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Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 142-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915350


Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality and the prevalence of hypertension is increasing particularly in middle- and low-income countries including Bangladesh. No data are available for the prevalence of hypertension among the government employees in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, conducted from 30 October to 31 December 2016, 1219 government employees aging ≥18 years working in Rangpur city were evaluated for the presence of HTN and its risk factors. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data, data on the presence of various known risk factors of hypertension were collected. Hypertension was defined with systolic BP ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90mmHg or those getting treatment for hypertension. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 23.0; odds of hypertension among subjects with risk factors were calculated and p ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.3% among the study subjects. Significantly higher odds of having hypertension were observed in study subjects with the age groups of 35-49 (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) and ≥50 (OR: 4.96, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p<0.001) years than age group <35 years. Employees who were averagely satisfied and not satisfied for their jobs also had higher odds (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, p=0.049 and OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p=0.337) of having hypertension than fully satisfied ones. Having diabetes mellitus was found to increase the odds (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) of hypertension. Male gender, urban/suburban residence, not doing physical exercise, sedentary/light working habit, overweight/obesity also increased the odds of having hypertension though these were not statistically significant. There is a high burden of hypertension among the government employees in Rangpur city. Age, job satisfaction and diabetes were independent risk factors of hypertension.

Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , População Suburbana/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190068, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826122


INTRODUCTION: Social support at work - related to the interaction between co-workers and supervisors in cooperation toward work achievement - can contribute to reducing the strain on workers and health risks. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the social support at work and associated factors among the technical-administrative staff in education from a public university. METHODS: This is a cohort study with 328 active civil servants, who answered a questionnaire providing information about the social support at work and the independent sociodemographic variables related to work and health. We used Student's t-test, the χ2 test, and logistic regression to analyze the prevalence of and factors associated with social support at work. RESULTS: The workers were predominantly males, with a mean age of 47 years, married, with children, had higher education and beyond, showed good working conditions, health status, and high social support at work (85.7%). Factors associated with social support at work included work shift, depression, and work ability. CONCLUSION: The factors associated with social support should be properly analyzed in order to maintain this positive interaction in the work environment.

Empregados do Governo , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estudos Prospectivos , Setor Público , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
Obes Facts ; 12(5): 564-574, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484183


OBJECTIVE: Childhood disadvantage is associated with a higher risk of adult obesity, but little is known about its associations with body mass index (BMI) trajectories during adulthood. This study aimed first to identify adulthood BMI trajectories, and second to investigate how childhood disadvantage is associated with trajectory group membership. METHODS: Data from the Helsinki Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study of initially 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland, were used. The baseline survey was conducted in 2000-2002, and similar follow-up surveys in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Based on self-reported BMI, participants' (n =5,266; 83% women) BMI trajectories, including their retrospectively reported BMI at the age of 25 years, were examined. Data on childhood disadvantage, including parental education and 7 types of childhood adversity (their own serious illness; parental divorce, death, mental disorder, or alcohol problems; economic difficulties at home; and peer group bullying) before the age of 16 years, were obtained from the baseline survey. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify BMI trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the odds for trajectory group membership for the disadvantage variables. RESULTS: Four ascending BMI trajectories in women and men were found: persistent normal weight (trajectory 1; women 35% and men 25%), normal weight to overweight (trajectory 2; women 41% and men 48%), normal weight to class I obesity (trajectory 3; women 19% and men 23%) and overweight to class II obesity (trajectory 4; women 5% and men 4%). Compared to trajectory 1, women with multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood had greater odds of belonging to trajectories 3 and 4, whereas men with parental alcohol problems had greater odds of belonging to trajectory 4. For women and men, a low level of parental education was associated with a higher-level BMI trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Low parental education for both genders, multiple adversities and repetitive peer bullying in childhood among women, and parental alcohol problems among men increased the odds of developing obesity during adulthood. Further studies are needed to clarify how gender differences modify the effects of childhood disadvantage on adult BMI trajectories.

Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Carência Cultural , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Governo Local , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
Psico USF ; 24(3): 413-424, jul.-set. 2019. tab, il
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040770


This paper aimed to evaluate learning in three trainings held at a Brazilian federal public organization. It is a longitudinal quasiexperiment with three waves, pre-test (before training ­ T1), post-test 1 (right after the end of the training ­ T2) and post-test 2 (around three months after the training - T3). Learning was assessed with situational tests, so results are based on performance rather than self-assessment. Results show that the experimental group obtained better scores in post-test 1 than it did in the pre-test and better scores than the control group did in post-test 2. There were no difference in the results obtained by the control group, comparing pre and post-test, and that there was no difference in tests according to previous experience and demographic data. Results indicate that learning occurred as a consequence of training and was not explained by other factors of the organizational environment or individuals. (AU)

Esse artigo teve como objetivo mensurar a aprendizagem em três seções de treinamento realizadas em uma organização pública federal brasileira. Trata-se de um quase experimento longitudinal, com três ondas, sendo o pré-teste (antes do treinamento), o pós-teste 1 (imediatamente após o término do treinamento) e o pós-teste 2 (após três meses do término do treinamento). A aprendizagem foi medida usando-se testes situacionais, garantindo que os resultados são baseados em desempenho e não auto relato. Os resultados indicam que o grupo experimental obteve melhores notas no pós-teste 1 do que no pré-teste e melhores notas no pós-teste 2 quando comparado ao pós-teste 1. Não foram encontradas diferenças no grupo controle entre o pré e pós teste, nem diferenças nos resultados dos testes devidas à experiência prévia ou a dados demográficos, indicando que a aprendizagem ocorreu como consequência do treinamento e não de explicações alternativas. (AU)

Este artículo tuvo como objetivo medir el aprendizaje en tres capacitaciones de entrenamiento realizadas en una organización pública federal brasileña. Se trata de un casi-experimento longitudinal con tres momentos: el pre-test (antes del entrenamiento), el post-test 1 (inmediatamente después del término del entrenamiento) y el post-test 2 (después de tres meses del término del entrenamiento). El aprendizaje fue medido usando tests situacionales, garantizando que los resultados se basan en el desempeño y no en el autoinforme. Los resultados indican que el grupo experimental obtuvo mejores notas en el post-test 1 que en el pretest y mejores notas en el post-test 2 comparado con el post- test 1. No se encontraron diferencias en el grupo control entre el pre y post test, ni diferencias en los resultados de los tests debido a experiencia previa o a datos demográficos, indicando que el aprendizaje ocurrió como consecuencia del entrenamiento y no de explicaciones alternativas. (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Transferência de Experiência (Psicologia) , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Estudos Longitudinais
Psico USF ; 24(3): 425-435, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040778


The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome (BS) and the predictive power of occupational stressors for its dimensions - Enthusiasm toward the job (inverse), Psychological Exhaustion, Indolence and Guilt. This study assessed a random sample of 538 public servants from a State Court of Justice (RS/Brazil) who answered the Spanish Burnout Inventory, a sociodemographic questionnaire, a work-related questionnaire and and occupational stressors questionnaire. The prevalence identified was 6.5% for Profile 1 BS (Enthusiasm toward the job - inverse, Psychological Exhaustion, Indolence) and 4.4% for Profile 2 BS (Enthusiasm toward the job - inverse, Psychological Exhaustion, Indolence, Guilt). Stressors that predicted Burnout Syndrome were work content, work organization, type of public served, social environment of work, physical conditions of the workplace, work hours, workload, relationship with heads, and relationship with colleagues. Results suggest a need for intervention in occupational stressors present in work organization. (AU)

Os objetivos do estudo foram identificar a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout (SB) e o poder preditivo dos estressores ocupacionais para as suas dimensões - Ilusão pelo trabalho (inversa), Desgaste Psíquico, Indolência e Culpa. Este estudo avaliou uma amostra aleatória de 538 servidores públicos de um tribunal de justiça (RS/Brasil) que responderam ao Spanish Burnout Inventory, um questionário sociodemográfico, um questionário de dados laborais e um questionário de estressores ocupacionais. A prevalência identificada foi de 6,5 % para SB-Perfil 1 (Ilusão pelo trabalho - inversa, Desgaste Psíquico, Indolência) e de 4,35% para SB-Perfil 2 (Ilusão pelo trabalho - inversa, Desgaste Psíquico, Indolência, Culpa). Os estressores que predisseram a Síndrome de Burnout foram o conteúdo do trabalho, a organização do trabalho, o tipo do público atendido, ambiente social do trabalho, as condições físicas do local de trabalho, o horário de trabalho, a carga horária, a relação com a chefia, e a relação com os colegas. Os resultados sugerem a necessidade de intervenção nos estressores ocupacionais presentes na organização do trabalho. (AU)

