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3.
Bioessays ; 42(12): e2000178, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040355

RESUMO

The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19), also known as SARS-CoV-2, is highly pathogenic and virulent, and it spreads very quickly through human-to-human contact. In response to the growing number of cases, governments across the spectrum of affected countries have adopted different strategies in implementing control measures, in a hope to reduce the number of new cases. However, 5 months after the first confirmed case, countries like the United States of America (US) seems to be heading towards a trajectory that indicates a health care crisis. This is in stark contrast to the downward trajectory in Europe, China, and elsewhere in Asia, where the number of new cases has seen a decline ahead of an anticipated second wave. A data-driven approach reveals three key strategies in tackling COVID-19. Our work here has definitively evaluated these strategies and serves as a warning to the US, and more importantly, a guide for tackling future pandemics. Also see the video abstract here https://youtu.be/gPkCi2_7tWo.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/tendências , Pandemias , Ásia/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , /normas , Demografia/tendências , Recessão Econômica , Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/normas , Emprego/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Administração em Saúde Pública/tendências , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946463

RESUMO

Social distancing interventions can be effective against epidemics but are potentially detrimental for the economy. Businesses that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or close physical proximity when producing a product or providing a service are particularly vulnerable. There is, however, no systematic evidence about the role of human interactions across different lines of business and about which will be the most limited by social distancing. Here we provide theory-based measures of the reliance of U.S. businesses on human interaction, detailed by industry and geographic location. We find that, before the pandemic hit, 43 million workers worked in occupations that rely heavily on face-to-face communication or require close physical proximity to other workers. Many of these workers lost their jobs since. Consistently with our model, employment losses have been largest in sectors that rely heavily on customer contact and where these contacts dropped the most: retail, hotels and restaurants, arts and entertainment and schools. Our results can help quantify the economic costs of social distancing.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emprego/tendências , Controle de Infecções/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Comércio/normas , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Emprego/economia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903268

RESUMO

Germany has experienced sharply rising earnings inequalities, both between and within workplaces. Working from prior literature on rising employment dualization and the fissuring of workplaces into high and low wage employers, we explore a set of organizational explanations for rising between and within workplace inequality focusing on the role of employment dualization, skill segregation/complexity, and firm fissuring. We describe and model these hypothesized processes with administrative data on a large random sample panel of German workplaces. We find that rising inequalities are associated with polarization in industrial wage rates and the birth of new low wage workplaces, as well as increased establishment skill specialization and the growth of part-time jobs in workplace divisions of labor. We conclude with recommendations for future research that directly examines more proximate mechanisms and their relative importance in different institutional contexts.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Emprego/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Salários e Benefícios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1306, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have focused on the relationship between employment pathways and health-related outcomes based on cross-sectional or longitudinal approaches. However, little is known about the cumulative effects of employment status mobility on sickness absence (SA) over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between prior labour market participation (LMP) patterns and SA trajectories from a life-course perspective. METHODS: This cohort study was based on a sample of 11,968 salaried workers living in Catalonia and affiliated with the Spanish Social Security system, who accumulated more than 15 days on SA in at least one quarter during 2012-2014. Individuals were grouped into three different working life stages: early (18-25 years), middle (26-35 years), and late (36-45 years). To identify LMP patterns, we applied sequence analysis and cluster analysis (2002-2011), and we used latent class growth modelling to identify SA trajectories (2012-2014). Finally, we applied multinomial logistic regression models to assess the relationship between LMP patterns and SA trajectories. RESULTS: The analyses yielded six LMP patterns: stable employment (value range: 63-81%), increasing employment (5-22%), without long-term coverage (7-8%), decreasing employment (4-10%), fluctuant employment (13-14%), and steeply decreasing employment (7-9%). We also identified four SA trajectories: low stable (83-88%), decreasing (5-9%), increasing (5-11%), and high stable (7-16%). However, the only significant association we identified for LMP patterns and SA trajectories was among young men, for whom an increasing employment pattern was significantly associated with a lower risk for increased days on SA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: SA trajectories are generally not related to prior 10-year LMP patterns at any stage of working life. To disentangle this relationship, future research might benefit from considering working life transitions with a quality-of-work approach framed with contextual factors closer to the SA course.


