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1.
Br J Community Nurs ; 24(8): 377-379, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369313

RESUMO

District nurses and their teams often work in isolation during domiciliary visits. As employers, providers of district nursing services have responsibility to ensure that appropriate policies and procedures are in place to keep district nursing teams safe. If the employer fails to do everything that was reasonable in the circumstances to keep the employee safe, the employer can be deemed to have breached their duty of care. Employees also have responsibility for their own health and wellbeing at work, and they are entitled by law to refuse to undertake work that is not safe, without fear of disciplinary action. Staff training in risk management, personal safety, handling aggressive behaviour, using safety devices such as mobile phone trackers, incident reporting and debriefing are essential for district nurses and their teams, as they face a steeply increased demand for their services and a severely compromised skill mix within their teams.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/normas , Emprego/normas , Guias como Assunto , Visita Domiciliar , Enfermeiras de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Especialidades de Enfermagem/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
3.
Work ; 63(4): 623-633, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ottawa Paramedic Physical Ability Test (OPPAT™) is a physical employment standard for the paramedic sector. If a candidate is unsuccessful in meeting the OPPAT™ performance standard they should be provided with an appropriate accommodation, such as a strength and conditioning program, to improve performance. OBJECTIVE: Develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a 4-week strength and conditioning program on improving OPPAT™ performance and associated fitness measures in paramedic candidates. METHODS: A 4-week strength and conditioning program was developed to focus on strength and power improvements. Based on initial OPPAT™ performance, participants were divided into high and low performing groups; only the low performing group received the training intervention. OPPAT™ completion times and relevant fitness measures were compared pre- to post- intervention and between groups. RESULTS: Over the 4-weeks, peak lower body power and grip strength did not significantly improve in the intervention group, however OPPAT™ performance improved by 10%. The control group had significantly lower OPPAT™ completion times both pre- and post-intervention (19% and 11% lower respectively), as well as greater grip strength and peak lower body power. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a targeted strength and conditioning program successfully improved OPPAT™ performance in low performing candidates.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Emprego/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
4.
Work ; 63(4): 603-613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical employment standards (PES) ensure that candidates can demonstrate the physical capacity required to perform duties of work. However, movement competency, or an individual's movement strategy, can relate to injury risk and safety, and therefore should be considered in PES. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the utility of using artificial intelligence (AI) to detect risk-potential of different movement strategies within PES. METHODS: Biomechanical analysis was used to calculate peak flexion angles and peak extensor moment about the lumbar spine during participants' performance of a backboard lifting task. Lifts performed with relatively lower and higher exposure to postural and moment loading on the spine were characterized as "low" or "high" exposure, respectively. An AI model including principal component and linear discriminant analyses was then trained to detect and classify backboard lifts as "low" or "high". RESULTS: The AI model accurately classified over 85% of lifts as "low" or "high" exposure using only motion data as an input. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle demonstrates that movement competency can be assessed in PES using AI. Similar classification approaches could be used to improve the utility of PES as a musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) prevention tool by proactively identifying candidates at higher risk of MSD based on movement competency.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Movimento/fisiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Exame Físico/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Inteligência Artificial , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/métodos , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Masculino , Exame Físico/normas , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Work ; 63(4): 591-601, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hesitation to employ females for physically demanding jobs is often due to sex related physical abilities. A physical employment standard (PES) identifies individuals who are physically capable for work. OBJECTIVE: A database containing 300 + sources of physical performance tests (PFTs) will inform potential sex bias for PES development. METHODS: Weighted means and probability density curves illustrate the percentage overlap between male and female performance on PFT data from the armed forces of 11 countries and the open literature. Where female training data were available, the change in percentage overlap illustrates the potential for reduction in sex-related differences. RESULTS: PFTs demonstrating the extremes of sex disparity were bench press (11 sources) and sit-ups (14 sources) with 9% and 93% overlap in performance, respectively. Training for bench press; pull ups; VO2max; and upright pull improved female performance by 12%, 22%, 35%, and 23% respectively. This translated into narrowing the gap between male and female mean performance by 1%, 4%, 5%, and 10% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of PFT to predict performance is essential; however, PFTs with more overlap will facilitate development of PES with reduced sex bias. PFTs with the greatest potential for improvement in females are identified here.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Emprego/normas , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Esforço/normas , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/estatística & dados numéricos , Exame Físico/normas , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Work ; 63(4): 581-589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the post-implementation impact of the Canadian Type 1 Wildland Fire Fighter (WFF) Fitness Test Circuit (WFX-FIT), a retrospective descriptive analysis of anonymized aggregate data collected between 2012-2016 was conducted. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to examine the pass rates of Type 1 WFF in each fire jurisdiction and on the standard for exchanging Type 1 WFF between agencies, the interagency exchange standard, by age group and sex and to propose what other information could be of value in assessing the effectiveness of implementing a physical employment standard. METHODS: Frequencies and pass rate percentages were compared by sex and age groups (<40 years, ≥40 years). RESULTS: Between 2012-2016, pass rates for all participants on the jurisdictional and interagency exchange performance standards improved from 93.2% to 95.6% and 79.1% to 87.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that since the WFX-FIT was implemented, there has been an increase in the number of exchange-eligible Type 1 WFF for suppression of wildfires in Canada.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/normas , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Canadá , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exame Físico/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Incêndios Florestais
7.
