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2.
Work ; 67(1): 37-46, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that emerged in late 2019, and later become a global pandemic, has unleashed an almost unprecedented global public health and economic crisis. OBJECTIVE: In this perspective, we examine the effects of COVID-19 and identify a likely 'new normal' in terms of challenges and opportunities within the fields of disability, telework, and rehabilitation. METHODS: We use a systems thinking lens informed by recent empirical evidence and peer-reviewed qualitative accounts regarding the pandemic to identify emerging challenges, and pinpoint opportunities related to health and changing employment infrastructure of people with disabilities and rehabilitation professionals. RESULTS: From our interpretation, the key leverage points or opportunities include: (1) developing disability-inclusive public health responses and emergency preparedness; (2) enabling employment and telework opportunities for people with disabilities; (3) addressing the new requirements in rehabilitation service provision, including participating as essential team members in the care of people with infectious diseases such as COVID-19; (4) embracing the added emphasis on, and capacity for, telehealth; and (5) developing greater resilience, distance learning, and employability among the rehabilitation workforce. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has become increasingly challenging to the lives of people with disabilities and rehabilitation professionals; however, key challenges can be minimized and opportunities can be capitalized upon in order to 'build back better' after COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Recessão Econômica , Emprego/organização & administração , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Análise de Sistemas , Telecomunicações/organização & administração , Telemedicina , Recursos Humanos/tendências
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881917

RESUMO

Organizational effectiveness is contingent upon employees' contributions; however, the role of employee voice behavior as a critical component of employees' contribution to the organization has not been sufficiently acknowledged. Based on proactive behavior theory, we present a model to investigate employee voice behavior as an underlying mechanism in the relationship between supervisor delegation and perceived workplace inclusion. Using the SEM (structural equation modeling) method, we test our model's hypotheses with data from 271 employee-supervisor questionnaires administered in state-owned enterprises in the telecommunications industry. The results show that supervisor delegation is positively related to employees' promotive and prohibitive voice behavior. Promotive voice significantly influences perceived workplace inclusion, but prohibitive voice behavior was not found to have any impact on perceived workplace inclusion. Moreover, both dimensions of voice behavior, i.e., promotive and prohibitive voice behavior, significantly mediate the relationship between supervisor delegation and perceived workplace inclusion.


Assuntos
Emprego/organização & administração , Telecomunicações/tendências , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Organizações , Fonação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voz/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877445

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship between supervisory behavior, conflict management strategies, and sustainable employee performance and inquires the mediating effect of conflict management strategies. Data were collected from the SMEs of the manufacturing industry of Pakistan. The significance of the model was assessed using the PLS-SEM (structural equation modeling). The findings of the study revealed a positive and significant relationship between supervisory behavior and sustainable employee behavior. Similarly, conflict management strategies had a positive effect on the relationship between supervisory behavior and sustainable employee behavior. This study adds in the current literature of supervisory behavior as a critical predictor of sustainable employee performance in two ways. Firstly, this study validates Conflict management strategies as an influential mediator between the relationship of supervisory behavior and sustainable employee performance. Secondly, this study provides substantial practical implications for managers at SMEs to enhance sustainable employee performance through supervisory behavior, stimulated by conflict management strategies. This study is based on cross-sectional data; more longitudinal studies can further strengthen the generalizability of relationships between the constructs. The study adds in the current literature of PLS-SEM as an assessment model for direct and mediation relationships.


Assuntos
Negociação , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Emprego/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias/organização & administração , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Negociação/métodos , Organização e Administração , Paquistão , Desempenho Profissional/organização & administração , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 416-424, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489144

RESUMO

Families and intergenerational relationships are important sources of risk for COVID-19 infection, especially for older adults who are at high risk of complications from the disease. If one family member is exposed to the virus they could serve as a source of transmission or, if they fall ill, the resources they provide to others could be severed. These risks may be especially heightened for family members who work outside the home and provide care, or for those family members who care for multiple generations. Policies have the potential to help families bear the burden of these decisions. This essay argues that policies that address health, employment, and other social issues have implications for families, and that policies aimed at families and caregivers can affect the health, employment, and the general well-being of the nation.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Políticas , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Cuidadores/normas , Emprego/organização & administração , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Relação entre Gerações , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150592

