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2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1446-1456, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135433

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender bias and sexual discrimination (GBSD) have been widely recognized across a range of fields and are now part of the wider social consciousness. Such conduct can occur in the medical workplace, with detrimental effects on recipients. The aim of this review was to identify the prevalence and impact of GBSD in orthopaedic surgery, and to investigate interventions countering such behaviours. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, EMCARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Database in April 2020, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to which we adhered. Original research papers pertaining to the prevalence and impact of GBSD, or mitigating strategies, within orthopaedics were included for review. RESULTS: Of 570 papers, 27 were eligible for inclusion. These were published between 1998 and 2020. A narrative review was performed in light of the significant heterogeneity displayed by the eligible studies. A total of 13 papers discussed the prevalence of GBSD, while 13 related to the impact of these behaviours, and six discussed mitigating strategies. GBSD was found to be common in the orthopaedic workplace, with all sources showing women to be the subjects. The impact of this includes poor workforce representation, lower salaries, and less career success, including in academia, for women in orthopaedics. Mitigating strategies in the literature are focused on providing female role models, mentors, and educational interventions. CONCLUSION: GBSD is common in orthopaedic surgery, with a substantial impact on sufferers. A small number of mitigating strategies have been tested but these are limited in their scope. As such, the orthopaedic community is obliged to participate in more thoughtful and proactive strategies that mitigate against GBSD, by improving female recruitment and retention within the specialty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1446-1456.


Assuntos
Ortopedia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Emprego/economia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Ortopedia/economia , Ortopedia/educação , Ortopedia/normas , Papel do Médico , Prevalência , Sexismo/economia , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S186-S187, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551757

RESUMO

An examination of the trajectory of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its subsequent economic impacts has revealed that this crisis will impact low-wage workers more severely than all others. The present commentary highlights the unique factors associated with low-wage work that make these workers particularly vulnerable to the effects of the pandemic, identifies potential adverse effects on the mental health of this population, and provides recommendations to maintain the safety, wellbeing, and dignity of low-wage workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Emprego , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Trauma Psicológico , Segurança , Salários e Benefícios , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/normas , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Trauma Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Risco , Segurança/normas , Licença Médica , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 956, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of competency frameworks for developing the public health workforce is widely acknowledged internationally. However, there is a lack of formal evaluations of such frameworks. In the UK, the Public Health Skills and Knowledge Framework (PHSKF) is a key tool for the public health workforce across the UK, and this study presents the evaluation of the PHSKF 2016 version, with the aim of reflecting on implications for international public health competency frameworks. METHODS: A sequential explanatory design was employed. An online survey (n = 298) was completed with stakeholders across the four UK nations and different sectors. This was followed by 18 telephone interviews with stakeholders and survey completers. Quantitative results were analysed descriptively; qualitative transcripts were analysed with thematic analysis. RESULTS: Most respondents had used the PHSKF occasionally or rarely, and most users found it useful (87%) and easy to use (82%). Main purposes of use included team/workforce development (e.g. setting of standards) and professional development (e.g. identify professional development opportunities). Some positive experiences emerged of uses of the PHSKF to support organisational redevelopments. However, 23% of respondents had never used the framework. Areas for improvement included greater clarity on purpose and audience, the need for more support from employers and for clear career progression opportunities, and stronger links with other competency frameworks. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a digital version of the PHSKF, together with improving buy-in from the workforce and employers could make an important contribution towards UK public health workforce development. Further evaluation and shared learning internationally of the implementation of public health competency frameworks would support global public health workforce development.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Competência Profissional/normas , Saúde Pública/educação , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/normas , Recursos Humanos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/normas , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Liderança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
5.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(4): 514-523, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paid family leave (PFL) is an important protective policy mechanism to support the health of mothers and children and the economic security of families This paper explores the links of employment and demographic characteristics on leave type and lengths of overall, paid, and unpaid leave in a large city in the United States. METHODS: Using a sample of 601 women who worked during pregnancy from the 2016 New York City Work and Family Leave Survey, multinomial and linear regression models were used to assess disparities in the type and length of leave taking. RESULTS: Women eligible for the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) have higher relative likelihood to take only paid leave (RRR = 6.588, p < 0.01). While Black women utilized 3.739 weeks of leave more than white women overall, holding all else constant (p < 0.1), this additional leave is composed of 4.739 more weeks of unpaid leave (p < 0.05). Shortened leave taking by women with less than a college degree is driven by fewer weeks of paid leave (p < 0.01). DISCUSSION: Using unique data from a survey of recent mothers in New York City, this study provides deeper understanding of disparities in the composition of leave. This study adds to the literature by identifying disparities in leave composition that are masked in consideration of total lengths of leave for Black women and those not eligible for FMLA protections. Given the consequences of short leave taking and reliance on unpaid leave, examination of leave composition is required to identify and address disparities.