Work ; 63(4): 559-569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the physical demands of mining and rescue operations, a physical employment standard was warranted to ensure capable workers are selected. While evaluations of muscular strength and muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance domains are common, assessment of a worker's ability to meet the physically demanding postural requirements is often neglected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was to develop a valid assessment for NSW Mines Rescue Brigadesmen that replicated the combined muscular and cardiorespiratory endurance and postural demands of constructing a timber pillar. METHODS: Oxygen consumption () V̇O2) was measured and dominant postures identified when incumbent Brigadesmen constructed a timber pillar. A shelf-stacking assessment was designed and validated. RESULTS: When Brigadesmen performed the block placement role, the task elicited a mean V̇O2 of 1.6 L.min-1, and required repeated placement of ∼8.7 kg blocks from 0 to 3.0 m. A shelf stacking assessment (5 min, mean V̇O2 1.7 L.min-1) replicating dominant postures and requiring repeated block placement at 0, 0.65, 1.10, 1.64 and 2.20 m was developed. The demand of the test, performed within a discontinuous circuit, was subsequently verified (1.6 L.min-1). CONCLUSIONS: A valid, physiological aptitude test that considered the job-related movement patterns, in addition to cardiorespiratory and muscular endurance requirements, was developed for Brigadesmen.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/métodos , Emprego/normas , Exame Físico/métodos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Trabalho de Resgate/normas , Adulto , Aptidão/fisiologia , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Força Muscular , New South Wales , Consumo de Oxigênio , Exame Físico/normas
8.
Work ; 63(4): 537-545, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To establish whether an organization has a valid Physical Employment Standard (PES), it is important to determine those aspects of the job that are critical to operational success. OBJECTIVE: To determine the tasks of the Offshore Wind Industry (OWI) and whether the ability to undertake these tasks is adequately assessed. METHODS: The task analysis was completed through: observations; the research team undertaking tasks; reviewing operational manuals; and focus groups. In addition, a review of existing PES for the OWI was completed to determine whether standards matched with the results of the task analysis. RESULTS: Five critical tasks were identified: transfer from the vessel to the Transition Piece; ascent of the internal ladder; manoeuvre through hatches; torque and tensioning; and hauling a casualty up the tower. With the exception of aerobic capacity, the physical components required by Technicians are not assessed by the current medical standards, nor are these assessments standardized across companies. CONCLUSIONS: The Job Task Analysis undertaken can be used to inform decisions regarding the physical fitness requirements (selection), assessments and training of Technicians, with a view to ensuring that they are physically capable of undertaking the critical tasks without undue risk of injury to themselves or others.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Emprego/normas , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Vento , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aptidão Física , Centrais Elétricas , Navios , Reino Unido , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
9.
Work ; 63(4): 509-519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If current population and health trends continue, workplace demographics will look significantly different by the turn of the century. Organizations will no longer have a steady pipeline of younger workers and will likely need to rely on older workers to remain competitive in the global marketplace. The future multi-generational workforce will bring with it the challenge of maximizing contributions from each generation whilst at the same time addressing the health, safety and wellbeing needs of all workers. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an insight into aging and older workers, and presents recommendations to promote worker longevity. METHODS: This narrative review draws on evidence from 108 published sources. RESULTS: The relationship between age and work is not simple; factors including the physical nature of the job and worker's health and fitness interact with age to either increase or decrease the potential effect of age. Evidence suggests that the issues arising from an aging workforce can be managed through polices that focus on active aging through: attitude management; flexible working and the provision of occupational health. CONCLUSION: The integration of such interventions would require company and organizational commitment from the top down with educational programs at all levels to ensure understanding and participation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Emprego/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador , Exame Físico/normas , Recursos Humanos/normas , Ageismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Ageismo/prevenção & controle , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Humanos , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Políticas , Participação dos Interessados , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Local de Trabalho/normas
10.
Work ; 63(4): 495-508, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physically demanding occupations such as the military, firefighting and law enforcement have adopted physical employment standards (PES). The intent of PES is to match the physical capacity of personnel with the physical demands of job tasks. Inadequate physical capacity can affect occupational task performance as well musculoskeletal injury (MSKI) risk. OBJECTIVE: To present contemporary evidence on the relationship(s) between PES, physical training, physical capacity and MSKI in physically demanding occupations, and provide recommendations regarding physical training for improved occupational performance and reduced MSKI risk. METHODS: This narrative review draws on evidence from 104 published sources. RESULTS: Physical training is central to the development and maintenance of occupationally-relevant physical capacity, as well as mitigating MSKI risk associated with job performance. In addition, given the prevalence of manual handling tasks, strength training needs to be emphasised in physical training regimen. CONCLUSIONS: PES development can inform both physical training and injury prevention strategies in physically demanding occupations. Furthermore, a physical performance continuum is essential to through-career maintenance of occupational performance and health, and the preservation of organisational capability. Finally, organisations should consider the potential to implement PES as maximal performance tests to better understand the relationship between occupational task performance and MSKI risk.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Saúde do Trabalhador , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Exame Físico/normas , Aptidão Física , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
11.
Work ; 63(4): 481-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When one thinks of jobs with physical employment standards, the first thoughts typically center around firefighting, law enforcement, and military jobs. However, there are 100s of arduous jobs that exist in the public and private sectors that range from moderately demanding to strenuous. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that 28% of the workforce in the United States performs physically demanding jobs that involve construction, machinery installation and repair, public safety, and other professions. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides a historical perspective of physical employment standards for hiring workers into these arduous jobs, how we arrived at our current knowledge base, and the challenges faced today when determining and implementing physical employment standards. METHOD: This narrative review draws on evidence from 62 published sources. RESULTS: This paper focuses on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to identifying job requirements, the professions (e.g., medical, psychology, physiology) that underpin the methodologies, and the knowledge used by current researchers. Descriptions of test and cut score development, legal issues, and challenges for the future also are highlighted.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Exame Físico/normas , Aptidão Física , Recursos Humanos/normas , Direitos Civis/história , Direitos Civis/normas , Emprego/história , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Guias como Assunto , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/história , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Exame Físico/história , Direito ao Trabalho , Discriminação Social/história , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos/história , Recursos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2583-2592, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340275

