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1.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 176-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383436

RESUMO

The present study examines the effect of the Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence Program (PINEP), adapted to the virtual learning platform Moodle where participants receive Mindfulness training in 12 sessions lasting an hour and a half. The sample consists of 89 people, assigned randomly to a control group on the waiting list and to an experimental group that undertakes the training. The results indicate that the participants who completed PINEP showed improvement in the variables of health, empathy and mindfulness, in comparison with the participants of the group on the waiting list.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Realidade Virtual , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Atenção Plena/educação , Atenção Plena/métodos
2.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(6): 579-589, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194250

RESUMO

Theory of mind (ToM), the capacity to reason about others' mental states, is central to healthy social development. Neural mechanisms supporting ToM may contribute to individual differences in children's social cognitive behavior. Employing a false belief functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, we identified patterns of neural activity and connectivity elicited by ToM reasoning in school-age children (N = 32, ages 9-13). Next, we tested relations between these neural ToM correlates and children's everyday social cognition. Several key nodes of the neural ToM network showed greater activity when reasoning about false beliefs (ToM condition) vs non-mentalistic false content (control condition), including the bilateral temporoparietal junction (RTPJ and LTPJ), precuneus (PC) and right superior temporal sulcus. In addition, children demonstrated task-modulated changes in connectivity among these regions to support ToM relative to the control condition. ToM-related activity in the PC was negatively associated with variation in multiple aspects of children's social cognitive behavior. Together, these findings elucidate how nodes of the ToM network act and interact to support false belief reasoning in school-age children and suggest that neural ToM mechanisms are linked to variation in everyday social cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
3.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 9693109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198419

RESUMO

Dance and music are expressive art forms. Previous behavioural studies have reported that dancers/musicians show a better sensorimotor ability and emotional representation of others. However, the neural mechanism behind this phenomenon is not completely understood. Recently, intensive researches have identified that the insula is highly enrolled in the empathic process. Thus, to expand the knowledge of insular function associated with empathy under the dance/music training background, we mapped the insular network and its associated brain regions in 21 dancers, 20 musicians, and 24 healthy controls using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) analysis. Whole brain voxel-based analysis was performed using seeds from the posterior insula (PI), the ventral anterior insula (vAI), and the dorsal anterior insula (dAI). The training effects of dance and music on insular subnetworks were then evaluated using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA. Increased insular FC with those seeds was found in dancers/musicians, including PI and anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), vAI and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and middle cingulated cortex (MCC), and dAI and ACC and MTG. In addition, significant associations were found between discrepant insular FC patterns and empathy scores in dancers and musicians. These results indicated that dance/music training might enhance insular subnetwork function, which would facilitate integration of intero/exteroceptive information and result in better affective sensitivity. Those changes might finally facilitate the subjects' empathic ability.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dança/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico , Dança/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(5): 453-464, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045397

RESUMO

Empathy is regarded as dynamic risk factor of child sexual offending. However, empathy research in the context of child sexual abuse suffers from various problems. First, prior studies failed to differentiate between pedophilic and nonpedophilic sexual offenders. Second, there is no distinction made between cognitive and affective empathy. Third, cognitive and affective empathy toward emotional states of specific age groups (children and adults) has not been adequately addressed. The current study tackles these shortcomings investigating offending and nonoffending pedophiles and multiple aspects of empathy using self-reports and objective behavioral measures. Participants included 85 pedophilic men who committed hands-on child sexual offenses (P+CSO), 72 pedophilic men who never committed hands-on child sexual offenses (P-CSO), and 128 nonoffending teleiophilic male controls (TC). Several affective and cognitive aspects of empathy were assessed using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Whereas in self-reports (IRI) P+CSO scored lower than TC (P-CSO intermediate) in cognitive perspective-taking abilities, a performance-based measure (MET) revealed evidence for a better differentiation of emotional states in P-CSO as compared with P+CSO (TC intermediate). In addition, P+CSO and P-CSO showed significantly higher affective resonance while observing children (MET), which was paralleled by higher self-reported levels of personal distress in social situations (IRI). The results indicate evidence for higher general affective empathic resonance to children in pedophilic men but superior cognitive empathy abilities in nonoffending pedophiles only, which may act as a protective factor in the prevention of sexual offending. Together, these findings underline the importance of accounting for multiple facets of empathy when targeting pedophilia and child sexual offending. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Pedofilia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(5): 505-517, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070227

