechanisms of subjective happiness and trait empathy in a sample of young females. Behaviorally, we found that subjective happiness was negatively associated with personal distress (i.e., self-referential experience of others' feelings). Consistent with this inverse relationship, subjective happiness was associated with the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex exhibiting decreased functional connectivity with regions important for the representation of unimodal sensorimotor information (e.g., primary sensory cortices) or multi-modal summaries of brain states (e.g., default mode network) and increased functional connectivity with regions important for the attentional modulation of these representations (e.g., frontoparietal, attention networks). Personal distress was associated with the medial prefrontal cortex exhibiting functional connectivity differences with similar networks--but in the opposite direction. Finally, intrinsic functional connectivity within and between these networks fully mediated the relationship between the two behavioral measures. These results identify an important contribution of the macroscale functional organization of the brain to human well-being, by demonstrating that lower levels of personal distress lead to higher subjective happiness through variation in intrinsic functional connectivity along a neural representation vs. modulation gradient.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Felicidade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117624, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346132

RESUMO

Identifying distinct neural networks underlying social affect (empathy, compassion) and social cognition (Theory of Mind) has advanced our understanding of social interactions. However, little is known about the relation of activation in these networks to psychological experience in daily life. This study (N = 122) examined the ecological validity of neural activation patterns induced by a laboratory paradigm of social affect and cognition with respect to social interactions in everyday life. We used the EmpaToM task, a naturalistic video-based paradigm for the assessment of empathy, compassion, and Theory of Mind, and combined it with a subsequent 14-day ecological momentary assessment protocol on social interactions. Everyday social affect was predicted by social affect experienced during the EmpaToM task, but not by related neural activation in regions of interest from the social affect network. In contrast, everyday social cognition was predicted by neural activation differences in the medial prefrontal cortex - a region of interest from the social cognition network - but not by social cognition performance in the EmpaToM task. The relationship between medial prefrontal cortex activation and everyday social cognition was stronger for spontaneous rather than deliberate perspective taking during the EmpaToM task, pointing to a distinction between propensity and capacity in social cognition. Finally, this neural indicator of Theory of Mind explained variance in everyday social cognition to a similar extent as an established self-report scale. Taken together, this study provides evidence for the ecological validity of lab-based social affect and cognition paradigms when considering relevant moderating factors.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378391

RESUMO

Personal distress is a building block of empathy, yet has received scant attention in studies of individual differences in leadership. We investigate whether the effect of leader emergence on men's distress is influenced by their personalized power motive (p Power) and changes in their testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels. In an experiment involving 96 males, p Power modulated the direction and intensity of T change in emergent leaders, with high p-Power leaders showing a more positive T change compared to their low p-Power counterparts. We also conducted a dynamic test of the dual-hormone hypothesis in which participants' changes in T and C interacted to produce differences in personal distress. Contrary to expectations, positive changes in T were associated with increased distress at negative changes in C. Given that high T and low C are associated with leadership, we explain these findings and question the assumption that personal distress represents a shortcoming in leaders.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Testosterona/análise , Adulto , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866184

RESUMO

The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing the ability to recognize emotion. To examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the RMET and to explore the possible implications of poor performance on this task, 200 adults aged 19-32 years completed the RMET and the Korean version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), the cognitive empathy domain of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C), and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Aggression (BDHI-A). In the present study, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor solution based on three different emotional valences of the items (positive, negative, or neutral) had a good fit to the data. The Korean version of the RMET also showed good test-retest reliability over a 4-week time interval. Convergent validity was also supported by significant correlations with subscales of the TAS-20K, and discriminant validity was identified by nonsignificant associations with IRI-C scores. In addition, no difference was found in RMET performance according to the sex of the photographed individuals or the sex or educational attainment of the participants. Individuals with poor RMET performance were more likely to experience alexithymia and aggression. The current findings will facilitate not only future research on emotion processing but also the assessment of conditions related to the decreased ability to decode emotional stimuli.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Leitura , República da Coreia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e22417, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852276