Assuntos
Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família/economia , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Emprego/métodos , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família/normas , Licença para Cuidar de Pessoa da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(2): 200-210, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention targeting employers, with the aim of enhancing cancer survivors' return to work (RTW). METHODS: Intervention Mapping was used to combine information gathered from several procedures involving numerous stakeholders, for example, employers, cancer survivors, oncological occupational physicians, and e-health experts. RESULTS: Employers indicated that they require tailored support during four RTW phases: (1) disclosure, (2) treatment, (3) RTW planning, and (4) actual RTW. The most important employer actions were identified for each RTW phase, for instance, "communicate," "support practically," and "assess work ability," and thereafter formulated as the performance objectives of the intervention. The trans-theoretical model of change was used as a theoretical framework, and several methodologies were employed to induce the desired behavior change, for example modeling, tailoring, and active learning. Subsequently, a web-based intervention with interactive videos, conversation checklists, links to reliable external sources, and succinct, tailored tips and information was developed and adjusted on the basis of pre-tests with different stakeholders. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was developed with input from employers and all relevant stakeholders in the RTW of cancer survivors. The systematic, step-wise development resulted in a succinct and easily accessible intervention targeting the most important employer actions during all RTW phases. As such, the intervention corresponds with employers' needs and preferences in practice. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: By providing employers with support, the intervention could well be the missing link in efforts to optimize the work participation of cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Emprego/normas , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/psicologia
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(9): 4435-4443, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919668

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To address the gap highlighted in the literature on the effect of professional interventions to facilitate continued employment, this study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace accommodations on the continued employment 5 years after a cancer diagnosis. METHODS: This study is based on VICAN5, a French survey conducted in 2015-2016 to examine the living conditions of cancer survivors 5 years after diagnosis. Two subsamples, one with and one without workplace accommodations, were matched using a propensity score to control for the individual, professional, and medical characteristics potentially associated with receipt of workplace accommodations. RESULTS: The study sample was composed of 1514 cancer survivors aged 18-54 and employed as salaried at diagnosis. Among them, 61.2% received workplace accommodations within 5 years after diagnosis: 35.5% received a modified workstation, 41.5% received a modified schedule, and 49.2% received reduced hours. After matching, receipt of workplace accommodations appeared to improve the continued employment rate 5 years after cancer diagnosis from 77.8% to 95.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of workplace accommodations strongly increases the continued employment of cancer survivors 5 years after diagnosis. More research is needed to better understand the differences in receipt of workplace accommodations along with the related selection effect.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Emprego/normas , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 123-133, jan. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055785

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo é verificar associações entre variáveis relacionadas à precarização e o afastamento do trabalho por motivo de saúde no campo da enfermagem. Estudo transversal. A amostra de conveniência estratificada com alocação proporcional de 1.075 trabalhadoras. Local de estudo 22 hospitais públicos da Bahia, sendo os dados coletados entre 2015 e 2016. As dimensões da precarização avaliadas foram Formas de inserção e intensidade do trabalho, Esforço físico e ambiente de trabalho, Destrato e perturbações durante o trabalho. Realizou-se regressão logística binária ajustada com o teste de Omnibus. As variáveis que foram significativas tanto para enfermeiras quanto para auxiliares e técnicas foram esforço repetitivo (OR=0,44; IC=0,22-0,91/OR=0,54; IC=0,29-0,98) e histórico de discriminação (OR=2,1; IC=1,6-4,3/OR=1,8; IC=1,2-2,5). Para as enfermeiras, a existência de ruído no ambiente de trabalho foi significativo para o afastamento do trabalho (OR=3,7; IC=1,7-8,2). Entre as auxiliares e técnicas, ocorrência de violência no trabalho (OR=1,4; IC=1,05-2,0), adequação do ambiente de descanso (OR=0,6;IC=0,41-0,89), tipo de vínculo (OR=1,5;IC=1,009-2,09) foram significativos. Os resultados revelam a precarização no campo e que o Estado favorece o adoecimento das trabalhadoras ao manter estas condições de trabalho.