RESUMO

Empathic neural responses to others' suffering are subject to both social and biological influences. The present study tested the hypothesis that empathic neural responses to others' pain are more flexible in an intergroup context in G/G than A/A carriers of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) (rs53576). We recorded event-related brain potentials to painful vs neutral expressions of Asian and Caucasian faces that were assigned to a fellow team or an opponent team in Chinese carriers of G/G or A/A allele of OXTR. We found that G/G carriers showed greater neural responses at 136-176 ms (P2) over the frontal/central region to painful vs neutral expressions of faces with shared either racial or mini group identity. In contrast, A/A carriers showed significant empathic neural responses in the P2 time window only to the faces with both shared racial and mini group identity. Moreover, the racial in-group bias in empathic neural responses varied across individuals' empathy traits and ethnic identity for G/G but not A/A carriers. Our findings provide electrophysiological evidence for greater flexibility of empathic neural responses in intergroup contexts in G/G (vs A/A) carriers of OXTR and suggest interactions between OXTR and intergroup relationships on empathy for others' suffering.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Dor/psicologia , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Comportamento Social , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Eletroencefalografia , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063463

RESUMO

Most studies of social cognition have focused on dyadic relationships, and rather few have looked at how we engage with individuals in the wider social world into which we are embedded. Here we use principle component analysis (PCA) and path analysis to explore how different aspects of human sociality interact. We demonstrate two distinct clusters in both sexes relating to (i) romantic relationships and (ii) wider social engagement, such as that with the local community. These two domains of relationship were associated with different dispositional traits: individual variation in impulsivity in the former, and in empathy and avoidant attachment in the latter. Although these clusters were broadly similar across both sexes, clearer differentiation is evident in males. In females only, support network size was positively related to the anxious dimension of attachment and, unlike in males, was not related to feelings of inclusion in the local community. This suggests that support networks may play different roles in the two sexes, indicating a productive line of future research. These findings have important practical applications: loneliness interventions that target the specific type of relationship that is felt to be lacking and the associated dispositional traits are likely to be more effective than more generic approaches.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apego ao Objeto , Personalidade/fisiologia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychol Assess ; 31(8): 1062-1072, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120296

RESUMO

Empathy is widely regarded as relevant to a diverse range of psychopathological constructs, such as autism spectrum disorder, psychopathy, and borderline personality disorder. Cognitive empathy (CE) is the ability to accurately recognize or infer the thoughts and feelings of others. Although behavioral task paradigms are frequently used to assess such abilities, a large proportion of published studies reporting on CE use self-report questionnaires. For decades, however, a number of theorists have cautioned that individuals may not possess the metacognitive insight needed to validly gauge their own mindreading abilities. To investigate this possibility, we examined the aggregate relations between behavioral CE task performance and self-report CE scale scores, as well as with self-report affective empathy scale scores for comparison. Meta-analytic results, based on random effects models, from 85 studies (total N = 14,327) indicate that self-report CE scores account for only approximately 1% of the variance in behavioral cognitive empathy assessments and that, perhaps equally importantly, this relation is not significantly different from that demonstrated by affective empathy scores. Effect sizes were not moderated by self-report empathy domain, gender composition, unisensory versus multisensory behavioral stimuli presentation, child versus adult samples, or by normative versus clinical/forensic samples. Effect size estimates were not markedly affected by publication bias. These results raise serious concerns regarding the widespread use of self-report CE scores as proxies for CE ability, as well as the extensive theoretical conclusions that have been based on their use in past studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121008