RESUMO

The recent drive to include virtual care in surgical practice has been accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many physicians feel that communicating via telehealth is unlike traditional methods of providing health care, and thus guidance on maintaining excellence in communication is necessary, especially as academic literature on virtual care in surgery is nonexistent. Challenges faced in transitioning to virtual care include the inability to utilize body language, barriers to traditional physical examination, exacerbation of existing vulnerabilities and inequities in patient groups, the declining quality of medical education, and the fragmentation of the multidisciplinary health care team. This paper seeks to resolve these challenges by focusing on the pillars of good communication, including preparation, professionalism, empathy, respect, and the virtual physical examination.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Humanos
10.
Int J Psychol ; 55(5): 769-778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643183

RESUMO

Little is known about the associations between cultural class composition, teacher support for diversity (TSD), cognitive and affective empathy, and bullying and victimisation. Research shows that empathy is negatively associated with bullying and victimisation; and support for diversity and classroom cultural diversity are positively linked to social skills. The present study examines whether cultural diversity and perceived TSD are protective factors against bullying and victimisation, either directly or mediated by empathy. Participants were 897 students from Grades 7 to 10 (Mage  = 13.45, SDage  = 1.07, 51.3% girls, 46.7% boys) in 36 classes. Multilevel mediation analyses were conducted. Age and gender were controlled for. More perceived TSD and affective empathy were associated with less bullying. Moreover, the effect of perceived TSD on bullying was partly indirect through affective empathy. Victimisation was not predicted by the study variables. The class level showed no effects. Bullying and victimisation are complex phenomena, which seem to be linked more to individual than to class characteristics. The result that higher perceived TSD was linked to empathy and bullying provides a promising starting point for measures of competence enhancement and bullying prevention.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Diversidade Cultural , Empatia/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663843

RESUMO

Based on Social Learning Theory and the General Aggression Model, this study aims to explore the relationship between parental emotional warmth and the cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of college students and the mediating roles of trait gratitude and empathy. Using the stratified cluster random sampling method, 1198 college students (716 boys and 482 girls with an average age of 20.44 years) were tested using the subscale of the Parenting Styles Instrument, the Basic Empathy Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire-6, and the Cyberbullying Attitude Questionnaire. Results: Emotional warmth, trait gratitude, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy all demonstrated significantly positive relationships with each other (rs from .175 to .403, ps < 0.01) and negative correlations with cyberbullying perpetration attitudes (rs from -.137 to -.306, ps < 0.01). Emotional warmth can exert an impact on cyberbullying perpetration attitudes through three fully mediating paths: the mediating roles of trait gratitude (41.91% of the total effect), cognitive empathy (14.5% of the total effect), and the chain mediating roles of trait gratitude-cognitive empathy (19.5% of the total effect). The results may have important implications for future studies to develop effective interventions for cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584831

RESUMO

The importance of social connection to well-being is underscored by individuals' reactivity to events highlighting the potential for rejection and exclusion, which extends even to observing the social exclusion of others ("vicarious ostracism"). Because responses to vicarious ostracism depend at least in part on empathy with the target, and individuals tend to empathize less readily with outgroup than ingroup members, the question arises as to whether there is a boundary condition on vicarious ostracism effects whereby individuals are relatively immune to observing ingroup-on-outgroup ostracism. Of particular interest is the case where members of a dominant ethnic group observe fellow ingroup members ostracize a member of a disadvantaged ethnic minority group, as here there is a compelling potential alternative: Perceived violation of contemporary social norms condemning prejudice and discrimination might instead lead dominant group members to be especially upset by "dominant-on-disadvantaged" ostracism. Accordingly, the present research examines, across four studies and 4413 participants, individuals' affective reactions to observing dominant-on-disadvantaged versus dominant-on-dominant ostracism. In each study, dominant group members (White/Europeans) observed dominant group members include or ostracize a fellow dominant group member or a disadvantaged ethnic minority group member (a Black individual) in an online Cyberball game. Results revealed that dominant group members felt more guilt, anger, and sadness after observing severe ostracism of a disadvantaged as opposed to dominant group member. Although no direct effects emerged on behavioral outcomes, exploratory analyses suggested that observing ostracism of a disadvantaged (versus dominant) group member had indirect effects on behavior via increased feelings of anger. These results suggest that observing ostracism may be a sufficiently potent and relatable experience that when it occurs across group boundaries it awakens individuals' sensitivity to injustice and discrimination.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Identificação Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353076