Abstract The objective is to verify associations between variables related to precarious employment and absence from work due to health reasons in the nursing field. This was a cross-sectional study of a stratified convenience sample with proportional allocation of 1,075 workers. Study site: 22 public hospitals in Bahia, with data collected between 2015 and 2016.The assessed precarious employment dimensions were: Forms of insertion and intensity of work, Physical effort and working environment, Disorder and disturbances during work. The binary logistic regression was adjusted with the Omnibus test. The variables that were significant for both nurses and for nursing aides and technicians were repetitive effort (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.22-0.91 / OR = 0.54, CI = 0.29-0.98), and history of discrimination (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.6-4.3 / OR = 1.8, CI = 1.2-2.5). For the nurses, the existence of noise in the work environment was significant for work leave (OR = 3.7, CI = 1.7-8.2). Among the nursing aides and technicians, the occurrence of violence at the workplace (OR = 1.4, CI = 1.05-2.0), adequacy of the resting area (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.41-0.89), and type of employment bond (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.009-2.09) were significant. The results reveal the precariousness in the field and that the government favors the illness of these workers by maintaining these working conditions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Enfermagem , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/normas , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(2): 188-199, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study explored employer's perspectives on (1) their experience of good practice related to workers diagnosed with cancer and their return to work (RTW), and (2) their perceived needs necessary to achieve good practice as reported by employers from nine separate countries. METHODS: Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were held in eight European countries and Israel with two to three employers typically including HR managers or line managers from both profit and non-profit organisations of different sizes and sectors. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded theory/thematic analysis approach was completed. RESULTS: Employers' experience with RTW assistance for workers with cancer appears to be a dynamic process. Results indicate that good practice includes six phases: (1) reacting to disclosure, (2) collecting information, (3) decision-making related to initial actions, (4) remaining in touch, (5) decision-making on RTW, and (6) follow-up. The exact details of the process are shaped by country, employer type, and worker characteristics; however, there was consistency related to the need for (1) structured procedures, (2) collaboration, (3) communication skills training, (4) information on cancer, and (5) financial resources for realizing RTW support measures. CONCLUSIONS: Notwithstanding variations at country, employer, and worker levels, the employers from all nine countries reported that good practice regarding RTW assistance in workers with a history of cancer consists of the six phases above. Employers indicate that they would benefit from shared collaboration and resources that support good practice for this human resource matter. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Further research and development based on the six phases of employer support as a framework for a tool or strategy to support workers with a history of cancer across countries and organisations is warranted.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Política Pública/tendências , Retorno ao Trabalho/tendências , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(1): 123-133, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859861