RESUMO

Research on awe has grown exponentially in recent decades; however, few studies have considered whether awe-inspiring experiences also inspire other emotions. In two studies, we explored whether interventions targeting awe also evoke other discrete emotions. Additionally, we considered two constructs that may be associated with increases in each emotion-self-relevant thoughts and connectedness. In Study 1, we manipulated awe in virtual reality and examined the potential effects of a prototypical awe experience-a spacewalk accompanied by an audio clip of Carl Sagan's Pale Blue Dot. In Study 2, we manipulated awe with a video depicting scenes of Earth from outer space paired with the same audio clip. Across both studies, a prototypical awe experience was associated not only with awe, but with compassion, gratitude, love, and optimism, along with connectedness and self-relevant thoughts. Furthermore, we found that increases in self-relevant thoughts and connectedness in response to the awe induction predicted increases in each emotion evoked and vice-versa. These findings suggest that experiences that are commonly considered awe-inspiring-such as viewing a picturesque landscape-may be more appropriately conceptualized more broadly as self-transcendent. More work is needed to determine whether the documented benefits of awe may be more appropriately interpreted as the benefits of self-transcendent emotions.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100658, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121480

RESUMO

Early life stress carries long-term negative consequences for children's well-being and maturation of the social brain. Here, we utilize a unique cohort to test its effects on mothers' social brain, targeting mothers' neural empathic response in relation to caregiving and child empathic abilities. Mother-child dyads living in a zone of repeated war-related trauma were followed from early childhood and mother-child behavioral synchrony was repeatedly observed. At pre-adolescence(11-13 years) children's empathic abilities were assessed and mothers(N = 88, N = 44 war-exposed) underwent magnetoencephalography(MEG) while exposed to vicarious pain. All mothers showed alpha suppression in sensorimotor regions, indicating automatic response to others' pain. However, trauma-exposed mothers did not exhibit gamma oscillations in viceromotor cortex, a neural marker of mature empathy which utilizes interoceptive mechanisms for higher-order understanding and does not emerge before adulthood. Mother-child synchrony across the first decade predicted mothers' viceromotor gamma, and both synchrony and maternal viceromotor gamma mediated the relations between war-exposure and child empathic abilities, possibly charting a cross-generational pathway from mothers' mature neural empathy to children's empathic capacities. Our findings are first to probe the maternal social brain in adolescence in relation to parenting and underscore the need for targeted interventions to mothers raising children in contexts of chronic stress.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Empatia/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Complement Ther Med ; 44: 56-60, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify: 1) the extent to which final year chiropractic students used components of person-centred care in a clinical setting; and 2) determine the effect of chiropractic students' use of person-centred care on musculoskeletal pain. DESIGN/SETTING: An observational study was conducted at three Western Australian chiropractic teaching clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Pragmatic individualised chiropractic care was delivered to 108 adults who experienced non-specific spinal pain. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The instruments used in this study were the Consultation and Relational Empathy questionnaire, Picker Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire, and Numerical Rating scale for Pain intensity. RESULTS: Participants experienced reductions in pain that exceeded the level required for minimal clinically reported improvement. In addition, high levels of empathy and patient -centred care were reported. Ceiling effects for the measures assessing empathy and patient-centred care precluded analyses examining the relationship between changes in pain intensity, empathy, and patient-centred care. CONCLUSIONS: The participants in this study displayed very positive attitudes about most aspects of the chiropractic students' person-centred care skills. Person-centred care processes for which there was considerable scope for improvement included advice about alternative treatment options, and the adaptation of lifestyle and workplace situations to alleviate pain and enhance health. Our findings also showed that the participants experienced clinically important improvement in pain. However, the skewed nature of our dataset precluded identifying whether the students' person-centred care skills influenced such improvement.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/terapia , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Adulto , Austrália , Quiroprática/métodos , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manipulação Quiroprática/métodos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 58(4): 406-426, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous research has shown that empathy for pain is disrupted at the neural level in people with schizophrenia. However, many of these studies have failed to assess key background contextual variables that have previously been linked to neurophysiological responding. Moreover, no study to date has examined the potential influence of schizotypal characteristics on neurophysiological responding in non-clinical individuals. METHODS: People with schizophrenia (N = 17) were compared to demographically matched controls (N = 19) on an event-related potential (ERP) empathy for pain paradigm. The control group also completed a measure of schizotypal personality traits. RESULTS: People with schizophrenia exhibited atypical neural responding at early, emotion-sharing (frontal N110), and late, cognitive (central late positive potential [LPP]) processing stages of pain empathy, relative to controls. In the control group, positive schizotypy traits were significantly negatively related to reduced ERP amplitude in the late, cognitive (central LPP) processing stage of empathy. CONCLUSIONS: These data cross-validate previous studies that have shown that schizophrenia is associated with atypicalities in bottom-up automatic resonance processes that likely contribute to empathic and socio-emotional processing deficits, and indicate that these findings cannot be easily attributed to background contextual differences between the two groups. The results also point to a potential relationship between positive schizotypal characteristics and neurophysiological responding. Implications for simulation theories of empathy and social functioning in schizophrenia are discussed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Empathic processing has been consistently linked to well-being and mental health in many groups, including people with schizophrenia. Previous research has shown that, relative to controls, people with schizophrenia exhibit abnormalities in their neurophysiological empathic response, but in these prior studies, the two groups also differed in a number of potentially important background contextual variables. The current study shows that, when closely matched on background contextual variables, abnormal neural responding is still evident. These data suggest that empathy for pain is disrupted at the neurophysiological level in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(6): 962-976, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998038

