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1.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 1-7, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how Bipolar Disorder (BD) affects employment is limited by cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal designs. The aims for this study are to examine condition-related and other clinical predictors of longitudinal employment status and stability in those with BD compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Participants were 358 individuals with BD and HC who were enrolled in the Heinz C. Prechter Longitudinal Study of BD. Participants completed self-report measurements of employment, symptoms, health, personality, life events, and neuropsychological tests at study enrollment, yearly and/or every two months. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to predict employment status and stability. RESULTS: Those with BD were less likely to be employed than HC. Significant predictors of unemployment in BD include having BD type I, younger age, less years with BD, higher depression, worse processing speed, and worse mental and physical health. Of those with BD, 64 % demonstrated greater employment instability compared to 37 % of HC. History of psychosis, worse memory, physical health, and greater disruption of negative life events significantly predicted employment instability. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this study include the generalizability of this sample, a large reliance of self-report measures, and a lack of employment-related factors such as job-type, functioning, performance, and satisfaction. Lastly, the effects of medication, treatment adherence, and treatment optimization were not assessed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight that different aspects of BD are important for being employed versus maintaining stable employment. These findings indicate the need for more effective treatment strategies beyond symptom management.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Transversais , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Emprego/psicologia
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e061797, 2022 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The credit market has expanded rapidly, increasing the risk of over-indebtedness among those who lack secure employment or adequate income, an issue of concern in the COVID-19 aftermath. We investigated the role of over-indebtedness for developing poor mental health, and whether this impact is modified by age, gender, educational level or being in precarious employment. METHODS: This is a cohort study using data from the Swedish Scania Public Health Cohort, based on individuals randomly selected from the general adult population in Scania, southern Sweden, initiated in 1999/2000 (response rate 58%) with follow-ups in 2005 and 2010. Over-indebtedness was assessed by combining information on cash margin and difficulty in paying household bills. Mental health was assessed by General Health Questionnaire-12. Those with poor mental health at baseline were excluded, and the analyses were further restricted to vocationally active individuals with complete data on main variables, resulting in 1256 men and 1539 women. RESULTS: Over-indebtedness was more common among women, among persons with a low educational level, born abroad and with a precarious employment at baseline. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for poor mental health in 2010 among individuals exposed to over-indebtedness in 1999/2000 or 2005 was 2.2 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.8). Adjusting for educational level, country of origin and precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005, yielded an IRR of 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.6). An interaction analysis indicated that a high level of education may act synergistically with over-indebtedness, regarding poor mental health among men. CONCLUSIONS: Over-indebtedness was related to unfavourable societal power relations, regarding social class, gender and foreign birth. Precarious employment was independently linked to poor mental health and may also mediate the effect by over-indebtedness. The COVID-19 pandemic might entail increased over-indebtedness, which should be acknowledged in policies aiming at buffering social effects of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Suécia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia
3.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 151, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported time-use in relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been widely studied, yet less is known about the directionality of the association and how it compares across genders when controlling for sociodemographic confounders. METHODS: This study focused on the working population of the most recent waves (2013-2018) of the Core-Study of the German Socio-Economic Panel (N = 30,518, 46.70% female, M = 39.24 years). It examined the relationship between three time-use categories (contracted, committed, & leisure time) and HRQoL (self-rated health & life satisfaction) in men and women via multigroup fixed effects cross-lagged panel models. The models controlled for sociodemographic background (age, household income, number of children living in household, employment status, education, & marital status), which was associated with time-use and psychosocial health in previous research. RESULTS: Contracted time showed consistent positive relationships with HRQoL across genders while associations with the other types of time use differed significantly between men and women and across indicators of HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: The way we spend our time directly predicts our health perceptions, but in the same vein our health also predicts how we can spend our time. Contracted time in particular was associated with positive HRQoL, across genders, and beyond sociodemographic predictors, highlighting the important role of employment in health, for men and women alike. The impact of commitments beyond contracted time-use-like household chores and childcare-however, continues to affect mainly women, which ultimately reflects in poorer health outcomes.