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, Quality Management System (QMS) and High Performance Work System (HPWS) have emerged as key concepts to enhance organizational effectiveness. All over the globe, majority of contemporary manufacturing and services organizations have applied at least one of these development strategies or even both. This study proposes an integrated framework of QMS and HPWS and empirically investigates the relationship between QMS and HPWS practices and their direct and indirect effects on organizational effectiveness using structural equation modelling (SEM). This research makes a number of significant contributions: (1) The black box of the conjoint implementation is opened up for better appreciation of the interplay of QMS and HPWS practices and their influence on organizational effectiveness (2) The key QMS practices recognized as contributing factor of performance have been classified and examined at two distinct levels i.e. QMS Top Level practices and QMS Core practices (3) The mediating and interaction effects of QMS Core practices and HPWS practices on the relationship of QMS-Top Level practices and organizational effectiveness have been thoroughly investigated. The proposed framework is tested through cross-sectional data from 90 Technical Services Organizations (TSO) operating in Pakistan. The research hypotheses are supported by the test results of the SEM. The findings and implications are discussed along with limitations and future research guidelines.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Emprego/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Administração de Recursos Humanos/métodos , Gestão da Qualidade Total/organização & administração , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/organização & administração , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Stress Health ; 36(2): 191-202, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919963

RESUMO

This research builds on prior studies showing the role of employee emotion recognition in the stress process to be mixed and conflicting. As such, it was proposed that the extent to which employees' emotion recognition skills buffer or exacerbate emotional demands depends on the extent to which employees believe their supervisor also is skilled in emotion recognition. Two samples of Australian employees completed cross-sectional questionnaires. Sample 1 consisted of 149 employees in a medical research institution, and Sample 2 consisted of 161 government employees in an equipment supplies and logistics service. A three-way interaction among emotional demands, employee emotion recognition, and perceived supervisor emotion recognition was found on psychological strain in both samples and on job dissatisfaction in Sample 1. As predicted, when employee emotion recognition was high, those who perceived their supervisor to be high in emotion recognition were buffered from emotional demands. In contrast, stress-exacerbating effects were found when employees were high in emotion recognition, but supervisors were perceived to be low in emotion recognition. Overall, these results highlight the importance of emotion recognition in the stress process, and that the same skill set needs to be perceived in one's supervisor, an interpersonal resource, for this intrapersonal resource to be adaptive for employees.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Poder Psicológico , Análise de Regressão , Justiça Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 89-99, jan. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055778

RESUMO

Resumo Através de breve recuperação histórica busca-se descrever as principais tendências do mundo do trabalho no Brasil. A ênfase do ensaio focaliza a atual transição antecipada para a sociedade de serviços, cuja alteração significativa pode ser observada no próprio funcionamento do mercado de trabalho. Também se considera a predominância do massivo desemprego aberto, da ampliação da subutilização da força de trabalho e da generalização da precarização nas ocupações em função da ausência de crescimento econômico e do retorno das reformas neoliberais. O resultado tem sido a polarização crescente no interior do mundo do trabalho.


Abstract Through a brief historical recovery, the article seeks to describe the main trends in the world of work in Brazil. The emphasis of the article focuses on the current early transition to the service society, whose significant change can be observed in the operation of the labor market itself. Also, it considers the predominance of massive open unemployment, the expansion of the underutilization of the labor force and the generalization of precariousness in professions due to the absence of economic growth and the return of the neoliberal reforms. The result has been the increasing polarization within the world of work.


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/tendências , Emprego , Emprego/história , Emprego/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 7-13, jan. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055771

RESUMO

Resumo O artigo debate a importância da Enfermagem para o Sistema Único de Saúde, considerando a mesma estar presente em todas as estruturas organizacionais de saúde, nas 27 unidades da Federação e em todos os municípios do país, essencial, portanto, para a prestação de uma assistência de qualidade. Apesar disso, a profissão enfrenta muitos desafios, quer no campo da formação e do mercado de trabalho, que necessitam ser enfrentados, visando a valorização desses profissionais que apesar de todas as dificuldades a que estão submetidos, são comprometidos com a saúde da população brasileira.