RESUMO

Empathy is considered a virtue, yet it fails in many situations, leading to a basic question: When given a choice, do people avoid empathy? And if so, why? Whereas past work has focused on material and emotional costs of empathy, here, we examined whether people experience empathy as cognitively taxing and costly, leading them to avoid it. We developed the empathy selection task, which uses free choices to assess the desire to empathize. Participants make a series of binary choices, selecting situations that lead them to engage in empathy or an alternative course of action. In each of 11 studies (N = 1,204) and a meta-analysis, we found a robust preference to avoid empathy, which was associated with perceptions of empathy as more effortful and aversive and less efficacious. Experimentally increasing empathy efficacy eliminated empathy avoidance, suggesting that cognitive costs directly cause empathy choice. When given the choice to share others' feelings, people act as if it is not worth the effort. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação
13.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(4): 412-421, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021130

RESUMO

Individual differences in maternal sensitivity to infant distress were examined by testing whether mothers' physiological responses interacted to predict sensitivity differently in a fear task relative to an anger task, and based on the level of distress displayed by the infant. Mothers' (N = 208) physiological arousal (skin conductance level [SCL] arousal) and physiological regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA] withdrawal/augmentation) were measured during a baseline task and while interacting with their 1-year-old infants during tasks that elicited infant fear and infant anger. Infant negative affect and maternal sensitivity were assessed during these interactions, and mothers later reported on their perceptions of infant distress during the tasks. Results indicated that the mother SCL arousal × RSA change interaction predicted sensitivity only with infants who displayed higher distress, and in a different pattern across tasks. In the fear task, for mothers of infants displaying higher distress, SCL arousal related to greater sensitivity only for mothers who displayed RSA withdrawal. In the anger task, for mothers of infants displaying higher distress, SCL arousal related to greater sensitivity only for mothers who displayed RSA augmentation. Further, although infants displayed similar levels of distress in each task, maternal SCL arousal, sensitivity, and perceptions of distress differed across tasks. These results suggest that contextual cues and infant distress cues both contribute to associations between mothers' physiological responses and maternal sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1905, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015471