El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la prevalencia del síndrome de Burnout (SB) y el poder predictivo de los estresores ocupacionales para sus dimensiones - Ilusión por el trabajo (inversa), Desgaste Psíquico, Indolencia y Culpa. Ese estudio evaluó una muestra aleatoria de 538 funcionarios públicos de un tribunal de justicia (RS / Brasil) que respondieron el Spanish Burnout Inventory, un cuestionario sociodemográfico, un cuestionario de datos laborales y un cuestionario de estresores ocupacionales. La prevalencia identificada fue de 6,5% para SB Perfil 1 (Ilusión por el trabajo - inversa, Desgaste Psíquico, Indolencia) y de 4,35% para SB Perfil 2 (Ilusión por el trabajo-inversa, Desgaste Psíquico, Indolencia, Culpa). Los estresores que predijeron el síndrome de Burnout fueron: contenido de trabajo, organización de trabajo, tipo de público atendido, ambiente social de trabajo, condiciones físicas de local de trabajo, horario de trabajo, carga horaria, relación con los superiores y relación con los compañeros. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de intervención en los estresores ocupacionales presentes en la organización del trabajo. (AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estresse Ocupacional , /psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Empregados do Governo/psicologia
Psico USF ; 24(3): 569-581, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040782


Este artigo objetivou identificar evidências de validade da estrutura interna da versão brasileira da escala multidimensional da qualidade da relação líder-membro (LMX-MDM). Aplicou-se a LMX-MDM a 363 pessoas. Realizou-se análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória, e análise da correlação com outros construtos. A escala apresentou nove itens distribuídos em três fatores de primeira ordem que se agrupam em um fator global: Respeito Profissional (α=0,93), Afeto (α=0,92) e Lealdade (α=0,90), explicando 69,39% da variância do fenômeno. Os indicadores de ajuste foram satisfatórios (χ²/g.l.=2,20; GFI=0,97; CFI=0,99; RMSEA=0,06). A LMX-MDM se associou positivamente à satisfação no trabalho (r=0,11 a 0,76; p<0,05) e às competências gerenciais (r=0,60 a 0,80; p<0,01), e negativamente à intenção de rotatividade (r=-0,33 a -0,36; p<0,01). A partir desses resultados, observa-se a adequação da LMX-MDM para mensurar a qualidade da relação líder-membro, a qual demonstra associação com outros fenômenos organizacionais. (AU)

This paper aimed to identify evidences of validity of the internal structure of the Brazilian version of the multidimensional Leader-Member Exchange scale (LMX-MDM), which was administered to 363 people. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis and correlation analysis with other constructs were performed. The scale presented nine items distributed in three loworder factors grouped into a higher-order LMX factor: Professional Respect (α = 0.93), Affect (α=0.92) and Loyalty (α=0.90), explaining 69.39% of the variance of the phenomenon. Adjustment indicators were satisfactory (χ²/g.l=2.20, GFI=0.97, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.06). LMX-MDM was positively associated to job satisfaction (r=0.11 to 0.76, p <0.05) and managerial skills (r=0.60 to 0.80, p <0.01), and negatively to turnover intention (r=-0.33 to -0.36, p <0.01). These findings suggest that the LMX-MDM presents evidences of validity for use in measuring quality of the leader-member relationship, which is associated to other organizational phenomena. (AU)

El objetivo de este artículo fue identificar evidencias de validez de estructura interna de la versión brasileña de la escala multidimensional de calidad de relación líder-miembro (LMX-MDM). Se aplicó la LMX-MDM a 363 personas. Se realizó análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio, y análisis de correlación con otros constructos. La escala presentó nueve ítems distribuidos en tres factores de primer orden que se agrupan en un factor global: Respeto Profesional (α=0,93), Afecto (α=0,92) y Lealtad (α=0,90) explicando 69,39% de la varianza del fenómeno. Los indicadores de ajuste fueron satisfactorios (χ²/g.l.=2,20; GFI=0,97; CFI=0,99; RMSEA=0,06). La LMX-MDM se asoció positivamente a satisfacción en el trabajo (r=0,11 a 0,76, p<0,05) y a las competencias gerenciales (r=0,60 a 0,80, p<0,01), y negativamente a la intención de rotatividad (r=-0,33 a -0,36, p<0,01). A partir de estos resultados, se observa la adecuación de la LMX-MDM para medir la calidad de relación líder-miembro, la cual demuestra asociación con otros fenómenos organizacionales. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
Int J Neurosci ; 129(12): 1213-1222, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399004