RESUMO

In light of the labor conditions defined within the framework of neoliberalism implemented in Mexico, labor dynamics are problematized, the main problems of access to the health and social security system are identified and the systematic violation of rights - especially the right to work, to social security and to health - are discussed. The objective of this article is to contribute with proposals for the construction of a comprehensive, inclusive, healthcare and social security system that contributes to the improvement of the lives of workers.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Emprego/normas , Política , Direito à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , México , Previdência Social
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Safety climates are perceptions of safety culture shared by staff in organizational units. Measuring staff perceptions of patient safety culture by using safety climate surveys is a possible way of addressing patient safety. Studies have documented that patient safety climates vary significantly between work sites in hospitals. Across-ward variations in the measurements of safety climate factor scores may indicate ward-specific risk of adverse events related to patient care routines, work environment, staff behaviour, and patient results. Variation in patient safety climates has not yet been explored in nursing homes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the Norwegian translation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire-Ambulatory Version is useful to identify significant variation in the patient safety climate factor scores: Teamwork climate, Safety climate, Job satisfaction, Working conditions, Stress recognition, and Perceptions of management, across wards in nursing homes. METHODS: Four hundred and sixty three employees from 34 wards in five nursing homes were invited to participate. Cronbach alphas were computed based on individual respondents' scores on the six patient safety climate factor scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated by multilevel analysis to measure patient safety climate variance at ward level. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty eight (62.2%) returned the questionnaire. At ward level Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the factors were 10.2% or higher for the factors Safety climate, Working conditions and Perceptions of management, 2.4% or lower for Teamwork climate, Job satisfaction, and zero for Stress recognition. ICC for variance at nursing home level was zero or less than one per cent for all factor scores. CONCLUSIONS: Staff perceptions of Safety climate, Working conditions and Perceptions of management varied significantly across wards. These factor scores may, therefore, be used to identify wards in nursing homes with high and low risk of adverse events, and guide improvement resources to where they are most needed.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais/normas , Casas de Saúde/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Emprego/normas , Feminino , Hospitais/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Casas de Saúde/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Work ; 62(4): 563-571, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few correlational studies comparing family-work reconciliation between groups of women. OBJECTIVE: We intend to correlate and compare the use of time, purchasing power, and job satisfaction between two groups of working women, women with children and women without children. METHODS: This is a correlational and comparative study. The following instruments were used: Activities Diary; Brazilian Criteria for Economic Classification; and the short version of the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire. A total of 171 women participated in the study: one group was composed of 78 women with children and the other group was composed of 93 women without children. Data were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. RESULTS: Women with children spent more hours/day on hygiene, taking care of elderly individuals, practicing their religion, and studying (p = 0.001), but they presented no statistical differences in job satisfaction from those women without children (p = 0.2362). Women with children belonged to a higher economic classification and had greater purchasing power than women without children. CONCLUSIONS: Having children is a variable that influences time use, purchasing power, and job satisfaction among women and the presence of children is a factor that may increase the purchasing power of a woman.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/normas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Int Nurs Rev ; 66(3): 309-319, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131898

