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5.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 650-657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: More than 16 000 graduate degrees in public health are awarded annually. Yet only 14% of the governmental public health workforce has formal public health training of any kind, and 8% has a master of public health (MPH) degree. We characterized the differences among governmental staff members with master's degrees across US health departments. METHODS: We used data from the 2017 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, a national survey of state and local public health departments (43 669 responses; response rate, 48%). We examined the characteristics of the workforce by educational attainment and compared respondents who had obtained a "terminal" (ie, highest degree obtained) MPH degree with respondents who had obtained a terminal non-public health (non-PH) master's degree. RESULTS: Respondents who had a non-PH master's degree were as likely as respondents who had an MPH degree to hold a supervisory role (43% vs 41%; P = .67). We found only 1 significant difference between the 2 groups: respondents aged ≤40 with a terminal MPH degree were significantly less likely than respondents aged ≤40 with a non-PH master's degree to earn more than the national average salary (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.97; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: We found only marginal differences in career outcomes for people working in governmental public health who had a terminal MPH degree vs a terminal non-PH master's degree. This finding does not necessitate a full reconsideration of the MPH as it relates to governmental public health practice but a greater recognition that there are multiple paths into practice.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Empregados do Governo/educação , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/educação , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22002-22008, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839305

RESUMO

Honesty is one of the most valued traits in politicians. Yet, because lies often remain undiscovered, it is difficult to study if some politicians are more honest than others. This paper examines which individual characteristics are correlated with truth-telling in a controlled setting in a large sample of politicians. We designed and embedded a game that incentivizes lying with a nonmonetary method in a survey answered by 816 Spanish mayors. Mayors were first asked how interested they were in obtaining a detailed report about the survey results, and at the end of the survey, they had to flip a coin to find out whether they would be sent the report. Because the probability of heads is known, we can estimate the proportion of mayors who lied to obtain the report. We find that a large and statistically significant proportion of mayors lied. Mayors that are members of the two major political parties lied significantly more. We further find that women and men were equally likely to lie. Finally, we find a negative relationship between truth-telling and reelection in the next municipal elections, which suggests that dishonesty might help politicians survive in office.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Decepção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549270

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. However, the relationship between napping and metabolic syndrome remains contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nap duration after lunch and prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and subgroup differences in the associations among a government employee population. A total of 5129 participants (mean age 39.4 years) were included in this study. Nap duration after lunch was self-reported, and metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement in 2009. Multivariate logistic regression models and adjusted restricted cubic spline functions were used to examine the association and dose-response relationship between nap duration after lunch and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Of the participants, 17.3% had metabolic syndrome and 81.4% were habitual nappers. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of metabolic syndrome for longer nap duration (>90 min) per day was 1.77 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.89), compared with reference (~30 min). Results of stratification analyses indicated the association was found only among females (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.38 to 6.57), participants without mood symptoms (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.25), and those having longer night sleep duration (≥8 h) (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.56). Longer nap duration was also associated with components of metabolic syndrome, including elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting plasma glucose, and elevated triglycerides. In conclusion, longer nap duration after lunch was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in females, people without mood symptoms, and people having longer night sleep duration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Empregados do Governo , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sono
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234485, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is the leading cause of death and disability in adult populations globally. Its prevalence is increasing rapidly in Ethiopia. Studies conducted to date address different population categories. However, there is lack of data on the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among civil servants working in various sectors and levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among civil servants in Sidama Zone, south Ethiopia. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1-30, 2019 on a sample of 546 civil servants selected randomly from different departments of Sidama Zone Administration. Data were collected using structured, face-to-face interviewer-administered questionnaire and standard physical measurements. The data were entered using Epi Data 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with hypertension. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed to assess the presence and strength of associations. RESULTS: A total of 546 civil servants responded resulting in a response rate of 94.9%. The prevalence of hypertension was 24.5% [95% CI: 23.3% - 25.6%]. The identified risk factors of hypertension were male sex (AOR 4.31[95% CI: 1.84-10.09]), moderate current alcohol consumption (AOR: 4.85; [95% CI: 1.73-13.61]), current khat chewing (AOR 2.97[95% CI: 1.38-6.40]), old age (AOR: 4.41[95% CI: 1.19-16.26]), being obese (AOR 5.94 [95% CI: 1.26-27.86]) and central obesity (AOR 3.57 [95% CI: 1.80-7.07]). CONCLUSIONS: One in four civil servants are hypertensive. Different demographic, behavioral and metabolic factors increase the odds of hypertension among civil servants. Prevention and control of hypertension shall involve promotion of healthy lifestyles such as weight management, regular physical activity and quitting or cutting down on harmful use of substances such as alcohol and khat.