Objectives: Civil servants image is one of the most important representatives of government image. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the factors affecting the public's attitudes toward in-service civil servants. The current study aims to learn whether female facial attractiveness would affect the male public's attitudes toward in-service civil servants using event-related potentials. Methods: Participants were recruited to view attractive/unattractive faces followed by positive/negative adjectives. We observed that positive adjectives after unattractive faces elicited smaller N400 amplitudes than negative adjectives, and the N400 amplitude elicited by attractive faces after negative adjectives was significantly smaller than that elicited by unattractive faces. What's more, we found that the voltage of N400 was negative correlated with reaction time. Results: It showed that the incongruity of physically appearance and in-service civil servant positions lead to longer reaction time. The unattractive civil servant is more congruent with positive adjectives than the attractive one in the public's mind. Conclusion: We explain these findings from two aspects. First, the public is more rational for in-service civil servants, and factors that are unrelated to governing capacity, such as physical attractiveness, do not influence their attitudes. Second, civil servants are the position that requires technical ability to serve the public rather than communication ability, which was represented by physically attractive.

Beleza , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Empregados do Governo , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 863, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269927


BACKGROUND: With increasing demand for red meat in Tanzania comes heightened potential for zoonotic infections in animals and humans that disproportionately affect poor communities. A range of frontline government employees work to protect public health, providing services for people engaged in animal-based livelihoods (livestock owners and butchers), and enforcing meat safety and food premises standards. In contrast to literature which emphasises the inadequacy of extension support and food safety policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries, this paper foregrounds the 'street-level diplomacy' deployed by frontline actors operating in challenging contexts. METHODS: This research is based on semi-structured interviews with 61 government employees, including livestock extension officers/meat inspectors and health officers, across 10 randomly-selected rural and urban wards. RESULTS: Frontline actors combined formal and informal strategies including the leveraging of formal policy texts and relationships with other state employees, remaining flexible and recognising that poverty constrained people's ability to comply with health regulations. They emphasised the need to work with livestock keepers and butchers to build their knowledge to self-regulate and to work collaboratively to ensure meat safety. Remaining adaptive and being hesitant to act punitively unless absolutely necessary cultivated trust and positive relations, making those engaged in animal-based livelihoods more open to learning from and cooperating with extension officers and inspectors. This may result in higher levels of meat safety than might be the case if frontline actors stringently enforced regulations. CONCLUSION: The current tendency to view frontline actors' partial enforcement of meat safety regulations as a failure obscures the creative and proactive ways in which they seek to ensure meat safety in a context of limited resources. Their application of 'street-level diplomacy' enables them to be sensitive to local socio-economic realities, to respect local social norms and expectations and to build support for health safety interventions when necessary. More explicitly acknowledging the role of trust and positive state-society relations and the diplomatic skills deployed by frontline actors as a formal part of their inspection duties offers new perspectives and enhanced understandings on the complicated nature of their work and what might be done to support them.

Diplomacia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Carne/normas , Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia , Confiança , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323982


Limited progress in nutrition policy action is often blamed on the close relationships the food industry has with health policy decision-makers. This analysis sought to examine this belief through the analysis of health ministers' diaries. Entries were downloaded from health ministers' diaries from two states in Australia from January 2013 to June 2018. Entries were coded according to which interest group met with the minister or whether general parliamentary business was undertaken. Coding was also undertaken for any meeting topics related to nutrition policy. Analysis of health ministers' diaries found that the food industry has limited documented interaction with the two state health ministers in Australia. Instead, medical associations, private hospitals and health services, and sporting associations (rugby league associations) had the most interactions with health ministers. Poor representation was seen on nutrition issues, and there was an apparent lack of nutrition advocates interacting with the health ministers. There are opportunities for nutrition advocates to increase their level of interaction with state health ministers. This could include building alliances with medical associations, as they are in a powerful position, to advocate directly to health ministers. Health ministers' diaries can provide valuable insights into who is meeting officially with ministers. However, there are also limitations with the dataset.