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate effectiveness of specific policy and practice changes to the process of registration for internationally educated nurses. BACKGROUND: Little research exists to inform registration policy for internationally educated health professionals. INTRODUCTION: Internationally educated nurse employment can help address nursing shortages. Regulators assess competencies for equivalency to Canadian-educated nurses, but differences in health systems, education and practice create challenges. METHODS: The study setting was a Canadian province. We used a mixed methods approach, with a pre-post-quasi-experimental design and a qualitative evaluation. Previous analysis of relationships between applicant variables, registration outcomes and timelines informed changes to our registration process. Implementation of these changes composes the intervention. Comparisons between pre- and post-implementation exemplar subgroups and timeline analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, univariate analysis and non-parametric tests. Data were collected from complete application files before (n = 426) and after (n = 287) implementation of the intervention. Interviews, focus groups and consultations were completed with various stakeholders. FINDINGS: The time between steps in the process was significantly reduced following implementation. Stakeholders reported an increase in perceived efficiency, transparency and use of evidence. DISCUSSION: Results indicated that initial impacts of the policy changes streamlined the process for applicants and staff. CONCLUSION: Maintaining a consistent and systematic review of an organization's data coupled with implementation of findings to effect policy and practice change may have an important impact on regulatory policy. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING POLICY: These findings represent the beginning of an international policy conversation. Policy changes based on organizational data can underlie major process improvement initiatives. Ongoing nursing shortages across the globe and increasing mobility of nurses make it important to have efficient and transparent regulatory policy informed by evidence.


Assuntos
Credenciamento/organização & administração , Emprego/normas , Licenciamento em Enfermagem/normas , Enfermeiras Internacionais/normas , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Canadá , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Enfermeiras Internacionais/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Local de Trabalho/normas
16.
Ergonomics ; 62(8): 1033-1042, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092138