RESUMO

According to a socio-functional perspective on emotions, displaying shame with averted gaze and a slumped posture following a norm violation signals that the person is ready to conform to the group's moral standards, which in turn protects the person from social isolation and punishment. Although the assumption is intuitive, direct empirical evidence for it remains surprisingly limited and the mediating social-psychological mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, three experimental studies were conducted to investigate the social function of nonverbal displays of shame in the context of everyday norm violations. In Study 1, participants evaluated ten different expressions of emotion in regard to their affective valence, arousal, dominance, as well as social meaning in the context of norm violations. Displays of shame and sadness were seen as the most similar expressions with respect to the three affective dimensions and were perceived to communicate the perpetrator's understanding of the group's moral standards most effectively. In Study 2, participants read vignettes concerning norm violations and afterward saw a photograph of the perpetrator displaying nonverbal shame, sadness or a neutral expression. Perpetrators' displays of shame and sadness increased perceived moral sense and amplified the observers' willingness to cooperate with the perpetrators. However, neither display weakened the observer's willingness to punish the perpetrator. In Study 3, the perpetrator was shown to display shame, sadness, anger or a neutral expression after getting caught at mild or severe norm violation. The results replicated previous findings but revealed also that the social effects of shame and sadness displays on punitive and cooperative intentions were mediated by different social appraisals. For example, display of shame uniquely reduced punitive intentions by increasing the perpetrator's perceived moral sense, whereas expressions of both shame and sadness evoked empathy in the observers, which in turn reduced the punitive intentions. These results give support to the assumption that nonverbal shame displays serve a unique social function in preventing moral punishment and social exclusion. However, this support is only partial as the social functions of displaying shame are largely parallel to those of expressing sadness in the situation.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Punição , Vergonha , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8547, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444619

RESUMO

Paranoia may build on negative beliefs held both about the self and others. Compassionate imagery may be one way of reducing such negative beliefs, and hence paranoia. Two studies tested this idea, one targeting compassion for the self and one targeting compassion for others. Two-hundred individuals from the general population scoring highly for paranoia were recruited. The studies used a randomised controlled experimental design, with embedded tests for mediation. Study one targeted self-compassion via creation of a compassionate coach (CC) image. Study two targeted compassion for others via loving kindness meditation (LKM). Individuals repeatedly entered neutral virtual reality social environments. Changes in compassion and paranoia were assessed. Compared to controls, the CC group increased in self-compassion (group difference = 2.12, C.I. = 1.57;2.67, p = <0.0001, d = 1.4) and decreased in paranoia (group difference = -1.73, C.I. = -2.48; -0.98, p = <0.0001, d = 0.8). Change in self-compassion explained 57% of change in paranoia. Compared to controls, the LKM group increased their compassion for others (group difference = 3.26, C.I. = 2.72;3.80, p = <0.0001, d = 1.7), and decreased in paranoia (group difference = -1.70, C.I. = -2.50; -0.89, p = <0.0001, d = 0.8). Change in compassion for others explained 67% of change in paranoia. Targeting negative beliefs about the self and others using compassionate imagery causes reductions in paranoia. Tests in clinical populations are indicated.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Meditação/métodos , Transtornos Paranoides/terapia , Meio Social , Realidade Virtual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407340

RESUMO

Despite scientific interest in animal empathy, and growing public concern for farm animal welfare, the empathic abilities of farm animals remain under researched. In this study, we investigated empathic responses of young Holstein dairy calves to conspecifics recovering from hot-iron disbudding, a painful procedure common on dairy farms. A combination of social approach and place conditioning was used. First, 'observer' calves witnessed two 'demonstrator' calves recover from either a painful procedure (hot-iron disbudding and sedation) or a sham procedure (sedation alone) in distinct pens. Observer calves spent more time in proximity and paid more attention to calves recovering from the painful procedure compared to sham calves (proximity: 59.6 ± 4.3%; attention: 54.3 ± 1.5%). Observers were then tested for conditioned place aversion (in the absence of demonstrators) at 48h, 72h and 96h after the second demonstration; observers tended to avoid the pen associated with conspecific pain during the second of the three tests, spending 34.8 ± 9.6% of their time in this pen. No strong evidence of pain empathy was found, but our tentative results encourage further research on empathy in animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Comportamento Animal , Cauterização/veterinária , Empatia/fisiologia , Cornos/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/psicologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino
17.
J Clin Neurosci ; 77: 17-24, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389547