RESUMO

The objective is to verify associations between variables related to precarious employment and absence from work due to health reasons in the nursing field. This was a cross-sectional study of a stratified convenience sample with proportional allocation of 1,075 workers. Study site: 22 public hospitals in Bahia, with data collected between 2015 and 2016.The assessed precarious employment dimensions were: Forms of insertion and intensity of work, Physical effort and working environment, Disorder and disturbances during work. The binary logistic regression was adjusted with the Omnibus test. The variables that were significant for both nurses and for nursing aides and technicians were repetitive effort (OR = 0.44, CI = 0.22-0.91 / OR = 0.54, CI = 0.29-0.98), and history of discrimination (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.6-4.3 / OR = 1.8, CI = 1.2-2.5). For the nurses, the existence of noise in the work environment was significant for work leave (OR = 3.7, CI = 1.7-8.2). Among the nursing aides and technicians, the occurrence of violence at the workplace (OR = 1.4, CI = 1.05-2.0), adequacy of the resting area (OR = 0.6, CI = 0.41-0.89), and type of employment bond (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.009-2.09) were significant. The results reveal the precariousness in the field and that the government favors the illness of these workers by maintaining these working conditions.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Enfermagem , Licença Médica , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Nurs Res ; 28(2): e78, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of Indonesian nurses currently working as migrant care workers in Taiwan, no studies in the literature have been found that explore this phenomenon or assess the working situation of Indonesian nurses working in care facilities in Taiwan. PURPOSE: This study aimed to elicit and describe the lived experiences of Indonesian nurses serving as care workers in Taiwan. METHODS: Phenomenological research was used to explore the experiences of Indonesian nurses working in long-term care facilities. The participants were recruited from care facilities in Taiwan. This study utilized semistructured interviews conducted with 16 Indonesian nurses in a suitable setting. All of the interviews were transcribed, and the work of Van Manen was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Four main themes were identified, including motives for working abroad, feelings of being trapped, experiencing a difficult journey, and the feeling of being supported. These themes reflect the lived experiences of Indonesian nurses who work in Taiwan's long-term care industry. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses from Indonesia choose to who work as nurses in Taiwan because of poor financial background and the chance of gaining a better life. However, the participants in this study felt stressed, challenged, and disappointed when faced with the unmet expectations of being employed as care workers without a clear career path. Furthermore, the need to communicate in an unfamiliar language was mentioned as a significant barrier to fulfilling their role. Better policies should be put in place to achieve improved outcomes for both countries.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Adulto , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/etnologia , Masculino , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras Internacionais/psicologia , Enfermeiras Internacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Taiwan
13.
Nurse Educ Today ; 84: 104213, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working while engaging in tertiary studies can have potential benefits for students in developing their repertoire of employability skills, including teamwork, time management, customer service and interpersonal communication. Not unexpectedly engaging in excessive hours of work can have a detrimental effect on students' grades. Yet little is known about the impact of engaging in different types of paid work (nursing or non-nursing), and the amounts, on first year nursing students' academic performance across different nursing programs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between: a) amount; and b) type of term-time weekly paid work, particularly its effect on academic performance, among commencing undergraduate students in the first semester of nursing studies across different nursing programs. DESIGN: Inception cohort study. SETTINGS: Four tertiary institutes across Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: All commencing Bachelor of Nursing students attending Orientation sessions at their respective institutes were invited to participate in the study. The median age of participants was 23 years, the majority (87.5%) were female and nearly two-thirds were non-school leavers. Among those in paid work, the median hours worked was 20 h. METHODS: A baseline survey, completed by consenting students at the start of their Orientation session included items related to respondents' demographic data, self-reported paid work engagement (type and hours); we also requested their permission to link grade point average (academic performance data) at the end of first semester. Data were analysed using SPSS Version 25. RESULTS: A total of 1314 students completed the survey and 89% of survey respondents agreed for their survey to be linked to academic grades at the end of the semester. There was an inverse relationship between time spent in weekly paid work and academic performance. Additionally, three predictors emerged as statistically significant for high grade point average: (i) engaging in non-nursing related work (AOR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.19-2.26); (ii) not being first in family to attend university (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.20-2.07) and; (iii) being a school-leaver (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.12-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the diversity among undergraduate nursing students studying across Australasia, it is evident that the amount and type of paid work engagement can impact on students' academic performance while studying. This underscores the importance for tertiary institutes to not only support students in their learning but also understand the need to achieve the right balance, in working while studying, to support students' academic success.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Emprego/psicologia , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Gerontologist ; 60(1): 12-21, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753462

RESUMO

Creating age-friendly workplace environments is considered a central organizational approach for addressing the challenges of supporting an aging and older workforce. However, there are no concrete definitions or theoretical frameworks that explain the full meaning, assumptions, and basic processes of this concept. This article critically reviews the conceptualizations of the age-friendly workplace in the fields of organizational psychology and gerontology, and proposes (a) a new working definition of the concept, and (b) a multidimensional model that consists of a typology of age-friendly dimensions, representing the implications of human resource policies and practices that demonstrate the ways in which organizational climate and organizational culture support aging workers. This framework enables a better understanding of the organizational-occupational realities within an aging and older labor market, and thus serves as an effective foundation upon which future organizational measurements can be constructed.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Política Organizacional , Local de Trabalho/normas , Idoso , Emprego/normas , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
15.
Ergonomics ; 63(2): 152-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690241