RESUMO

The Ottawa Paramedic Physical Ability Test (OPPAT) is a physical employment standard (PES) that candidates must pass as a pre-hire requirement and that incumbents may have to pass prior to returning to work after absence, to demonstrate their physical capabilities as required to safely meet the demands of paramedic work. Consistent with best practice guidelines for PES development, it is important to establish reliability and to investigate sex-based performance differences. Active duty paramedics completed the OPPAT twice while candidates completed the OPPAT six times. Across all participants, a median improvement of 76.0 s was observed in OPPAT performance (922.0-846.0 s) between trial 1 and trial 2. Among candidates, OPPAT performance stabilised by the fourth trial confirming reliability. Sex-based analyses revealed median differences in OPPAT performance time of 39.0 and 63.0 s between males and females during the first and second trials respectively. Practitioner summary: Active duty paramedics and candidates performed the Ottawa Paramedic Physical Ability Test (OPPAT) faster following familiarisation. Among candidates, performance time stabilised by the fourth trial. Performance time was slower among females, but this had less impact on females' ability to meet the OPPAT standard.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Emprego/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
17.
Work ; 63(4): 521-536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The roles of the emergency services are challenging and often physically demanding. Readiness to meet these challenges and demands is a fundamental requirement for staff to deliver their roles safely and effectively. Furthermore, employers are required by law to demonstrate every reasonable effort to protect their staff from undue risk of work-related injury. Implementing Physical Employment Standards (PES) enables employers to assign staff to roles for which they are physically-suited whilst contributing to such duty-of-care. However, for PES to be successful and legally-defendable, standards must reflect the demands of those job-tasks which are truly critical to the readiness of these services. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a standardised approach to identifying critical job-tasks exists in the development of PES for the emergency services. METHODS: Studies which conducted analysis of job-tasks to develop PES within the emergency services were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-two reported studies (i.e. records) met the inclusion criteria. Methods to determine job-tasks varied but were typically criteria-based incorporating one, or all, of 9 reported techniques. Methods were subjective and based upon reference to past or present job-task performance. CONCLUSION: Correctly determining critical job-tasks is essential for effective, legally-defendable PES. A standardised method to define job-tasks remains to be established.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas , Emprego/normas , Exame Físico/normas , Desempenho Profissional/normas , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Seleção de Pessoal/legislação & jurisprudência , Seleção de Pessoal/normas , Aptidão Física , Políticas , Carga de Trabalho
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(6): 363-369, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a disabling non-traumatic shoulder lesion on work participation and working life expectancy. METHODS: From a 70% random sample of the Finnish population, we selected 30-59-year-old wage earners with prolonged sickness absence due to a shoulder lesion (n=7644). We followed the persons from 2006 to 2014 and calculated the proportion of time a person spent in different work participation statuses. The associations of potential determinants with a preterm exit from paid employment were tested using Cox regression. Years expected to be spent in different work participation statuses were estimated applying the Sullivan method for healthy life expectancy. RESULTS: During 9 years of follow-up time spent at work was reduced from 77.7% to 46.7%, and 15.8% of the persons were granted disability retirement, mostly due to shoulder and other musculoskeletal diseases. Compared with the general population persons with a disabling shoulder disease are expected to lose from 1.8 to 8.1 years of working life, depending on their age. Age, gender, education, duration of initial sickness absence due to the shoulder lesion, not being able to return to work sustainably and participation in vocational rehabilitation predicted preterm exit from work. Heavy lifting increased the risk of preterm exit marginally. CONCLUSIONS: Working life expectancy is markedly reduced in persons with a disabling shoulder lesion, mainly because of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal problems. Clinicians should consider interventions targeted at improving musculoskeletal functioning and necessary work modifications before shoulder problems become chronic or the persons develop disabling comorbid musculoskeletal conditions.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Ombro/fisiopatologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Emprego/normas , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ombro/anormalidades , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
19.
Workplace Health Saf ; 67(6): 302-310, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999809

RESUMO

The labor force participation rate for adults aged 55 years and older has increased nearly 10% over the past two and a half decades. As workers age, they frequently experience increased chronic health conditions and impaired sleep, which may negatively influence their self-rated health (SRH) and work performance. This study aimed to examine the associations between nonrestorative sleep (NRS) and work performance (i.e., difficulty concentrating or having lower productivity at work) and associations between demographic and sleep characteristics with SRH in middle-aged workers. We conducted a secondary data analysis among working middle-aged adults 50 to 65 years of age ( N = 392) from the 2008 Sleep in America Poll. Respondents frequently reported impaired sleep such as frequent insomnia symptoms, NRS, and short sleep duration. Nonrestorative sleep was associated with decreased work performance such as trouble organizing work, doing work over due to mistakes, and lower productivity. Nonrestorative sleep and short sleep duration were significantly associated with lower SRH. Strategies for the early detection of impaired sleep and implementation of interventions to improve sleep may improve SRH and work performance in working middle-aged adults.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Emprego/normas , Nível de Saúde , Autorrelato/normas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Work ; 62(2): 221-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited research available regarding the coping skills of individuals living with schizophrenia and the strategies used in the open labor market, particularly from a South African context. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the barriers, facilitators and coping strategies that individuals with schizophrenia use when returning to the open labor market after participating in a vocational rehabilitation program to improve work skills. PARTICIPANTS: Four individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and two key informants (occupational therapists) participated in the study. METHODS: The research study was positioned within the interpretive paradigm, specifically utilizing an exploratory and descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were used in order to gather data from the participants. RESULTS: Theme one reflects the barriers related to returning to work (i.e. society's acceptance of an individual's work potential). The second theme relates to the enabling factors related to returning to work (i.e. the usefulness of work preparation programs to enhance open labor market employability). Theme three relates to the coping skills that individuals with schizophrenia utilize (i.e. holistic support enhances participation in the worker role). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the findings indicate individuals with schizophrenia experience barriers that prevent them from being able to adapt to their work environments. However, with the support of the occupational therapist, family, and employer, together with improvements to the vocational rehabilitation program, these barriers may be alleviated, and there could be an improvement in the reintegration of individuals with schizophrenia into the open labor market. The findings suggest that the disclosure of an individual's medical diagnosis, in order to facilitate the return to work of an individual diagnosed with schizophrenia, could be viewed as a barrier and a facilitator.


Assuntos
Emprego/normas , Percepção , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Emprego/métodos , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
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