Abstract This paper discusses the importance of the Nursing to the Unified Health System, considering its presence in all organizational health structures, in the 27 units of the Federation and all municipalities of the country, essential, therefore, for the provision of high-quality health care. Nevertheless, the profession faces many challenges, both in the field of education and in the job market, that must be addressed, aiming at the valorization of these professionals who, despite all the difficulties they are subjected to, are committed to the health of the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Brasil , Enfermagem , Emprego/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
11.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(1): 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work and related exposures may play a role in suicide and there has been evidence in the literature that some occupational factors may be associated with suicide. The identification of occupational risk factors of suicide mortality among employees affiliated to the French special agricultural social security scheme (MSA), an understudied population, appears important. The objective of this study was to identify the occupational factors associated with suicide mortality among French employees from the MSA working between 2007 and 2013. METHODS: The study population included all the employees affiliated to the MSA working between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2013, i.e. 1,699,929 men and 1,201,017 women. The studied occupational factors included: economic activity, skill level, and work contract. Survival analyses (Cox models) stratified on gender were performed using age as time scale and region and year of contract as adjustment variables. RESULTS: Among men, the factors associated with an elevated suicide risk were: economic activities of forestry, agriculture and related activities, and manufacture of food products and beverages (e.g. meat, wine), low-skilled level and working in the regions of Brittany, Burgundy Franche-Comté, Pays de la Loire, Normandy, Grand Est and Centre-Val-de-Loire. No association was observed among women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that economic activity and low-skilled level may be associated with suicide among men affiliated to the MSA and may contribute to the implementation of prevention interventions. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand these associations.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agricultura/organização & administração , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/mortalidade , Emprego/classificação , Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(1): 7-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859850

RESUMO

This paper discusses the importance of the Nursing to the Unified Health System, considering its presence in all organizational health structures, in the 27 units of the Federation and all municipalities of the country, essential, therefore, for the provision of high-quality health care. Nevertheless, the profession faces many challenges, both in the field of education and in the job market, that must be addressed, aiming at the valorization of these professionals who, despite all the difficulties they are subjected to, are committed to the health of the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Emprego/organização & administração , Enfermagem , Brasil , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(1): 89-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859858

RESUMO

Through a brief historical recovery, the article seeks to describe the main trends in the world of work in Brazil. The emphasis of the article focuses on the current early transition to the service society, whose significant change can be observed in the operation of the labor market itself. Also, it considers the predominance of massive open unemployment, the expansion of the underutilization of the labor force and the generalization of precariousness in professions due to the absence of economic growth and the return of the neoliberal reforms. The result has been the increasing polarization within the world of work.


Assuntos
Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/tendências , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/tendências , Brasil , Emprego/história , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Recursos Humanos/história , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Athl Train ; 55(1): 88-95, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714143

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs) have reported stress and role ambiguity during the transition to practice. Previous researchers focused on their qualitative experiences, yet no investigators have explored how characteristics such as the setting or type of educational program affect the transition to practice. OBJECTIVE: To determine how newly credentialed ATs perceived their transition to practice. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Of 1835 newly credentialed ATs (18%) certified and employed between January and September, 332 completed the survey within 3 months of employment (129 men, 203 women; age = 23.58 ± 2.54 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The survey consisted of demographic information (eg, employment setting, job title) and 3 sections: (1) comfort level during the transition (CL), (2) feelings of mentorship and support (MS), and (3) feelings of organizational transition. Participants identified their feelings of nervousness, support, and understanding organizational values using a Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 4 = strongly agree). Descriptive statistics were calculated for each survey item. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis (H) tests were used to determine associations between different demographic characteristics and responses regarding orientation and CL, MS, and feelings of organizational transition. RESULTS: Most participants agreed or strongly agreed that they felt nervous (n = 264, 79.2%) and that the transition was stressful (n = 227, 68.1%) but they felt prepared for their job (n = 262, 78.7%). No differences in CL were present among settings (H = 5.64, P = .228), job titles (H = 4.88, P = .087), or types of professional program (U = 6488, P = .279). Respondents who were assigned a mentor reported better perceptions of MS (U = 6250, P < .001). Most participants felt that supervisors adequately explained administrative procedures during orientation (n = 169, 54.3%) and felt they were adequately oriented to organizational values (n = 252, 75.7%). CONCLUSIONS: New ATs felt nervous when entering their new role, but having a mentor and receiving a detailed orientation helped alleviate stress during the transition to practice.


Assuntos
Credenciamento , Emprego , Mentores , Educação Física e Treinamento , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/métodos , Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Educação Física e Treinamento/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Esportes/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
15.
Rev. esp. med. prev. salud pública ; 25(1/2): 39-44, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194949

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Enunciar un conjunto de recomendaciones para incrementar la resiliencia de las organizaciones y los profesionales sanitarios frente al impacto de la crisis ocasionada por la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODO: Estudio cualitativo para la búsqueda de consenso con participación de 30 profesionales de diferentes disciplinas (medicina preventiva, calidad asistencial, seguridad del paciente, atención primaria, psiquiatría y psicología). Principales resultados: Tras la identificación de las principales fuentes de estrés y la definición de los objetivos de la fase de recuperación, se consensuaron un total de 17 recomendaciones, 13 de ellas con foco organizacional y las cuatro restantes, centradas en profesionales. CONCLUSIONES: La recuperación del sistema sanitario tras la pandemia por la COVID19 pasa por restaurar la moral y el bienestar de sus profesionales, de lo contrario la calidad asistencial y la seguridad de los pacientes se verán comprometidas. Estas recomendaciones pretenden ser un punto de partida en esta dirección


OBJECTIVE: To provide a set of recommendations to increase the resilience of health care organizations and professionals to the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic crisis. METHOD: Consensual qualitative study with the participation of 30 professionals from different disciplines (preventive medicine, quality of care, patient safety, primary care, psychiatry and psychology). MAIN RESULTS: After the identification of the main sources of stress and the definition of the objectives of the recovery phase, a total of 17 recommendations were agreed upon, 13 of them with an organizational focus and the remaining four focused on professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The recovery of the health system after the COVID19 pandemic requires restoring the morale and well-being of its professionals, otherwise the quality of care and patient safety will be compromised. These recommendations are intended as a starting point in this direction


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Mental/normas , Recuperação Pós-Desastres , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/psicologia , Emprego/organização & administração , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/normas
18.
Work ; 64(3): 495-506, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research is needed on how to optimize the return-to-work process for persons with mental health problems. OBJECTIVE: To develop a model that explains how employer and rehabilitation professional mental health literacy may influence strategies used in the return-to-work of persons with mental health problems. METHODS: A grounded theory study design was used to collect and analyse interview data from 23 employers and 22 rehabilitation professionals. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in four categories, illustrated in a conceptual process model: 1) seeing mental health problems through past experiences; 2) separating understandable and incomprehensible mental health problems; 3) balancing safeguarding one's personal interest with providing adequate support; and 4) facing conflicts and uncertainty in employee/service user return-to-work. A positional map of employer/rehabilitation types was created based on level of negative attitudes and uncertainty in supporting employees/service users and the employer in relation to the level of comprehensive understanding of mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: Professional mental health literacy needs to be increased. Interventions need to be developed that provide employers with targeted support and knowledge in mental health literacy. Education on how to prevent and detect common mental health problems in the workplace is needed.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Retorno ao Trabalho , Adulto , Emprego/organização & administração , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Medição de Risco , Suécia , Incerteza
19.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 42(4): 242-251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449161

RESUMO

While community health workers (CHWs) are employed in various arrangements, little is known about the association between organizational structure and CHW experiences. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with CHWs, supervisors, and leadership employed in one centrally organized setting to investigate organizational structure and perceptions of CHW effectiveness. A model that hired employees but assigned them to various settings offered support and unique career advancement opportunities. Coordinated education, ongoing trainings, and persistent supervision were perceived to improve the accuracy of resource information and facilitated collaboration across the health care system with increased health care team communication, offering insights into other organizational structures.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Emprego/organização & administração , Liderança , Papel Profissional , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221041, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437190

RESUMO

Young adults face unemployment-related challenges, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Self-employment is encouraged by the Tanzanian government and international institutions such as the World Bank. It has been found that young adults who are employed or self-employed show more functional independence and less inequality and social polarization, as well as a decrease in deviant behaviour. However, limited knowledge and skills related to entrepreneurial activities contribute to lack of motivation towards self-employment among young adults. In order to examine these behaviours, an intervention study implementing an entrepreneurship and beekeeping training in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was conducted. After completion of the intervention, a qualitative study was conducted that used focus group discussions (FGDs) to explore the experiences and changes in behaviour of young adults following the intervention. A total of 36 of the original 57 young adults from four camps who fully participated in the four arms of interventions were recruited. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the FGD data. Three themes emerged from the findings: establishment and maintenance of an entrepreneurial business, changes in behaviour, and perceived challenges. Improved entrepreneurial skills, customer care, and financial management were expressed as positive changes the participants attained relating to business management. Similarly, changes in the participants' behaviours, attitudes, and lifestyle practices led to improved health and increased recognition and respect in their communities. Insufficient start-up capital and long intervals between sessions were the main challenges. The study showed an improvement in the ability of the participants to generate the human, social, and financial capital prerequisite to business development. Increase in customer care, social capital and financial management are key factors for successful microbusiness activities for stable self-employment.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/organização & administração , Emprego/organização & administração , Contrato de Risco/organização & administração , Motivação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , Emprego/psicologia , Administração Financeira/organização & administração , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Tanzânia
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