Assuntos
Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Governo Local , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255778

RESUMO

Gathering of uncultivated food from green spaces, also known as foraging, is observed in urban areas across the world, but the literature focuses predominantly on the global north. Our study examines the existing urban land management structure and its approach to urban foraging in the eastern coastal region of South Africa. Through interviews with municipal officials in nine cities, we identified different stakeholders and their roles in urban green space management. We then used network analysis to represent interactions and influence of these stakeholders, and environmental worldviews to determine organisational and perceptual barriers to and enablers of foraging in urban green spaces. The policy on urban green space management, as well as land managers themselves are amenable to the concept of foraging in public spaces. Lack of knowledge on wild indigenous species and sustainable offtake, ambiguous, coarse, or lacking policy, and normative views of pristine nature may hinder foraging. We recommend pathways for policy and stakeholder partnerships to incorporate sustainable foraging in their biodiversity conservation and land stewardship strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Políticas , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Conhecimento , África do Sul
16.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(7): 478-487, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The determinants of poor functioning and subsequent early exit from work are well established but very little is known about the positive determinants of maintaining good functioning among the ageing workforce. We investigated modifiable determinants of maintaining good mental and physical health functioning. METHODS: We used prospective survey data collected across four waves among the midlife employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, 2000-2017 (n=3342). Health functioning was repeatedly measured using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) inventory. Trajectories of mental and physical health functioning were separately examined using group-based trajectory analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted to examine determinants of each trajectory. RESULTS: Four trajectory solutions for the developmental patterns in health functioning during the follow-up period were selected, with a slightly different shape of the first trajectory for mental and physical functioning: (1) continuously low (mental), low and decreasing (physical), (2) increasing, (3) decreasing and (4) continuously high functioning. After adjustments, the employees in the continuously high mental health functioning group were more likely to have optimal job demands, high job control, no sleep problems and no binge drinking behaviour. Employees in the continuously high physical functioning group had more likely low levels of physically strenuous work and hazardous working environment and no sleep problems and normal weight. CONCLUSION: High job control, good sleep and avoiding binge drinking may help maintain good mental health functioning. Low levels of physical or environmental work exposures, good sleep and recommended healthy weight may support maintenance of good physical health functioning among ageing employees.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bebedeira , Emprego , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 142-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915350

RESUMO

Hypertension (HTN) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality and the prevalence of hypertension is increasing particularly in middle- and low-income countries including Bangladesh. No data are available for the prevalence of hypertension among the government employees in Bangladesh. In this cross-sectional study, conducted from 30 October to 31 December 2016, 1219 government employees aging ≥18 years working in Rangpur city were evaluated for the presence of HTN and its risk factors. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data, data on the presence of various known risk factors of hypertension were collected. Hypertension was defined with systolic BP ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥90mmHg or those getting treatment for hypertension. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 23.0; odds of hypertension among subjects with risk factors were calculated and p ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.3% among the study subjects. Significantly higher odds of having hypertension were observed in study subjects with the age groups of 35-49 (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) and ≥50 (OR: 4.96, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p<0.001) years than age group <35 years. Employees who were averagely satisfied and not satisfied for their jobs also had higher odds (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.91, p=0.049 and OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 3.43-7.18, p=0.337) of having hypertension than fully satisfied ones. Having diabetes mellitus was found to increase the odds (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.51-2.99, p<0.001) of hypertension. Male gender, urban/suburban residence, not doing physical exercise, sedentary/light working habit, overweight/obesity also increased the odds of having hypertension though these were not statistically significant. There is a high burden of hypertension among the government employees in Rangpur city. Age, job satisfaction and diabetes were independent risk factors of hypertension.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , População Suburbana/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978158

RESUMO

Improved capabilities in microfluidics, electrochemistry, and portable assays have resulted in the development of a wide range of point-of-use sensors intended for environmental, medical, and agricultural applications in resource-limited environments of developing countries. However, these devices are frequently developed without direct interaction with their often-remote intended user base, creating the potential for a disconnect between users' actual needs and those perceived by sensor developers. As different analytical techniques have inherent strengths and limitations, effective measurement solution development requires determination of desired sensor attributes early in the development process. In this work, we present our findings on design priorities for point-of-use microbial water sensors based on fieldwork in rural India, as well as a guide to fieldwork methodologies for determining desired sensor attributes. We utilized group design workshops for initial identification of design priorities, and then conducted choice-based conjoint analysis interviews for quantification of user preferences among these priorities. We found the highest user preference for integrated reporting of contaminant concentration and recommended actions, as well as significant preferences for mostly reusable sensor architectures, same-day results, and combined ingredients. These findings serve as a framework for future microbial sensor development and a guide for fieldwork-based understanding of user needs.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Microfluídica/métodos , Qualidade da Água , Comportamento do Consumidor , Água Potável/microbiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/economia
19.
Br J Sociol ; 71(1): 96-111, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879944

RESUMO

Governments' attempts to manage immigration increasingly restrict immigrants' eligibility to healthcare, education, and welfare benefits. This article examines the operation of these restrictions in the United Kingdom. It draws on qualitative research with civil servants and NGO expert advisors, and applies sociological theories on bureaucracy as a lens to interpret these data. Conceptually, the paper employs a generative synthesis of Ritzer's notion of "irrational rationality" and Foucault's perspective on "governmentality" to explain observed outcomes. Findings show that public service workers struggle with complex and opaque regulations, which grant different entitlements to different categories of migrants. The confusion results in mistakes, arbitrary decisions, and hypercorrection, but also a system-wide indifference to irrational outcomes, supported by human factors in contexts of austerity. I consider this a form of governmentality-effected neglect, where power operates as much through inaction as well as through intention, but which results in exclusions of legal migrants that are harsher in practice than in law.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviço Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Programas Governamentais/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Racionalização , Reino Unido
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834906

RESUMO

The global burden estimate of hypertension is alarming and results in several million deaths annually. A high incidence of sudden deaths from cardiovascular diseases in the civil workforce in Nigeria is often reported. However, the associations between Dietary Patterns (DPs), individual, and workplace characteristics of hypertension among this workforce have not been fully explored. This study aimed to identify DP in the Bida and Wushishi Communities of Niger State and establish its relationship with hypertension along with other individual and workplace characteristics. Factor analysis was used to establish DP, Chi-square test to identify their relationships with hypertension, and logistic regression to determine the predictor risk factors. The prevalence of hypertension was 43.7%; mean weight, height, and body fat were: 72.8±15 kg, 166±8.9 mm and 30.4%, respectively. Three DPs: "Efficient Diet," "Local diet," and "Energy Boost Diet" were identified. The factor loading scores for these factors were divided into quintiles Q1-Q5; none of them had a significant effect on hypertension status. Conversely, increase in age, the Ministry, Department, and Agency (MDA) of employment, frequency of eating in restaurants, and obesity were identified as significant risk factors. After adjusting for confounders (age, body mass index, MDA, and eating habits), a high score (Q5) in "efficient diet pattern" was significantly related to a lower likelihood of hypertension than a low score (Q1). The prevalence of hypertension among the participants was relatively very high. An increase in age and working in educational sector were risk factors associated with hypertension. Therefore, it is recommended that civil servants engage in frequent exercise and undergo regular medical checkups, especially as they get older. These findings highlight the need for large-scale assessment of the impact of variables considered in this study on hypertension, among the civil workforce across Niger state and Nigeria.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Local de Trabalho , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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