RESUMO

Empathy is a core human social ability shaped by biological dispositions and caregiving experiences; yet the mechanisms sustaining maturation of the neural basis of empathy are unknown. Here, we followed eighty-four children, including 42 exposed to chronic war-related adversity, across the first decade of life, and assessed parenting, child temperament, and anxiety disorders as contributors to the neural development of empathy. At preadolescence, participants underwent magenetoencephalography while observing others' distress. Preadolescents show a widely-distributed response in structures implicating the overlap of affective (automatic) and cognitive (higher-order) empathy, which is predicted by mother-child synchrony across childhood. Only temperamentally reactive young children growing in chronic adversity, particularly those who later develop anxiety disorders, display additional engagement of neural nodes possibly reflecting hyper-mentalizing and ruminations over the distressing stimuli. These findings demonstrate how caregiving patterns fostering interpersonal resonance, reactive temperament, and chronic adversity combine across early development to shape the human empathic brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Exposição à Guerra , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Percepção Social
15.
J Couns Psychol ; 66(6): 755-762, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985168

RESUMO

Many college men express stigma of seeking psychological help, possibly due to masculine gender role socialization proscribing help seeking. However, not every man who buys into restrictive masculine roles expresses self-stigma of seeking help, suggesting the presence of potential moderating variables. The present study examined self-compassion and self-coldness as potential moderating variables on the associations between men's masculine gender role stress and self-stigma of seeking help. College men (N = 777) were recruited via e-mail to participate in a brief online survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that masculine gender role stress was positively associated with self-stigma and self-coldness but was negatively associated with self-compassion. Both self-compassion and self-coldness were significant moderators. Men with low levels of self-compassion evidenced the strongest positive associations between masculine gender role stress and self-stigma, whereas men with low (but not high) self-coldness evidenced positive associations with self-stigma. These findings highlight differences between self-compassion and self-coldness and suggest that high levels of self-compassion may be a protective factor in reducing the associations between rigid masculinities and men's stigma of seeking help. By contrast, men with extremely negative and critical self-views may be likely to report stigma of seeking help regardless of their endorsement of rigid masculinities. Intervention and prevention implications include helping men enhance their self-compassion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Empatia , Masculinidade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(7): 809-816, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A wealth of evidence indicates that self-compassion is linked with positive psychological outcomes; however, little is known about the process through which self-compassion exerts its effect. The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the direct and indirect impact of self-compassion on body satisfaction and eating pathology in adolescents. METHOD: Two hundred and thirty-eight students were recruited from three local high schools (Mage = 16.49, 43.7% boys). All participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-5), Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS), and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire - Adolescent Version (EDE-Q) at baseline. The SCL-5, BASS, and EDE-Q were completed 4 months later. RESULTS: Self-compassion was positively associated with body satisfaction and negatively associated with psychological distress and eating pathology in boys and girls at both time points. Longitudinal conditional process analyses revealed that self-compassion predicted changes in body satisfaction and eating pathology through changes in psychological distress for girls only. Notably, self-compassion was higher in boys than in girls. DISCUSSION: Results underscore how self-compassion may be an important factor to target in fostering a positive body image and preventing disordered eating in adolescents.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(1): 124-141, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945902

RESUMO

The last decades of research have provided overwhelming evidence that compassion fosters a vast range of behaviors toward reducing suffering of others. In this regard, compassion has been described as a prosocial tendency par excellence, fostering helping behavior across a variety of social situations. With the present contribution, we apply a differentiated perspective on compassion. Building on just deserts theory, we argue that when other individuals suffer from unjust actions, compassion for the suffering individuals can foster harmful tendencies toward those who caused the suffering (i.e., third-party punishment). In Studies 1a to 1f, we examined a rich variety of situations in which unjust suffering occurs (i.e., terrorist attacks, sexual assaults, rape of children, and war) and documented a positive relation between compassion for suffering victims and punishment inclinations toward those who caused the suffering. Applying an experimental approach using various paradigms in Studies 2 through 6, compassion was shown to increase third-party punishment. Additional analyses revealed that (a) this increase occurs because compassion intensified moral outrage, which in turn predicted third-party punishment (Studies 2 to 6), and (b) compassion only fosters third-party punishment when suffering was caused by high (vs. low) unjust acts (Study 5). Overall, the present research discusses compassion in a different light in that harmful consequences of compassion are considered. Implications are discussed from a perspective of basic research on compassion and third-party punishment as well as from a societal perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Princípios Morais , Punição/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(9): 2593-2611, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955107