RESUMO

Generalised predictive tests may be viable screening tools to evaluate job candidate workability if movement strategy used in assessment is consistent with movement strategy used in work. This study investigated if deep squat (DS) kinematics could predict floor-to-waist height lifting kinematics. Participants performed three DS repetitions, and 10 lifts of both a 10 kg and 20 kg box. Whole body kinematics were collected to calculate knee, hip and low back angles, and coordination as measured by relative phase angles. Movement features of lower extremity control, including knee and hip angles and coordination, were significantly correlated (r = 0.43-0.85) between the DS and lifting. However, low back movement features, measures linked to injury risk, were not significantly correlated between the DS and lifting. These findings do not support the DS as a suitable movement screen to predict lifting strategy, specifically when considering low back control. Practitioner summary: This study investigated whether lifting strategy could be inferred from deep squat performance. Knee and hip movement strategies were associated between the deep squat and lifting. However, inconsistencies in low back control between the deep squat and lifting limit the deep squat's injury risk assessment potential.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Remoção , Movimento , Postura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Masculino , Ocupações , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 11(12): 1296-1302, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Graduates from the pediatric degree option program (PDOP) were tracked to identify confidence with pediatric pharmacotherapy and categorize initial employment following graduation. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: The PDOP was established in 2011 and requires 16 credits of pediatric-focused didactic coursework and advanced pharmacy practice experiences. Thirty PDOP graduates completed a 30-item questionnaire to assess confidence in pediatric pharmacotherapy knowledge and skill statements and employment position following graduation. Responses were compared between those completing post-graduate pediatric pharmacy training and those who did not. FINDINGS: Nineteen (63.3%) graduates responded. All expressed "very high" or "high" confidence with dose calculations, first-line treatment selection for otitis media, and counseling caregivers on medications. However, <75% expressed "very high" or "high" confidence with identification of pharmacokinetic differences in neonates vs. children, utilization of growth charts, and counseling children. Ten (52.6%) respondents completed post-graduate training, and the remainder had an initial position in community or hospital pharmacy. There were no significant differences in pharmacotherapy skill and knowledge statements between those completing residency vs. those who did not. The most beneficial experiences reported were gaining clinical experience in pediatric pharmacy and medication safety. SUMMARY: Overall, PDOP graduates noted high confidence in pediatric pharmacotherapy skills and knowledge. Most felt that the PDOP influenced their initial career plans and made them more competitive for their initial position following graduation. The PDOP was well received and provided an opportunity for additional knowledge and skill development for students interested in pediatrics.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Emprego/psicologia , Pediatria/educação , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia/normas , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pediatria/métodos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Cir. Esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 97(10): 560-567, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187931

RESUMO

Introducción: El acceso de los cirujanos a los equipos de trasplante hepático en España se realiza de manera heterogénea. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido cuantificar los recursos humanos de los equipos de trasplante españoles, la distribución de las diferentes tareas del trasplante entre los miembros del equipo, el mecanismo mediante el cual se adquieren las habilidades, la visión de sus líderes sobre su continuidad, así como las motivaciones de los residentes de cirugía general españoles para elegir el trasplante como su futura carrera profesional. Métodos: Se elaboraron dos encuestas diferentes, para los jefes de equipo y para residentes, sobre número de personas, capacitación, reclutamiento, organización de tareas y motivación para trabajar en trasplantes. Los cuestionarios se enviaron por correo electrónico tanto a los directores de programa de trasplante como a los residentes de cirugía. Resultados: Hay en promedio 8 cirujanos en cada unidad de trasplante. Más de 4 cirujanos realizan la hepatectomía en el 54,2% de los grupos, mientras que el implante lo realiza más de 4 cirujanos en solo el 25% de los centros. El 42% de los jefes de trasplante hepático aboga por un sistema tipo fellowship y el 87,5% cree que el recambio generacional está garantizado. De los 525 residentes, 101 respondieron. Respecto a la formación, un 12,8% no tiene interés en el trasplante. En cuanto a sus preferencias laborales, el 37,6% no está interesado en el trasplante por ser excesivamente exigente, y el 52,5% no desea ser parte de un equipo de trasplante de hígado en el futuro. Conclusiones: El recambio generacional parece estar garantizado según los directores de programa de trasplante de hígado. Las nuevas generaciones de cirujanos generalmente optan por otras áreas de cirugía diferentes al trasplante. Son necesarios estudios con mayor número de respuestas para validar estos resultados