Indústria Alimentícia , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Registros Médicos , Política Nutricional , Adulto , Austrália , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
JAMA ; 322(4): 336-347, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334794


Importance: United States government personnel experienced potential exposures to uncharacterized directional phenomena while serving in Havana, Cuba, from late 2016 through May 2018. The underlying neuroanatomical findings have not been described. Objective: To examine potential differences in brain tissue volume, microstructure, and functional connectivity in government personnel compared with individuals not exposed to directional phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty government personnel (patients) who were potentially exposed and experienced neurological symptoms underwent evaluation at a US academic medical center from August 21, 2017, to June 8, 2018, including advanced structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging analytics. Findings were compared with imaging findings of 48 demographically similar healthy controls. Exposures: Potential exposure to uncharacterized directional phenomena of unknown etiology, manifesting as pressure, vibration, or sound. Main Outcomes and Measures: Potential imaging-based differences between patients and controls with regard to (1) white matter and gray matter total and regional brain volumes, (2) cerebellar tissue microstructure metrics (eg, mean diffusivity), and (3) functional connectivity in the visuospatial, auditory, and executive control subnetworks. Results: Imaging studies were completed for 40 patients (mean age, 40.4 years; 23 [57.5%] men; imaging performed a median of 188 [range, 4-403] days after initial exposure) and 48 controls (mean age, 37.6 years; 33 [68.8%] men). Mean whole brain white matter volume was significantly smaller in patients compared with controls (patients: 542.22 cm3; controls: 569.61 cm3; difference, -27.39 [95% CI, -37.93 to -16.84] cm3; P < .001), with no significant difference in the whole brain gray matter volume (patients: 698.55 cm3; controls: 691.83 cm3; difference, 6.72 [95% CI, -4.83 to 18.27] cm3; P = .25). Among patients compared with controls, there were significantly greater ventral diencephalon and cerebellar gray matter volumes and significantly smaller frontal, occipital, and parietal lobe white matter volumes; significantly lower mean diffusivity in the inferior vermis of the cerebellum (patients: 7.71 × 10-4 mm2/s; controls: 8.98 × 10-4 mm2/s; difference, -1.27 × 10-4 [95% CI, -1.93 × 10-4 to -6.17 × 10-5] mm2/s; P < .001); and significantly lower mean functional connectivity in the auditory subnetwork (patients: 0.45; controls: 0.61; difference, -0.16 [95% CI, -0.26 to -0.05]; P = .003) and visuospatial subnetwork (patients: 0.30; controls: 0.40; difference, -0.10 [95% CI, -0.16 to -0.04]; P = .002) but not in the executive control subnetwork (patients: 0.24; controls: 0.25; difference: -0.016 [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.01]; P = .23). Conclusions and Relevance: Among US government personnel in Havana, Cuba, with potential exposure to directional phenomena, compared with healthy controls, advanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant differences in whole brain white matter volume, regional gray and white matter volumes, cerebellar tissue microstructural integrity, and functional connectivity in the auditory and visuospatial subnetworks but not in the executive control subnetwork. The clinical importance of these differences is uncertain and may require further study.

Encéfalo/patologia , Empregados do Governo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cuba , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Estados Unidos , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
Psychiatry Res ; 276: 278-282, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125905


The attitudes of the general public and lawmakers toward suicide can influence the degree to which suicide prevention is prioritized in public policymaking. In this study, we compared the attitudes of urban residents, lawmakers, and community mental health workers toward suicide. Urban residents (N = 501) were surveyed through a telephone interview, while self-reported questionnaire was administered by lawmakers (N = 156) and community mental health workers (N = 121) through office visit and post, respectively. We used the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire to measure attitudes toward suicide in all three samples. Both the general public and legislators had insufficient knowledge and more permissive and uncaring attitudes toward suicide, whereas community mental health workers were more inclined to have sufficient knowledge of suicide and more intolerant and caring attitudes towards suicide. Therefore, lawmakers and the general public require education on suicide and suicide prevention, which may help lower South Korea's high suicide rate ranking among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states.

Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Suicídio/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Pública , República da Coreia , Suicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; 71(4): 137-145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947228


Forced migration has spread and grown across continents in recent decades. This has had an impact at various levels such as societal communication, health and education priorities, as well as political agendas and economic stability. As a result of the combined forces of migration, globalisation, advances in communication technology and education, there is an exceptional research interest in individuals seeking refugee status or asylum. The literature is sporadic on forced migrants' communication and social adaptation. The perception of residents and professionals who encounter the challenges faced by these individuals on a regular basis needs to be evaluated, as well as the perception of the migrants themselves. This paper presents the current state of affairs and reviews the relevant literature with the intention of providing a more coordinated overview of forced migrants' and relevant stakeholders' views. A case scenario is presented that discusses the communication challenges faced by forced migrants. Strategic recommendations are also discussed.