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Deficits in empathy constitute a distinctive feature of several psychopathologies, including conduct disorder (CD). The co-occurrence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, excess rates of aggression and violation of societal norms confers specific risk for adult psychopathy. To date, the off-label use of methylphenidate (MPH) constitutes the drug treatment of choice. OBJECTIVES: Herein, we tested the therapeutic potential of MPH in a recently devised mouse model recapitulating the core phenotypic abnormalities of CD. METHODS: Two subgroups of BALB/cJ male mice exhibiting opposite profiles of emotional contagion (i.e. socially transmitted adoption of another's emotional states) were investigated for reactive aggression, sociability, attention control, anxiety-related behaviours and locomotor activity, in response to MPH administration (0.0, 3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg). RESULTS: Our data indicate that mice selected for excess callousness exhibit phenotypic abnormalities isomorphic to the symptoms of CD: stability of the low emotional contagion trait, increased aggression and reduced sociability. In accordance with our predictions, MPH reduced aggression and increased sociability in callous mice; yet, it failed to restore the low responsiveness to the emotions of a conspecific in pain, isomorphic to CU traits. CONCLUSIONS: Although our data support the notion that MPH may contribute to the management of excess aggression in CD patients, additional studies shall identify specific treatments to target the callousness domain. The latter, unaffected by MPH in our experimental model, demands focused consideration whereby it constitutes a specifier associated with a worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Empatia/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(5): 1459-1470, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955108

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The gut-brain axis includes bidirectional communication between intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp. have been implicated in psychological health, such as depression, through various pathways (e.g. inflammation). Research needs a better understanding of direct and indirect effects through examination of psychological factors that make people susceptible to, or offer protection against, depression. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationships between gut microbiota, inflammation and psychological risk and resilience factors for depression. METHODS: Forty participants (13 m/27 f) recruited from the general population completed self-report questionnaires for depression, self-judgement, over-identification and affective and cognitive empathy. Faecal and blood samples were taken to assay microbiota (Bifidobacterium; Lactobacillus spp.) and pro-inflammatory molecules (C-reactive protein, CRP and interleukin-6, IL-6), respectively. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for sex, age and the shared variance of risk and resilience factors) showed that (i) cognitive depression was significantly predicted by negative self-judgement and reduced cognitive empathy; (ii) abundance of Lactobacillus spp. was directly related to positive self-judgement but only indirectly to cognitive depression and lower affective empathy (both through self-judgement); and (iii) CRP was the strongest predictor of reduced cognitive empathy, with suppression effects seen for age (negative) and IL-6 (positive) after controlling for CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that lactobacilli and inflammation may be differentially associated with mood disorder via brain mechanisms underpinning self-judgement and cognitive empathy, respectively. Further trials investigating interventions to increase Lactobacillus spp. in depression would benefit from direct measures of self-judgement and affective empathic distress, whilst those that aim to reduce inflammation should investigate cognitive empathy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Empatia/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Julgamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Multivariate Behav Res ; 54(4): 530-541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957565

RESUMO

We propose a novel approach to the analysis of synchronized three-dimensional motion in dyads. Motion recorded at high time resolution, as with a gaming device, is preprocessed in each of the three spatial dimensions by spline smoothing. Synchrony is then defined, at each time point, as the cosine between the two individuals' estimated velocity vectors. The approach is extended to allow a time lag, allowing for the analysis of leader-follower dynamics. Mean square cosine over the time range is proposed as a scalar summary of dyadic synchrony, and this measure is found to be positively associated with cognitive empathy.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Empatia/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua
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