Introduction: The access of surgeons to liver transplant teams in Spain is heterogeneous. This study aims to portray the current human resources of Spanish transplant teams, distribution of transplant duties among team members, how transplant team members acquire their skills, their leaders' view of their future, as well the motivations of Spanish General Surgery residents to choose transplantation as their future career choice. Methods: Two different surveys were created, one for head surgeons and one for residents, about the number of team members and their training, recruitment, organization of tasks and motivation to work in transplantation. The questionnaires were e-mailed to both the transplant program directors and the surgical residents. Results: There are on average 8 surgeons in each transplant unit. More than four surgeons perform the hepatectomy in 54.2% of the groups, while the graft implantation is performed by more than 4 surgeons at just 25% of the centers. Forty-two percent of the transplant chiefs advocated a fellowship training system, and 87.5% believe that generational turnover is guaranteed. Out of 525 residents, 101 responded. Regarding training, 12.8% had no interest in transplantation. Concerning their work preferences, 37.6% were not interested in transplantation because it is excessively demanding, and 52.5% would not like to be part of a liver transplant team in the future. Conclusions: The generational turnover seems to be guaranteed according to liver transplant program directors. The new generations of surgeons generally opt for other areas of surgery other than transplantation. Studies with a greater number of responses are necessary to validate these results


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Emprego/normas , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/provisão & distribução , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Educação/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Bolsas de Estudo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação/fisiologia , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Diretores Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 240: 112547, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563006

RESUMO

Grandparents, especially grandmothers, are highly involved in childcare globally. There is a rising interest in studying the relationship between providing care and grandmothers' economic well-being in social science and health literature. However, little is known about how grandmothers' behavior responds to a government's family policy. This paper examines the effects of a large government-led formal childcare expansion on the well-being of working-age grandparents living with their adult children in China. We exploit the variation in program intensity across provinces and years and find that a higher coverage rate of center-based childcare increases the employment of grandmothers. By contrast, grandfathers' employment is not responsive. Further investigation reveals that the effect is stronger among the women who were richer, more educated, lived in urban areas, and paternal grandmothers. We find that the childcare expansion decreases grandmothers' chance of having chronic disease and depression.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Emprego/métodos , Avós , Adulto , Cuidado da Criança/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , China , Emprego/normas , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Nurs Adm Q ; 43(4): 370-373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479059

RESUMO

For decades, refugee policies on local, national, regional, and international levels have set the narrative surrounding refugees' identities and roles in society. Often, these policies negatively affect refugees and can hinder any effort for successful integration (ie, employment). The focus of this article is to identity how refugees, specifically refugee nurses, are reshaping standard policy practices when it comes to integration and inclusion, as well as economic and social well-being. With an estimated 68.5 million forcibly displaced persons worldwide (25.4 million of which are refugees), it is important to shed light on the importance of including their voices in the dialogue during all stages of the policy development process. They should be included in the dialogue, from agenda setting to evaluation, in order to challenge current beliefs and attitudes. It is critical for societies to recognize refugee nurses' professional qualifications, skills, and abilities in order to address the ongoing shortages of health professionals that many nations are facing today.


Assuntos
Emprego/métodos , Política de Saúde/tendências , Refugiados/psicologia , Competência Cultural/psicologia , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Enfermeiras Internacionais/legislação & jurisprudência , Enfermeiras Internacionais/tendências
20.
Work ; 64(2): 229-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active labour market policies (ALMP) are used in advanced welfare states to support transitions to work for people who are unemployed or underemployed, including people with disabilities (PWD) in receipt of means-tested disability income support. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the nature, strength, and limitations of ALMP across advanced welfare states (ALMP) for people with disabilities (PWD) in receipt of income benefits from social assistance programs. METHODS: Following the eight steps of a scoping study, we identified 21 documents through a scan of eight databases and consultation with key informants. The majority of these documents are scholarly publications including seven literature reviews, two program evaluations, four social policy analyses, and two longitudinal studies. RESULTS: We extracted key findings related to delivery of labour (re)entry interventions for people with disabilities. Six themes are identified that discuss these ALMP features: 1) welfare ideology and the role of citizenship; 2) conditionality of benefits; 3) work capacity and the need for an appropriate definition of disability; 4) the politics of employment outcomes for PWD; 5) the missing elements of a successful ALMP; and 6) moving beyond ALMP. The findings indicate that while various approaches are used in reintegrating PWD into mainstream employment, there are significant limitations that curtail the impact of these policies. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of welfare regime, no welfare state provides a policy mix that results in long-term employment success for PWD in receipt of means-tested income benefits.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde , Assistência Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Governamentais/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Governamentais/tendências , Humanos , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
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