Assuntos
Emprego , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Escolaridade , Estado Civil
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429868

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the levels of COVID-19 risk perception (CVRP), job insecurity (JI), and emotional exhaustion (EE) among Chinese hospitality employees to examine the mediating effect of JI on the relationship between CVRP and EE. The moderating role of employee mindfulness (MF) and perceived employability (PE) have also be examined. Data were collected from 652 hospitality employees in Shandong and Jiangsu Province, China. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the hypothesized relationship among the variables. Significant relationships were found between hospitality employees' CVRP and EE (ß = 0.103, p < 0.01), CVRP and JI (ß = 0.168, p < 0.001), and JI and EE (ß = 0.378, p < 0.001). According to the results, the higher level of the CVRP of hospitality employees, the higher level of the EE. In addition, results showed mediating effects of JI on the relationship between CVRP and EE. This study also found that MF buffered the positive relationship between CVRP and EE. Therefore, in the era of COVID-19, an effective support system at the organizational level is necessary to reduce JI and EE of hospitality employees.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emoções , China/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Percepção
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429943

RESUMO

Stress research has widely documented how uncertainty represents a strong stressor that, in general, is negatively associated with well-being. While the literature on job insecurity about this topic is extensive and exhaustive, empirical research on the outcomes of life uncertainty, namely the perception and feeling of precariousness regarding the present and future of one's own life, is yet to be fully explored. In the present paper, we aimed to investigate the relationships among job insecurity, life uncertainty, and psychosocial well-being outcomes, specifically, with a focus on job satisfaction and burnout. The participants were 357 workers (M = 146 and F = 211), with an average age of 41.78 y.o. (SD = 13.49), who completed an online questionnaire containing, in addition to sociodemographics information, measures of the study variables, namely job insecurity, life uncertainty, job satisfaction, and burnout. The results pointed out negative relationships of both job insecurity and life uncertainty with individual well-being, as they were negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively related to burnout. In a path analysis with latent variables, life uncertainty proved to fully mediate the relationship between job insecurity and psychosocial well-being.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Emprego , Humanos , Adulto , Incerteza , Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This life course study has two aims. First, to explore how diverse employment trajectories across adulthood are related to older people's mental health in Chile, a country with no research in this field, and second, to analyze these associations before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We use data from the nationally-representative and longitudinal 'Chilean Social Protection Survey' sequence analysis to reconstruct employment trajectory types, and bivariate and multivariate analyses to measure their association with depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that formal labor force patterns in adulthood show the lowest burden of depressive symptomology before and after the onset of the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic when controlling for traditional risk factors. CONCLUSION: We emphasize that policymakers in both the labor market and public health domains must consider the relationship between informal employment pathways in adulthood and poorer mental health in old age. Public policies should improve the conditions and quality of jobs during adulthood and promote more formalization in the labor market to address the high uncertainty involving low social protection, which is strongly associated with severe mental health problems in later life.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Idoso , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Emprego/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293888

RESUMO

Past research attests to the pivotal role of subjective job insecurity (JI) as a major stressor within the workplace. However, most of this research has used a variable-centered approach to evaluate the relative importance of one (or more) JI facets in explaining employee physical and psychological well-being. Relatively few studies have adopted a person-centered approach to investigate how different appraisals of JI co-occur within employees and how these might lead to the emergence of distinct latent profiles of JI, and, moreover, how those profiles might covary with well-being, personal resources, and performance. Using conservation of resources (COR) theory as our overarching theoretical framework and latent profile analysis as our methodological approach, we sought to fill this gap. To evaluate the external validity of our study results, we used employee sample data from two different countries (Italy and the USA) with, respectively, n = 743 and n = 494 employees. Results suggested the emergence of three profiles (i.e., the "secure", the "average type", and the "insecure") in both country samples. The "secure" group systematically displayed a less vulnerable profile in terms of physical and psychological well-being, self-rated job performance, positive orientation, and self-efficacy beliefs than the "insecure" group, while the "average" type position on the outcomes' continua was narrower. Theoretically, this supports COR's notion of loss spirals by suggesting that differing forms of JI appraisals tend to covary within-person. Practical implications in light of labor market trends and the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emprego , Humanos , Emprego/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Pandemias , Local de Trabalho
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294207

RESUMO

Hotel organizations today are in a state of constant change due to high competition, the emergence of pandemics, and cyclical economic crises. Hospitality employees are currently affected by job insecurity. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of job insecurity on intention to quit among hospitality workers, integrating the mediating effect of psychological distress and resistance to change and their mutual relationship. A total of 312 surveys were completed in four four- and five-star hotels in the UAE (Dubai and Sharjah). The SmartPLS 4 software was used to test the hypotheses in a mediation model with the bootstrapping method. The results showed that all of the direct links were positive and significant, and mediating relationships were confirmed. This study found that job insecurity predicts intention to quit through psychological distress and resistance to change acting as mediators, and these factors themselves also impact significantly on intention to quit. Resistance to change is impacted significantly by job insecurity and psychological distress, which suggests that a deeper approach to employees' resistance to change should be taken, especially when conducting performance appraisals in the hotel industry, by searching for its roots and aiming to minimize employees' intention to quit.


Assuntos
Intenção , Angústia Psicológica , Humanos , Emprego/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115460, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272388

RESUMO

During young adulthood, several transitions in work and family lives occur, but knowledge of the work-family trajectories of the current generation of young adults, i.e. people born in the 1990s, is lacking. Moreover, little is known about whether the mental health status before the start of the working life may shape work-family trajectories. We used 18-year follow-up data from the TRAILS cohort study of individuals born between 1989 and 1991 (n = 992; 63.2% women). Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Youth Self-Report at ages 11, 13 and 16 years. Monthly employment, education and parenthood states were recorded between 18 and 28 years. Applying sequence analysis, we identified six work-family trajectories in women and men. The first five trajectories were labelled: long education, continuous education and work, education and work to work, early work, and inactive. The main difference between trajectories of women and men was in the timing of parenthood, thus the remaining trajectory of women was labelled active with children, and the remaining trajectory of men active. Women who experienced externalising problems in adolescence were more likely to belong to the trajectory characterised by parenthood. Men who experienced internalising problems in adolescence were more likely to belong to the trajectory characterised by a long time spent in education. The TRAILS data allowed us to consider timing, duration and ordering of the work and family states in young adulthood, and to use multiple assessments of mental health in adolescence. Further research needs to examine the mechanisms through which early mental health affects later work and family outcomes.


Assuntos
Emprego , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/psicologia , Escolaridade , Autorrelato , Estudos Longitudinais
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work exposures are known predictors of withdrawal from employment, but the associations between work exposures and withdrawal may vary with gender. This study evaluated gender differences in associations between biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and age of withdrawal from paid employment among older workers in Norway. METHODS: 77,558 men and 67,773 women (born 1949-1953) were followed from age 62 until withdrawal from paid employment or end of follow-up in 2016 (up to five years follow-up). Information about eight biomechanical and seven psychosocial exposures was obtained from a gender-specific job exposure matrix. Using Cox regression, the difference in mean estimated time until withdrawal between non-exposed and exposed was calculated for each gender and work exposure separately. RESULTS: The largest gender difference was found for high psychological demands. Among men, the non-exposed withdrew earlier than the exposed (-3.66 months (95% CI: -4.04--3.25 months)), and contrary among women (0.71 (0.28-1.10)), resulting in a gender difference of 4.37 (3.81-4.97) months. Gender differences were also found for monotonous work (4.12 (3.51-4.69) months), hands above shoulder height (2.41 (1.76-3.10) months), and high iso-strain (2.14 (1.38-2.95) months). CONCLUSIONS: There were observed gender differences in the associations between some biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and mean age of withdrawal from paid employment among older workers. However, the results are likely affected by the selection of who remains in the workforce at age 62 and should be interpreted accordingly.


Assuntos
Emprego , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078808

RESUMO

Long COVID-19 is a term used to describe the symptomatic sequelae that develop after suffering from COVID-19. Very few studies have investigated the impact of COVID-19 sequelae on employment status. The aim of this research was to characterise sequelae of COVID-19 in a population of workers who tested positive for COVID-19, with a follow-up within one year of the acute illness, and to analyse the possible association between this and changes in the workers' occupational status. In this retrospective cohort study, a questionnaire was administered to 155 workers; descriptive, univariate (chi-square tests), and multivariate (logistic regression model) analyses were carried out. The mean age was 46.48 years (SD ± 7.302); 76 participants were males (49.7%), and 33 participants reported being current smokers (21.3%). Overall, 19.0% of patients reported not feeling fully recovered at follow-up, and 13.7% reported a change in their job status after COVID-19. A change in occupational status was associated with being a smoker (OR 4.106, CI [1.406-11.990], p = 0.010); hospital stay was associated with age > 46 years in a statistically significant way (p = 0.025) and with not feeling fully recovered at follow-up (p = 0.003). A persistent worsening in anxiety was more common in women (p = 0.028). This study identifies smoking as a risk factor for workers not able to resume their job; furthermore, occupational physicians should monitor mental health more closely after COVID-19, particularly in female workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078814

RESUMO

Mental health and social resilience play a significant role in refugees' adaptation during the resettlement process in the host country. Maintaining good mental wellbeing helps the refugees to respond to stressful experiences with healthy life choices. This study aimed to explore the mental wellbeing and social resilience of Eritrean refugees living in Germany and to identify social conditions and enablers to foster adaptation. This study employs a qualitative approach with a semi-structured, in-depth interview data collection method. Informants were identified among mostly young adult refugees living in Heidelberg, Germany, with a migration history of 3-6 years. In total, 15 informants were recruited through snowball sampling. Data were sorted and analyzed using the five pillars of the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The findings suggest that Eritrean refugees experienced psychological distress after resettlement in Germany; however, with time, their mental health improved. The study revealed conditions that were experienced as hindrances, as well as ones that were considered to be resources of positive mental wellbeing and social resilience for resettled refugees. Resettlement challenges described by the participants were the language barrier, discrimination, unemployment, insecure residence status, loss of family and friends, conflict within the diaspora community, and isolation. The main sources of mental wellbeing and social resilience include the feeling of being welcomed by local communities, access to social services, adopting new relationships, and educational opportunities. These experiences encouraged refugees to have a favorable view of their lives and futures and were also found to facilitate better integration and adaptation. Understanding refugee mental wellbeing and social resilience requires a multidimensional perspective. Eritrean refugees living in Germany have experienced and are still experiencing resettlement challenges, such as, for example, loss of family and friends, negative perception of the German system, loss of past achievements, or unemployment. However, they have developed adaptive and resilience mechanisms, as well, such as seeing an opportunity for a better life, adopting new roles, and accepting Germany as a "second home". In addressing those issues reported by the refugees as hindrances, these could be turned into sources of mental wellbeing and resilience.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Emprego/psicologia , Eritreia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Refugiados/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 127-134, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073387

RESUMO

Persons with stress-related disorders, mental disorders and neuropsychiatric disabilities are in particular vulnerable to cognitive challenges at the workplace. The barriers faced by persons with communicative, social and cognitive disabilities are most often invisible to persons in the environment. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to develop and test a tool that increases awareness by inviting persons without disabilities to experience how cognitive barriers can look like in the workplace. Three 360-degree films were developed iteratively in close collaboration with users. Each film has one part highlighting difficulties and one part highlighting solutions. The films were evaluated with employers, employment experts, special support persons, HR staff and students. The results show that the films were realistic and useful for both supporting employment and for general awareness and insight.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Transtornos Mentais , Cognição , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15881, 2022 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151133

RESUMO

Persons with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) who return to work often struggle with managing environmental distractions due to residual cognitive impairments. Previous literature has established that environmental distractions impact persons with TBI, yet, the extent to which distractions impact workplace performance is unknown. This qualitative descriptive study using phenomenology methods, explored the experiences of seven individuals with TBIs and how they perceived workplace distractions to impact their productivity. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with seven participants who were diagnosed with mild, moderate, and severe TBIs. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Main findings centered around what environmental distractions impacted work performance, the farther-reaching consequences of distractibility, strong emotional feelings and worry about perceived work performance associated with distractibility, mitigating distractibility through "gaming the attentional system", and utilizing music as a distraction masker to enhance task performance. In light of this study's findings, researchers, and clinicians are encouraged to consider the wider impact of distractions on persons with TBI. The real-life accounts documented in this study will assist researchers and clinicians to account for the impact of environmental distractions in rehabilitation and support employment for persons with TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Local de Trabalho , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14898, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050384

RESUMO

Job loss is a stressful event that increases the risk of experiencing depression and anxiety, especially during the initial months of unemployment. This study examined differences in psychological symptoms and resilient functioning accounted by employment status. The results pointed out that recently unemployed compared to currently employed individuals had lower levels of perceived controllability and resilience as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety. Path analyses showed that lower controllability appraisals at wave 1 of recently unemployed compared to employed individuals, in turn, predicted a lower use of active coping and reappraisal at wave 2, with the latter further accounting for lower levels in resilience. Higher use of distraction further mediated the relation between employment status and higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our findings demonstrate the importance of controllability appraisals and coping strategies used to promote adaptive psychological functioning following job loss.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Desemprego/psicologia
16.
Work ; 73(3): 895-906, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current state of research indicates pregnancy-related discrimination as a potential stressor during pregnancy for women at work, which may result in perceptions of occupational stress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine women's perceptions of pregnancy-related stressors at work, problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as attributed consequences for mental, physical and social dimensions. METHODS: The survey was completed online with a cross-sectional study design. Inclusion criteria for the study participation were being currently pregnant and engaged in paid work (regardless of full-time or part-time work). Women were recruited via social media and with the support of pro familia. RESULTS: Results indicate that 79 (53.4%, n = 148) participating women experienced pregnancy-related stressors at work. The most relevant kinds of stressors were intrapersonal stressors and interpersonal stressors related to employers or colleagues. The most prevalent coping strategy was to seek social support or advice from gynaecologists. Attributed physical consequences were exhaustion, fatigue and sleeping disorders. Mental health consequences were named in terms of feeling emotionally upset and having fears related to the baby's health. CONCLUSIONS: Family-friendly support policies need to be further developed and topics like pregnancy-related stressors need to be addressed in an occupational context. Especially the perspective and knowledge of employers on the topic needs to be strengthened, e.g., to ensure an ongoing communication between employers, HR and employees during pregnancy. Further research is needed which provides representative data, analyses employer's experiences and their attitudes in managing pregnancies as well as consequences for women when returning to work.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estresse Ocupacional , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Alemanha , Emprego/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
17.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(12): 2435-2446, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35959648

RESUMO

During adulthood, we spend most of our time and efforts at work. However, the impact of employment in aging is poorly explored. Our study addressed how job demands can affect aging after retirement. We have developed a descriptive observational study carried out in 367 older adults with a mean age of 73.9 years (66.5% women and 33.5% men), measuring cognition and functional status. Our results demonstrate that older adults who had high mental demands in their jobs, show better scores in cognition. However, they show poor functional development of basic and instrumental activities of daily life (p< .05). In contrast, former workers who had high physical demands, display lower scores in cognition and lower functional performance in instrumental activities (p< .05). Work life activities contribute to cognitive and physical decline after retirement. Therefore, healthy aging should include interventions that consider the job influence on the age impairment.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Aposentadoria , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Adulto , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia
18.
Work ; 73(2): 639-650, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precarious employment conditions can influence the worker's mental health; however, there is no consensus regarding the definition of precarious employment or the way it is measured. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to identify existing research of the conceptual framework, the ways to measure precarious employment and its impact on the mental health of workers. METHODS: A systematic review with the strategic search for observational-empirical and qualitative studies published between 2007 and 2020 in Embase, Scopus and PubMed, full text, in English and Spanish. Studies were selected and excluded, according to eligibility criteria. Two independent reviewers and one arbitrator evaluated the quality of selected papers with the STROBE guidelines for observational studies and SRQR for qualitative ones. RESULTS: 408 studies were obtained, 21 met inclusion criteria, in 14 studies precarious employment was measured one-dimensionally. Of these, 11 with the dimension of temporality and three with insecurity. Four studies it was measured in a multidimensional way, with the Employment Precariousness Scale (EPRES) and in three qualitative designs, with different categories of analysis. Mental health was measured with SF-36 (n = 4), GHQ-12 (n = 3) and CES-D (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: The concept of precarious employment requires a multidimensional construct, although the tendency to measure precarious employment is one-dimensional. Regardless of how is measured, this has a negative impact on the mental health of workers. The outcomes related to this social determinant included depression, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, stress, and suicidal thoughts. Youths, women, people with low levels of education and immigrants are the groups that show the major precariousness.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Emprego/psicologia , Escolaridade
19.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(11): 9057-9069, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Continuing employment or returning to work (RTW) as a cancer survivor can be meaningful and financially necessary, yet challenging. However, there is a lack of qualitative research on RTW experiences and financial wellbeing of people with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC-A). This study aimed to fill this gap. METHODS: Adults treated for CRC-A were recruited 0.5-2 years post-surgery (or post-diagnosis of CRC-A for palliative chemotherapy participants). Semi-structured telephone interviews, exploring RTW and finances, were subjected to framework analysis. Demographic, clinical, and quality of life data (FACT-C, Distress Thermometer, COST measure) were collected to characterise the sample and inform the framework analysis. RESULTS: Analysis of 38 interviews revealed five overarching themes: work as a struggle, work as my identity, work as my saviour, work as a financial necessity, and employer and colleague response. Many survivors with CRC-A desired to, and had the capacity to, continue work or RTW, yet faced unique challenges from compounded stigma of both cancer and toileting issues. Inability to RTW negatively impacted financial and psychosocial wellbeing. Workplace support was an important facilitator of RTW. CONCLUSION: For survivors with CRC-A, continuing or RTW is fraught with challenges, including physical functioning challenges, financial anxiety, and unsupportive workplace environments. Survivors require psychosocial, financial, and employer support to manage these difficulties. This paper recommends a multiprong approach, including education programmes (facilitated through workers' union groups, human resource institutions, and/or large consumer CRC groups) and policies, to support workers and for employers to understand the unique challenges of employees with CRC-A.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adulto , Humanos , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Emprego/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
20.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 15(3): 185-195, jul. - sept. 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207934

RESUMO

Introducción: La demencia vascular (DV) representa la segunda causa de demencia, con el 15,8-20% de los casos. Dado que los estudios previos del efecto de la ocupación en DV no muestran resultados concluyentes, nuestro objetivo fue analizar si el tipo de ocupación varía el riesgo de desarrollar DV en mayores de 55 años.Material y métodos: El proyecto ZARADEMP evaluó inicialmente una muestra comunitaria de 4.803 individuos seguidos durante 4 olas. La ocupación se clasificó siguiendo la Clasificación Nacional de Ocupaciones de 2011 y la Clasificación Internacional Uniforme de Ocupaciones de 2008. Se utilizaron diferentes instrumentos estandarizados: las historias médicas y psiquiátricas (History and Aetiology Schedule) y otros factores de riesgo (Mini-Mental Status Examination, Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT). Para este estudio, se calcularon tasas de incidencia, razón de tasas de incidencia y hazard ratio en modelos multivariados de regresión de Cox, estratificados por sexo. Han sido incluidos 3.883 participantesResultados: En mujeres, el riesgo de DV se duplicó en trabajadoras de cuello azul, con un efecto moderado (d de Cohen=0,54), y se multiplicó por 2,7 en labores del hogar respecto a cuello blanco, con un efecto moderado (d de Cohen=0,77), aunque sin significación estadística. No observamos efecto de la ocupación en el riesgo de DV en varones.Conclusiones: Hemos encontrado un efecto moderado, pero no significativo, entre la ocupación y el riesgo de DV en mujeres. No hallamos efecto de la ocupación en el riesgo de DV en varones, donde otros factores de riesgo (la edad, tener diabetes o el índice de masa corporal) tienen un efecto más claro que la ocupación laboral. (AU)


Introduction: Vascular dementia (DV) is the second cause of dementia with 15.8-20% of cases. Previous studies of the effect of occupation in DV do not show conclusive results, therefore, the objective was to analyze if the type of occupation can vary the risk of developing DV in those older than 55 years.Material and methods: In the ZARADEMP project, a community sample of 4,803 individuals were followed longitudinally in 4 waves. The occupation was classified following the National Classification of Occupations of 2011 and the International Standard Classification of Occupations of 2008. Different standardized instruments were used: the medical and psychiatric histories (History and Aetiology Schedule) and other risk factors (Mini-Mental Status Examination, Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT). For this study, we calculated incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and hazard ratios in multivariate Cox regression models, stratified by gender. For this study, we included 3,883 participants.Results: In women, the risk of DV was doubled in blue-collar workers, with a moderate effect (Cohen's d=0.54), and multiplying by 2.7 in homeworks respect to white-collar with a moderate effect (Cohen's d=0.77), although they did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe the effect of occupation on the risk of DV in men.Conclusions: We have found a moderate but non-significant effect between occupation and DV risk in women. We found no effect of occupation on the risk of VD in males while other clinical factors (age, diabetes or body mass index) presented a clearer effect than the occupation. (AU)


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência Vascular , Emprego/psicologia , 57426 , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos de Coortes
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