Barreiras de Comunicação , Refugiados/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Migrantes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Escolaridade , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Linguagem , Masculino , Malta , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Pública , Serviço Social , Adulto Jovem
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 30(1): 280-296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827983


Enrollment navigators and government-employed Medicaid workers were an important element in the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) initial enrollment success. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services eliminated 41% of funding for 2017 navigator programs and 90% of funding for outreach, arguing less investment was needed. Given that many remain uninsured, it is critical to identify effective enrollment practices. This study characterizes barriers and enrollment strategies from the perspective of California's Medicaid government and community-based enrollment workers (n=101 in eight focus groups). Participants identified a need for communication with policymakers, the state exchange, and each other regarding changing enrollment processes. Solutions include increased contact between enrollment workers to share strategies and policy updates regarding application processing, uniform policy interpretation, and details of ACA-related immigration law. Given efforts to weaken the ACA, it is critical to engage frontline workers in problem solving to streamline enrollment strategies, particularly for vulnerable populations.

Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/organização & administração , California , Grupos Focais , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Humanos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos
Med Pr ; 70(2): 201-211, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912529


BACKGROUND: The relationship between positivity, i.e., the proportion of positive and negative emotions, and job burnout may be of a curvilinear shape. From a theoretical point of view, it is a causal relationship, since positivity can be regarded as a proximal dimension of occupational well-being, and burnout as a distal one. However, previous studies have been mostly cross-sectional and have tested only linear relationships between these variables. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the shape of the relationship between positivity and burnout using both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, on the example of civil servants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 238 civil servants (73.5% of whom were women). Positivity was assessed with the Job-related Affective Well-being Scale. Exhaustion and disengagement, 2 components of job burnout, were measured twice, at a 4-month interval, using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: The cross-sectional models assuming the curvilinear relationship between positivity and job burnout were better fitted to the data than models with the linear relationship only. Thus, positivity was curvilinearly related to both exhaustion and disengagement, with an inflection point around 2. In the longitudinal models, for exhaustion the curvilinear model was again better fitted to the data, while for disengagement it was the linear model. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between positivity and exhaustion was curvilinear among the civil servants. This may indicate personal costs of maintaining a high ratio of positive to negative emotions at work. Nevertheless, the role of positivity for disengagement seems more complex, with a possible long-term protective function. Med Pr. 2019;70(2):201-11.

Esgotamento Profissional , Emoções , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
Am J Health Promot ; 33(1): 9-12, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788996


Some would argue that if taking an examination to receive an incentive is not mandatory, it's voluntary no matter the size of the monetary reward. Others have concerns with how often employers use the word "required" when communicating how employees can earn an incentive. This in spite of clear rules that indicate "health contingent" incentive designs (those based on health measures rather than on completing activities) are an either/or proposition. That is, you can either earn (this amount) by (achieving a clinical standard) or by (participating in or attaining an alternative standard). This editorial examines the merits and demerits of organizational health contingent use of incentives. It is posited that employers can best satisfy a voluntariness standard in their use of financial incentives in wellness programs when the use of incentives are well integrated into a measurably robust, organizational culture that visibly values health; and when all employees are well versed in the meaning of, and opportunities for, reasonable alternatives for earning an incentive. Concerns about the administrative burden behind this idea and other potential unintended consequences of including measures of a culture of health to meet a voluntariness standard are also presented.

Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Motivação , Planos para Motivação de Pessoal/organização & administração , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Humanos , Programas Obrigatórios/organização & administração , Recompensa , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
Australas J Ageing ; 38(1): 39-46, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632245


OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and context of racism self-reported by older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. METHODS: The 2015 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey was used to measure the prevalence, contexts and demographic differences in reports of racism. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of age with racism in later life. RESULTS: A sizeable minority of older Aboriginal people reported experiences of unfair treatment (31%) and avoidance (15%), oftentimes occurring in contexts critical to human capital investments. Specific demographic groups, including those with higher levels of education, were more likely to report experiences of unfair treatment. The prevalence of unfair treatment and avoidance remains relatively high in later life (albeit lower than younger ages), with a significant reduction from age 65. CONCLUSION: Addressing racism, particularly in contexts crucial to human capital, is important for the health and well-being of older Aboriginal people.

Envelhecimento/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Austrália , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , Racismo/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem