Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.430
Filtrar
1.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 60-74, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524563

RESUMO

Loneliness may have complex implications for the mental and physical health of older people. It could have unique expressions among older men due to the social construction of gender, which raises an expectation that men should be strong, assertive, and capable of independently coping with their difficulties. As a result, older men suffering from loneliness may avoid talking about it and seeking help for this matter. The Big Five personality traits were found to be associated with many life domains, including loneliness, yet this issue has received limited research attention with regard to older adults in general and older men in particular. Therefore, the current study explores the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to understanding loneliness among older men in Israel, while controlling for several demographic factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires administered to a sample of 392 older men. The results indicate that agreeableness, emotional stability, and openness to experiences were negatively associated with older men's loneliness. In addition, no association was found between extraversion and conscientiousness and respondents' loneliness, and no significant association was found between age and loneliness, and being employed and being in a relationship were associated with lower levels of loneliness. The conclusion is that it is important that professionals working with older men utilize the Big Five personality traits to understand loneliness and offer them interventions for reducing their loneliness. Furthermore, it is essential to promote social awareness of the importance of intimate relationships, as well as of employment, in the old age.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Personalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 185-192, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001691

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of our study was to assess the rate of work adjustments 1 year after the diagnosis in a population of female breast cancer (BC) survivors, in the context of the French system of social protection. We also characterised these adjustments and their influence on the reduction of professional exclusion of patients 1 year after the diagnosis. METHODS: This observational, prospective study was conducted from February 2015 to April 2016 among female patients with BC. Inclusion criteria were women aged between 18 and 65 years, treated for BC and integrated into the labour market at the time of diagnosis (working or on sick leave). Exclusion criteria were metastatic BC, retired patients and refusal to participate. A 1-year follow-up was scheduled, and data collection was performed with questionnaires. RESULTS: In total, 213 patients were included between February 2015 and April 2016. One year after the diagnosis (T1), among 185 BC survivors, 78 (42.2%) patients were working. Among them, 13 patients did not interrupt their occupational activity and 65 returned to work after a period of sick leave. Sixty-four patients returned to work after the end of chemotherapy (after 6 months), and one returned to work before this therapeutic threshold. Sixty-six patients (35.7%) benefited from at least one adjustment of their work conditions to facilitate their return to work (RTW) or maintenance at work: working hours were decreased for 43 patients, and workstation changes were performed for 22 patients. An occupational health physician was involved for some patients; work adjustments were prescribed to 42 patients, 7 patients had medical restrictions for physical reasons and 4 patients had restrictions for psychological reasons. Forty-three patients benefited from part-time work prescribed for therapeutic reasons. CONCLUSIONS: Referral to occupational health physicians and work adjustments remain limited in the process of RTW or maintenance at work after BC in France, despite their positive impact.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Retorno ao Trabalho , Ajustamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/reabilitação , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 188, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence studies are needed to assess the distribution of diseases. However, in a contrasting health promotion perspective, self-rated health is in itself an important field of study. This study investigated self-rated global health in the general population in Norway. METHODS: As part of a national survey, a two-item measure of global health (score range 0-100) was administered to a general population sample, and 1776 of 4961 eligible participants (response rate 36%) responded. Group comparisons were conducted using independent t-tests and one-way analyses of variance, whereas factors associated with global health was investigated with linear regression analysis. RESULTS: In the adjusted analyses, better global health was associated with higher age (ß = 0.13, p <  0.001), having higher education (ß = 0.10, p <  0.001), being employed (ß = 0.21, p <  0.001), and living with a spouse or partner (ß = 0.05, p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: While global health was similar for men and women in the Norwegian general population, other sociodemographic variables were linked with global health. In particular, the link between employment and self-rated global health was strong. The findings are considered representative for the Norwegian population.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 64, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flourishing, defined as the coexistence of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, is the most favorable end of the mental health spectrum. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the association between flourishing mental health and favorable work-related outcomes. However, epidemiology of flourishing mental health is scarce in Japan. Moreover, the relationship between flourishing mental health and occupational stress has not been elaborated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate (1) the prevalence of flourishing mental health and (2) the association between flourishing mental health and occupational stress among Japanese workers. METHODS: The present survey was conducted in from February to March 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered, and web-based questionnaire among workers in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Mental Health Continuum Short Form was used to assess flourishing mental health. We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational stress for flourishing mental health, controlling for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: A total of 7012 respondents (4402 men, 2610 women) were analyzed. The overall prevalence of flourishing mental health among the respondents was 12.4%. Full-time (permanent) workers were less likely to be flourishing. Reward from work (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.04-2.68), support from colleagues and superiors (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.44-1.94), and workload (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05-1.36) were positively associated with flourishing mental health, whereas mental workload (AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.57-0.75) was inversely associated with flourishing mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study shed light on the association between flourishing mental health and occupational stress.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1534, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1475, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic stress in childhood may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in young people. Erik Hemmingsson has suggested a new obesity causation model which focuses on psychosocial stress. The aim was to examine the associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and overweight and obesity and examine if these associations attenuate, when the effect of the different domains from Eric Hemmingsson's obesity causation model were taken into account. METHODS: A longitudinal study using data from The West Jutland Cohort Study (N = 2879). Outcome was overweight and obesity combined derived from self-reported weight and height at age 15, 18, 21 and 28 years. Exposure variables were equivalised household income, educational level and labour market participation of the mother derived from registers and psychosocial variables derived from questionnaires. A three-step adjustment model using logistic regression and stratified by gender was applied. RESULTS: Mother's low educational level was associated with a 3-fold increased odds of obesity in 18 year-old-girls, which attenuated when adjusting for the domains adult distress, disharmonious family environment and offspring distress. In 28 year-old girls, a 2.5-fold increased odds of obesity was observed, which attenuated when mutual adjusted for other socioeconomic variables and attenuated even further when adjusting for all the domains. In 18-year-old boys, a 3-fold increased odds of obesity was observed which attenuated after adjustments for adult distress, disharmonious family environment and offspring distress. In 21-year old boys, a four-fold increased odds of obesity was observed that attenuated after adjustments. At age 28 years, a three-fold increased odds of obesity was observed, which vanished in the fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms to some extent that the associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and overweight and obesity can be explained by the domains included in Erik Hemmingsson's model, although our results should be interpreted with caution. Adult distress, disharmonious family environment and offspring distress accounted for some of the association in girls, whereas in boys it was primarily offspring distress, which had the greatest impact. Young people's educational attainment can act as a buffer in the relationship between mother's lower educational level and obesity at age 28 years.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Public Health ; 64(9): 1313-1323, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Social policies help people to overcome various unfavourable living situations, such as unemployment, which may lead to health inequalities. The aim of this study is to examine how adults and children perceive the impact of social policies connected to unemployment on well-being in the household, and whether their views differ. METHODS: We obtained data from 123 stakeholders in Slovakia, 96 adults and 27 children aged 11-15 years. We used concept mapping, based on qualitative data collection and quantitative data analysis. RESULTS: We obtained four clusters related to: children and education; current workforce; disadvantaged groups; labour office support. Adults rated the current workforce as the most important and urgent, and children the disadvantaged groups. Contrasts were largest on the disadvantaged groups and on combining family life and working abroad which children rated as very important and urgent but adults less so. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders had many perceptions, which may help to improve social policies. Adults were more concerned about work, and children were more so about inequalities. In general, adults were more practical and individualistic, and children, more emphatic and idealistic.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Política Pública , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eslováquia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614856

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to research the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on work ability and health-related quality of life factors for healthcare personnel (HP) with chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection. A prospective evaluation study with three data collection times without an external control group was conducted. HP (n = 163) with an occupational acquired chronic hepatitis B/C infection who participated in an inpatient rehabilitation program were surveyed. Information was collected on work ability (WAI-Work Ability Index), quality of life (SF-36-Short Form-36 Health Survey), and anxiety and depression-related symptoms (HADS-D-Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The majority of participants had HCV infection. Work ability was poor, improved significantly until the end of treatment, and remained at a moderate level six months later. The SF-36 showed no change in physical health over the study period, the results regarding mental health were in the average range with a significant improvement directly after intervention. The HADS-D results indicate noteworthy anxiety and depression symptoms during the study period. The inpatient rehabilitation program proved to be effective in the short term regarding mental health (SF-36) and WAI. To ensure long lasting positive results, services aimed at enhancing physical and mental health should be provided as early as possible and on a recurring basis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Emprego/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/fisiopatologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3170, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to translate, adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Nurse-Work Instability Scale. METHOD: this was a methodological study following the translation steps: synthesis, back-translation, specialist´s committee, semantics analysis, pretest, and psychometric tests. The committee was composed of 5 specialists. For the semantics analysis, 18 nursing workers evaluated the instrument and 30 pretested it. For the psychometric tests, the sample size was 214 nursing workers. The internal construct validity was analyzed by the Rasch model. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency, and concurrent validity with Pearson's correlation between the Nurse-Work Instability Scale, and the Work Ability Index, Job Stress Scale. RESULTS: a Nurse-Work Instability Scale in Brazilian Portuguese with 20 items showed an adequate reliability (0.831), stability (p <0.0001), and an expected correlation with Work Ability Index (r = -0.526; P<0.0001) and Job Stress Scale (r = 0.352; p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: the instrument is appropriated to detect work instability in Brazilian nursing workers with musculoskeletal disorders. Its application is fundamental to avoid long-term withdrawal from work by early identification of the work instability. Furthermore, the scale can assist the development of actions and strategies to prevent the abandonment of the profession of nursing workers affected by musculoskeletal disorders.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597239

RESUMO

The fast population ageing has generated and will continue to generate large social, economic and health challenges in the 21th century in Australia, and many other developed and developing countries. Population ageing is projected to lead to workforce shortages, welfare dependency, fiscal unsustainability, and a higher burden of chronic diseases on health care system. Promoting health and sustainable work capacity among mature age and older workers hence becomes the most important and critical way to address all these challenges. This paper used the pooled data from the longitudinal Household, Incomes and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey 2002-2011 data to investigate common and different factors predicting voluntary or involuntary workforce transitions among workers aged 45 to 64. Long term health conditions and preference to work less hours increased while having a working partner and proportion of paid years decreased both voluntary and involuntary work force transitions. Besides these four common factors, the voluntary and involuntary workforce transitions had very different underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest that government policies aimed at promoting workforce participation at later life should be directed specifically to life-long health promotion and continuous employment as well as different factors driving voluntary and involuntary workforce transitions, such as life-long training, healthy lifestyles, work flexibility, ageing friendly workplace, and job security.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Austrália , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/tendências , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/tendências , Retorno ao Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos/tendências
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658595

RESUMO

This is a pioneering study on the relationship between quality of work life and the employee's perception of their contribution to organizational performance. It unveils the importance of subjective and behavioral components of quality of work life and their influence on the formation of the collaborator's individual desire to contribute to strengthening the organization's productivity. The results obtained indicate that for workers: feeling their supervisors' support through listening to their concerns and by sensing they take them on board; being integrated in a good work environment; and feeling respected both as professionals and as people; positively influence their feeling of contributing to organizational performance. The results are particularly relevant given the increased weight of services in the labor market, together with intensified automation and digitalization of collaborators' functions. The findings also contribute to the ongoing debate about the need for more work on the subjective and behavioral components of so-called smart and learning organizations, rather than focusing exclusively on remuneration as the factor stimulating organizational productivity based on the collaborator's contribution.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Emprego/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652495

RESUMO

Workplace bullying has been identified as a global problem because of its growing magnitude and the harmful effects in victims and organizations. Workplace vulnerability is a component of job precarious1ness that reflects insecurity, fear, and labor uncertainty. This paper aims to analyze the associations between the exposure to workplace vulnerability and psychological distress, and to explore the associations between exposure to workplace bullying and psychological distress, by sex. A cross-sectional and probabilistic survey was applied to a randomly-selected valid sample of 1995 salaried workers in three main metropolitan areas of Chile. Chi-square test and logistic regression models controlling for confounders were tested. Female workers were more exposed to workplace vulnerability and presented a higher prevalence of psychological distress. Among women who were vulnerable, one of three reported psychological distress (30.8%), which is higher than men (16.5%). Workers exposed to workplace vulnerability had a greater chance of workplace bullying, workers who perceived high workplace vulnerability had a greater chance of psychological distress, and workers exposed to workplace violence had a greater likelihood of psychological distress in comparison to those who were not exposed. Increasing employment security can reduce the perception of job vulnerability and help prevent the existence of workplace bullying. Additionally, occupational health protection policies should prevent, protect from, and intervene in workplace bullying as a precursor to mental health problems in Chile.


Assuntos
Bullying , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 249(1): 57-64, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564675

RESUMO

Non-regular employment is increasing and its mental health impact is a globally important problem. In Japan, non-regularly employed researchers are increasing, especially within young age groups, because employment quotas were not sufficiently expanded against rapid increasing number of doctorate holders. It is therefore important to understand the relationship between non-regular employment and mental health. The significance of our research is to contribute to the improvement of researchers' mental health by clarifying the influence of employment status on psychological distress. We conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey in 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to workers in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. The survey questionnaire items included employment status, psychological distress, occupational stress, sex, age, and income. We analyzed 2,762 valid responses in two categories (1,850 regular employment, 912 non-regular employment) and two subcategories based on age according to the definition of "young researcher" by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (20-39 years vs. 40-59 years). Psychological distress was defined as a total K6 score of 5 or greater. Binomial logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for psychological distress. Non-regular employment was significantly associated with psychological distress in the age 20-39 group but not in the age 40-59 group. At the age 20-39 group, a negative association was shown between psychological distress and reward from work (i.e., pride in their job, ability utilization, and sense of accomplishment). Support to increase psychological work rewards may be important in reducing psychological distress for young non-regularly employed researchers.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Adulto Jovem
15.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 628-636, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535389

RESUMO

Based on Role Congruity Theory, we tested the hypothesis of gender bias by examining gender differences in observers' evaluations of the awareness and acceptability of workplace incivility gender-dyad interaction. Three hundred and ninety-six Spanish high school students (55.3% female) read one scenario of overt incivility (publicly humiliates and openly doubts the employee's judgment) or covert (omits and pays little attention) from a leader (female vs. male) toward a subordinate (female vs. male) in engineering. Results indicated gender differences among observers. From the leader actor of incivility, males were more aware and accepted less the incivility when performed by a female leader in a male domain; whereas females were more aware and accepted less incivility than males in all cases. Regarding the subordinate target of incivility, only females were more aware and accepted less incivility, and both males and females were more aware and accepted less covert incivility. Our results reveal practical implications for interventions from a gender perspective.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Incivilidade , Masculinidade , Sexismo , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
16.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e9, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The year 2017 marked the 21st anniversary of the South African Cuban Medical Collaboration (SACMC) programme that offers disadvantaged South African (SA) students an opportunity for medical training in Cuba. Graduates are expected to return to practice at a primary care level in rural communities; however, little is known about the professional trajectories and career choices of graduates from the programme. AIM: This study explored the reasons why students enrolled in the programme, their professional and career choices as graduates and their career intentions. SETTING: The study setting was the whole of SA although participants were primarily drawn from KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: An exploratory, qualitative case study used a purposive sampling strategy to gather data through semi-structured interviews from participants. RESULTS: Graduates (N = 20) of the SACMC programme were all practicing in local SA settings. Participants preferred the SACMC programme as it offered them a full scholarship for medical training. Nineteen doctors had fulfilled their obligation to work in rural areas. Thirteen doctors are engaged in primary healthcare practice, either as private practice generalists or as public service medical officers. Three doctors had completed specialty training: one doctor was training towards specialisation, one doctor was employed at national government and two doctors were employed as medical managers. At the time of the study, 11 doctors were practicing in rural locations and 19 had indicated a long-term intention to work and live within South Africa. CONCLUSION: The participants of this study who graduated from the SACMC programme are fulfilling their obligations in rural communities. They all intend to contribute to the SA medical workforce in the long-term.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Emprego/psicologia , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/psicologia , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Adulto , Cuba , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Área de Atuação Profissional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Rural , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 666-677, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478809

RESUMO

Purpose: Work ability of physical education teachers (PETs) is important to promote physical activity and effective teaching process. However, there was a limited study. In this study, work ability of the Turkish PETs was investigated. Method: The mixed methods were used. The study group consisted of 407 (Mage = 36.52 ± 6.9) PETs. "The Work Ability Questionnaire" was used as a data collection tool. Descriptive statistic, independent sample t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple regression analysis, and chi-square were used in the analysis of qualitative data, and content analysis was used in the analysis of quantitative data. Result: The PETs were satisfied with their current job, and while there was a significant difference according to the gender (p < .05), a significant difference was not detected according to the age (p > .05). Furthermore, the PETs had a high work ability; when the comparison according to the gender and age significant differences was found (p < .05). Also, it was found that job satisfaction predicted physical fitness, work ability, work motivation, and work atmosphere of the PETs (R2 = .463, F = 30.945, p < .05). Some of the PETs had a physical disease affecting their work abilities, and most of the PETs had musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases. In the comparison, according to gender, a significant difference was not found in terms of injury or disease (p > .05). Moreover, health problems were seen as the main problems which will threaten for the future work abilities. Conclusion: Higher work ability was associated with positive outcomes and higher job satisfaction. The healthy PETs had more work abilities.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Exercício , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 624, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A physician shortage is a worldwide problem and foreign-born physicians fill in the shortage of physicians in many developed countries. One problem that is associated with the physician shortage is increased physician turnover. Also, regarding foreign-born physicians, migration can be costly. The present study aimed to examine the turnover intentions and intentions to leave the country of foreign-born physicians. We examined how demographics, discrimination, language problems, perceived employment barriers, satisfaction with living in Finland, team climate, job satisfaction and patient-related stress were associated with these factors. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 371 foreign-born physicians in Finland that were aged between 26 and 65 (65% women). Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations. RESULTS: Half of the respondents had turnover intentions and 14.5% had considered leaving the country. High satisfaction with living in Finland was associated with a lower likelihood of both turnover intentions and intentions to leave the country. High levels of discrimination and employment barriers were associated with a high likelihood of turnover intentions whereas good team climate was associated with a low likelihood of turnover intentions. High levels of language problems were associated with a high likelihood of intentions to leave the country. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the importance of satisfaction with living in the host country, the prevention of discrimination and employment barriers, language skills and a good team climate for the retention of foreign-born physicians in their current job and in the host country. Thus, to keep their foreign-born physicians, health care organisations should implement measures to tackle these challenges. Organisations could arrange, for example, diversity training, self-assessment, team reflections, leadership coaching and culturally-specific networks. Moreover, internships associated with the qualification process could be utilised better in order to give a thorough introduction to the host country's health care environment and the possibilities for learning the language.


Assuntos
Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/psicologia , Humanos , Intenção , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Médicos/psicologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preconceito/psicologia , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Athl Train ; 54(11): 1197-1207, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483152

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Understanding the challenges faced by newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs) as they transition into clinical practice could assist employers and professional programs in developing initiatives to enhance this transition. OBJECTIVE: To explore the challenges faced by newly credentialed ATs during their transition from student to autonomous practitioner. DESIGN: Qualitative study. SETTING: Individual phone interviews. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 34 ATs certified between January and September 2013 participated in this study (18 women, 16 men; age = 24 ± 2 years; work settings = college, secondary school, clinic, and other). Data saturation guided the number of participants. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: An interview guide was used. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed via phenomenologic reduction, with data coded for common themes and subthemes. Trustworthiness was established via intercoder reliability, member checks, and peer review. RESULTS: Initially, participants had difficulty making decisions independently. However, making decisions and receiving positive feedback helped them develop confidence. Communication with coaches and parents was challenging, especially for those in the secondary school setting. Participants also experienced role ambiguity, as they were unsure of basic organizational and administrative structures and expectations. Mentor inaccessibility was the final challenge described by respondents. In particular, those in the secondary school setting and with part-time employment felt they did not have a supervisor or mentor whom they could contact for support and guidance. CONCLUSIONS: Professional programs should educate students on potential challenges to help them understand what they might encounter during the transition to clinical practice. Employers should provide clear expectations and job descriptions to alleviate some of the stress and role ambiguity. If a mentor is not provided by the employer, the newly credentialed AT should seek one to assist during the transition.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Esportes/educação , Adulto , Credenciamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/normas , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psico USF ; 24(3): 583-595, jul.-set. 2019. tab, il
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040771

RESUMO

O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar o poder preditivo da adaptabilidade de carreira na empregabilidade percebida, considerando o efeito mediador das respostas adaptativas nessa relação. Participaram da pesquisa 387 estudantes universitários. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizadas a Escala de Adaptabilidade de Carreira, a Escala de Desenvolvimento de Carreira de Estudantes Universitários e a Escala de Empregabilidade. Os resultados ressaltaram o poder preditivo da adaptabilidade de carreira na empregabilidade percebida e um efeito mediador parcial das respostas adaptativas nessa relação. A preocupação e identidade de carreira foram as dimensões da adaptabilidade e das respostas adaptativas mais significativas para predizer a empregabilidade. Por fim, são discutidas as implicações dos resultados na literatura vocacional, enfatizando a transição universidade-trabalho. Palavras-chave: adaptabilidade de carreira; empregabilidade; transição de carreira. (AU)


The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships established between career adaptability and perceived employability, considering the mediating effect of the adaptive responses in these relationships, in a sample of 387 university students. For data collection, we used the Career Adaptability Scale, the University Student Career Development Scale, and the Employability Scale. The results suggest positive and moderate associations between the constructs studied, besides a possible partial mediating effect of the adaptive responses in relation to the perceived employability. Additionally, the results indicate the prediction of career adaptability and adaptive responses in relation to perceived employability, especially in the career dimension and career identity. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results in the vocational literature, emphasizing the university-work transition. (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el poder predictivo de la adaptabilidad profesional en la empleabilidad percibida, considerando el efecto mediador de las respuestas adaptativas en esa relación, participando de esta investigación 387 estudiantes universitarios. Para la recolección de datos fueron utilizadas: Escala de Adaptabilidad Profesional, Escala de Desarrollo Profesional de Estudiantes Universitarios y Escala de Empleabilidad. Los resultados señalaron el poder predictivo de la adaptabilidad profesional en la empleabilidad percibida, además de un efecto mediador parcial de las respuestas adaptativas en esa relación, cumpliéndose de esta forma el objetivo propuesto. La preocupación e identidad profesional, fueron las dimensiones de adaptabilidad y de las respuestas adaptativas más significativas para predecir la empleabilidad. Por último, se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados en la literatura vocacional, enfatizando la transición universidad-trabajo. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes/psicologia , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Educação Superior , Emprego/psicologia , Candidatura a Emprego , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA