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2.
Int J Public Health ; 64(9): 1313-1323, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Social policies help people to overcome various unfavourable living situations, such as unemployment, which may lead to health inequalities. The aim of this study is to examine how adults and children perceive the impact of social policies connected to unemployment on well-being in the household, and whether their views differ. METHODS: We obtained data from 123 stakeholders in Slovakia, 96 adults and 27 children aged 11-15 years. We used concept mapping, based on qualitative data collection and quantitative data analysis. RESULTS: We obtained four clusters related to: children and education; current workforce; disadvantaged groups; labour office support. Adults rated the current workforce as the most important and urgent, and children the disadvantaged groups. Contrasts were largest on the disadvantaged groups and on combining family life and working abroad which children rated as very important and urgent but adults less so. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders had many perceptions, which may help to improve social policies. Adults were more concerned about work, and children were more so about inequalities. In general, adults were more practical and individualistic, and children, more emphatic and idealistic.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Política Pública , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eslováquia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Intern Med J ; 49(7): 908-910, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295778

RESUMO

Delivery of culturally safe healthcare is critical to ensuring access to high-quality care for indigenous people. A key component of this is for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to be participants in the health workforce. The proportion of indigenous people in the health workforce should at least equate to the proportion in the population served. We describe the development and implementation of a successful affirmative action employment policy at Monash Health, one of Australia's largest Academic Health Centres, and provide perspective on its adoption.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Mão de Obra em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Austrália/etnologia , Emprego/tendências , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/tendências , Mão de Obra em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Política Pública/tendências
4.
Work ; 63(4): 481-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When one thinks of jobs with physical employment standards, the first thoughts typically center around firefighting, law enforcement, and military jobs. However, there are 100s of arduous jobs that exist in the public and private sectors that range from moderately demanding to strenuous. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that 28% of the workforce in the United States performs physically demanding jobs that involve construction, machinery installation and repair, public safety, and other professions. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides a historical perspective of physical employment standards for hiring workers into these arduous jobs, how we arrived at our current knowledge base, and the challenges faced today when determining and implementing physical employment standards. METHOD: This narrative review draws on evidence from 62 published sources. RESULTS: This paper focuses on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to identifying job requirements, the professions (e.g., medical, psychology, physiology) that underpin the methodologies, and the knowledge used by current researchers. Descriptions of test and cut score development, legal issues, and challenges for the future also are highlighted.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Exame Físico/normas , Aptidão Física , Recursos Humanos/normas , Direitos Civis/história , Direitos Civis/normas , Emprego/história , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias como Assunto , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/história , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Exame Físico/história , 57371 , Discriminação Social/história , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos/história , Recursos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
5.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 64: 99-105, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122646

RESUMO

Despite an elaborated framework on reasonable accommodations in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), persons with mental disabilities continue to face significant limitations to employment in East Africa. The aim of our study is to explore legal provisions related to reasonable accommodations in the employment-related laws regarding persons with mental disabilities in East Africa, and to suggest ways to bridge the gap between principles of international law and provisions of domestic laws. The disability, labour and human rights laws of 18 East African countries were accessed from the database of WHO MiNDbank and the International Labour Organisation. These laws were reviewed in the light of the framework of Article 27 of the UN CRPD. We found that 15 (83%) of the countries in East Africa have ratified the UN CRPD, and 12 (67%) have formulated an explicit definition of disability that includes mental illness. Eleven countries (61%) have explicit laws mandating employers to provide reasonable accommodations for persons with a mental disability. Eight countries (44%) have submitted a state report to the CRPD Committee. Lack of clear and specific definition of reasonable accommodations or the existence of vague definitions create challenges. If persons with a mental disability are to exercise their right to inclusive and gainful employment, there is a need for legal reforms that guarantee access to inclusive employment practices.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Deficiência Intelectual , África Oriental , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Discriminação Social/legislação & jurisprudência
6.
Work ; 63(4): 521-536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The roles of the emergency services are challenging and often physically demanding. Readiness to meet these challenges and demands is a fundamental requirement for staff to deliver their roles safely and effectively. Furthermore, employers are required by law to demonstrate every reasonable effort to protect their staff from undue risk of work-related injury. Implementing Physical Employment Standards (PES) enables employers to assign staff to roles for which they are physically-suited whilst contributing to such duty-of-care. However, for PES to be successful and legally-defendable, standards must reflect the demands of those job-tasks which are truly critical to the readiness of these services. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a standardised approach to identifying critical job-tasks exists in the development of PES for the emergency services. METHODS: Studies which conducted analysis of job-tasks to develop PES within the emergency services were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-two reported studies (i.e. records) met the inclusion criteria. Methods to determine job-tasks varied but were typically criteria-based incorporating one, or all, of 9 reported techniques. Methods were subjective and based upon reference to past or present job-task performance. CONCLUSION: Correctly determining critical job-tasks is essential for effective, legally-defendable PES. A standardised method to define job-tasks remains to be established.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Emprego/normas , Exame Físico/normas , Desempenho Profissional/normas , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Aptidão Física , Políticas , Carga de Trabalho
7.
J Appl Psychol ; 104(9): 1181-1194, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829511

RESUMO

This article advances the understanding of when and how formal status of small-scale entrepreneurs can contribute to higher growth in comparison to their informal counterparts. Our integrative framework suggests that both formal status and personal initiative (PI) behavior have a common pathway to predict firm growth. More importantly, formal firms improve their growth perspectives only if the entrepreneurs show a high degree of PI. The integrative framework was tested using longitudinal data with 2 measurement points with a total of 190 formal and informal entrepreneurs in the Sub-Saharan African country of Zimbabwe. Results show that both formal status and PI have indirect effects on firm growth through available resources. Further, PI has a dual-path moderating effect on the indirect effect of formal status to firm growth such that the indirect effect of formal status on firm growth via available resources is strongest when entrepreneurs have high PI, but there is no indirect effect when PI is low. Our research shows the importance of considering the interplay of institutional and psychological factors for explaining firm growth in developing countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comércio , Emprego , Motivação , Setor Privado , Adulto , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Países em Desenvolvimento , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Setor Informal , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Setor Privado/legislação & jurisprudência , Zimbábue
12.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 101(2): e7, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653052

RESUMO

Physician leaders are increasingly confronted with the challenge of evaluating the performance of surgical colleagues during the last phase of their careers. Identification of physicians with declining cognitive and clinical skills must be balanced against awareness of laws protecting colleagues from discrimination. Responding successfully to this challenge requires appropriate policies, reliable data, standardized evaluation tools, consistent documentation, and the development of compassionate and effective solutions that avoid discriminatory practices. Surgical champions are essential for promoting self-regulation. Performance evaluations should comply with medical staff bylaws and institutional wellness policies.


Assuntos
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Competência Clínica , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente
14.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(4): 597-610, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564917

RESUMO

This paper presents the first evaluation of the French Disabled Workers Act of 1987, which aimed to promote the employment of disabled people in the private sector. We use a panel data set, which includes both the health and the labour market histories of workers. We account both for unobserved heterogeneity and for the change in the disabled population over time. We find that the law had a negative impact on the employment of disabled workers in the private sector. This counterproductive effect likely comes from the possibility to pay a fine instead of hiring disabled workers.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Setor Privado/legislação & jurisprudência , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(4): 547-550, 2019 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Secondhand smoke exposure is responsible for an estimated 50000 deaths per year among nonsmokers in the United States. Smoke-free air laws reduce secondhand smoke exposure but often encounter opposition over concerns about their economic impact. Expansion of these laws has stagnated and efforts to weaken existing laws may exacerbate existing disparities in exposure. Studies at the state and local levels have found that smoke-free air laws do not generally have an adverse effect, but there are no recent estimates of the impact of these laws nationally. METHODS: Employment and sales are two measures commonly used to estimate the economic impact of smoke-free air laws. Sales data are gathered by state and local taxing authorities but not uniformly across jurisdictions. Dynamic panel models are used to estimate a population-weighted national average treatment effect of smoke-free air laws on restaurant and bar employment using data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages for 1990 to 2015. RESULTS: A one-percentage point increase in population covered by a restaurant smoke-free air law is associated with a small increase (approximately 0.01%) in restaurant employment (b = .0001, p < .001). The percentage of state population covered by a bar smoke-free air law was not associated with bar employment. DISCUSSION: Smoke-free air laws are a powerful tool for protecting hospitality workers and patrons from the dangers of secondhand smoke. Using data from over more than two decades, these results suggest that smoke-free air laws in the United States do not generally have any meaningful effect on restaurant and bar employment. IMPLICATIONS: Smoke-free air laws are associated with reductions in negative health outcomes and decreased smoking prevalence. Despite this clear public health argument and strong public support, passage of new laws has stagnated and exemptions are being used to weaken existing laws. The ability to make both a health and business case in support of existing laws may also bolster the case for expansion. This study provides an updated look at the economic impact of smoke-free air laws nationally through 2015. The lack of adverse findings provides additional support for these laws as public health win-win.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/tendências , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Restaurantes/tendências , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(6): 870-881, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160424

RESUMO

The increase in the duration of employment cannot but entail consequences that objectively reflect the realities of the labor market for the category of workers of pre-retirement age. The analysis of the situation in the labor market in modern economic realities allows us to highlight the global problem of obtaining and maintaining a job for the category of workers aged 50+. The prospects of its growth by the end of the transition period of change in the retirement age say experts from different industry areas. At the same time, there is currently an increase in the number of people who are actively looking for work and do not have a chance in employment as unpromising workers for the interests of the employer. Attempts to solve the problem of providing jobs for older workers at the state level are assessed as ineffective and not able to dramatically affect the improvement of the tasks of protecting the rights of people from unemployment and poverty. Referring to the experience of Japan, which has many intersections in the legislative and social aspects in solving the problems of creating and maintaining jobs for older workers with Russia, we will outline the possible prospects for solving this problem as an important strategic task of the state.


Assuntos
Emprego , Emprego/economia , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aposentadoria , Federação Russa
18.
Int Marit Health ; 69(4): 257-263, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Maritime Labour Convention 2006 (MLC2006) entered into force in 2013 and is the first comprehensive set of standards for better living and working conditions covering aspects such as wages, contracts, food, medical care and social security. Currently, the Convention covers more than 90% of the world's shipping fleet. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the MLC2006 on the living and working conditions of seafarers and to test and adjust the methods for future use through a pilot study. This article presents the seafarers' perceived impact of MLC2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mixed-method research approach was used (February to April 2018). The quantitative data of 55 seafarers were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data obtained through a focus group interview and thematic content analysis was applied. RESULTS: Remarkably, one third of the respondents pointed out a complete lack of improvement, while 43.6% stated that the MLC2006 had improved their working and living conditions "somewhat" and only 7.3% "to a great extend". The focus group participants agreed that the MLC2006 did not improve working conditions but mostly increased paperwork. Other issues of concern were the safety on board including safety training, long working hours connected to low manning, food and social difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: For Danish seafarers, the MLC2006 did not have a significant impact, as most standards were in place before. It must be further investigated what the MLC2006 achieved for other flag states, especially in the light of its 5-year anniversary. Both methods yielded valuable data. Focus groups are an ideal setting to study the views of seafarers.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Naval , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Navios , Dinamarca , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Projetos Piloto , Local de Trabalho/normas
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