RESUMO

Social cognition (SC) is the set of socio-cognitive processes that guide automatic and voluntary behaviors by modulating behavioral responses, it includes both cognitive (Theory of the mind - ToM) and affective aspects (Empathy). SC also includes representations of internal somatic states, self-knowledge, perception of others, communication with others and interpersonal motivations. SC is relevant in daily life and reflects the neural complexity of social processing. The purpose of this scoping review is to evaluate the role of SC in neurological disorders, also considering the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SC and potential assessment tools. The included studies were carried out between 2010 and 2019 and were found on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Sciences databases, using the combined terms "social cognition"; "dementia"; "multiple sclerosis"; "parkinson", "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", "neurodegenerative disease". Our review has shown that different SC domains are affected by several neurological conditions, with regards to dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between cognitive and social deficits, for a better management of patients with neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Autoimagem
18.
Psychol Assess ; 32(7): 649-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271059

RESUMO

This article describes (a) the origins of, (b) rationale underlying, and (c) preliminary validity evidence for, a new ability measure of emotional understanding (EU), a major component of emotional intelligence. A novel conceptual approach-the empathic agent paradigm (EAP)-provided the theoretical foundation. The EAP results in a veridical, logically defensible scoring key, a major development for the assessment of EI, which otherwise has relied on less defensible approaches. Validity evidence for test score interpretations of the Empathic Agent Paradigm Test (EAPT) was subsequently obtained in two studies. In Study 1, participants (N = 321) completed the EAPT (α = .72 at testlet level), along with measures of classical intelligence, the Big Five personality traits, and a situational judgment measure of EU. This study provides factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity evidence for EAPT test score interpretations. In Study 2 (N = 158), an important assumption about the response processes in the EAPT was verified experimentally, in the process providing further validity evidence for test score interpretations. In sum, findings suggest that the EAPT is a promising new maximum performance measure for the assessment of EU. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Compreensão , Inteligência Emocional , Empatia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6789, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322008

RESUMO

The scientific study of compassion is burgeoning, however the putative neurophysiological markers of programs which actively train distress tolerance, such as Compassionate Mind Training (CMT), are less well known. Herein we offer an integrative, multi-method approach which investigated CMT at neural, physiological, self-report, and behavioural levels. Specifically, this study first assessed participants' neural responses when confronted with disappointments (e.g., rejection, failure) using two fundamental self-regulatory styles, self-criticism and self-reassurance. Second, participant's heart-rate variability (HRV) - a marker of parasympathetic nervous system response - was assessed during compassion training, pre- and post- a two-week self-directed engagement period. We identified neural networks associated with threat are reduced when practicing compassion, and heightened when being self-critical. In addition, cultivating compassion was associated with increased parasympathetic response as measured by an increase in HRV, versus the resting-state. Critically, cultivating compassion was able to shift a subset of clinically-at risk participants to one of increased parasympathetic response. Further, those who began the trial with lower resting HRV also engaged more in the intervention, possibly as they derived more benefits, both self-report and physiologically, from engagement in compassion.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(3): 561-572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312415

RESUMO

Burnout is common in physicians who care for patients with serious illness, with rates greater than 60% in some studies. Risk factors for burnout include working on small teams and/or in small organizations, working longer hours and weekends, being younger than 50 years, burdensome documentation requirements, and regulatory issues. Personal factors that can protect against burnout include mindfulness, exercise, healthy sleep patterns, avoiding substance abuse, and having adequate leisure time. Institutional and work factors that can buffer against burnout include working on adequately staffed teams, having a manageable workload, and minimally burdensome electronic health record documentation.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/economia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Autocuidado/métodos , Sono/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho
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