Assuntos
Emprego/tendências , Licença Médica/tendências , Desemprego/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Previdência Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Desemprego/classificação , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750066

RESUMO

Using novel registry data on persons receiving asylum welfare benefits in Germany for the period from 2010 to 2016, and quasi-experimental variation induced by German allocation policies, we identify the role that the size and composition of local co-national networks of asylum seekers play for formal labor market access within the same group. While the individual employment probability is not linked to network size, it increases with the number of employed local co-national asylum seekers and decreases with the number of non-employed network members, thereby underlining the central importance of network quality. JEL Classification: F22, J61, R23.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 34(7-8): 1251-1266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723158

RESUMO

Objective: In light of the COVID-19 pandemic, a majority of clinicians have had to quickly and dramatically alter their clinical practices. Two surveys were administered on 3/26/2020 and 3/30/2020, respectively, to document immediate changes and challenges in clinical practice.Method: Two surveys were administered between 3/26/2020 and 3/30/2020, via SurveyMonkey and Google Forms, asking clinicians questions pertaining to practice issues during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Quantitative responses from the second survey were stratified by clinical setting (Medical Hospital vs. Private Practice) prior to analysis. Qualitative, free-response items were coded by the authors to better understand immediate changes in practice and other concerns.Results: 266 neuropsychologists completed Survey 1 and 230 completed Survey 2. Results suggest that practices immediately moved towards remote service provision. A meaningful proportion of clinicians and their staff were immediately affected economically by the pandemic, with clinicians in private practice differentially affected. Furthermore, a small but significant minority of respondents faced ethical dilemmas related to service provision and expressed concerns with initial communication from their employment organizations. Respondents requested clear best-practice guidelines from neuropsychological practice organizations.Conclusions: It is clear that field of neuropsychology has drastically shifted clinical practices in response to COVID-19 and is likely to continue to evolve. While these responses were collected in the early stages of stay-at-home orders, policy changes continue to occur and it is paramount that practice organizations consider the initial challenges expressed by clinicians when formulating practice recommendations and evaluating the clinical utility of telehealth services.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Neuropsicologia/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emprego/métodos , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113224, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562937

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence on the role of socioeconomic status on postpartum depressive symptoms has been inconsistent. The present prospective study investigated the relationship between employment, job type, income, and education and postpartum depressive symptoms. Subjects were 1316 Japanese women. The subjects were asked to complete an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) between three and four months postpartum. Postpartum depressive symptoms were defined as EPDS score ≥ 9. The prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms was 8.2%. Compared with unemployment, holding a sales job was independently related to a reduced risk of postpartum depressive symptoms: the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.01-0.66). Compared with a household income under four million yen per year, a household income of six million yen or more per year was independently inversely associated with postpartum depressive symptoms: the adjusted OR was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.16-0.63). Compared with less than 13 years of education, both 13 or 14 years and 15 years or more were independently inversely related to postpartum depressive symptoms: the adjusted ORs were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.23-0.69) and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.28-0.82), respectively. Holding a sales job, higher household income and higher educational levels may be inversely associated with postpartum depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/tendências , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Escolaridade , Emprego/tendências , Renda/tendências , Saúde Materna/tendências , Adulto , Criança , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Classe Social , Desemprego/psicologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9277-9283, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284412

RESUMO

It is well documented that earnings inequalities have risen in many high-income countries. Less clear are the linkages between rising income inequality and workplace dynamics, how within- and between-workplace inequality varies across countries, and to what extent these inequalities are moderated by national labor market institutions. In order to describe changes in the initial between- and within-firm market income distribution we analyze administrative records for 2,000,000,000+ job years nested within 50,000,000+ workplace years for 14 high-income countries in North America, Scandinavia, Continental and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia. We find that countries vary a great deal in their levels and trends in earnings inequality but that the between-workplace share of wage inequality is growing in almost all countries examined and is in no country declining. We also find that earnings inequalities and the share of between-workplace inequalities are lower and grew less strongly in countries with stronger institutional employment protections and rose faster when these labor market protections weakened. Our findings suggest that firm-level restructuring and increasing wage inequalities between workplaces are more central contributors to rising income inequality than previously recognized.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Emprego/economia , Emprego/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Extremo Oriente , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Ocupações/economia , Salários e Benefícios/tendências , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 129: 41-49, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer care is evolving rapidly, and costs and value of new treatments are frequently debated. Up-to-date evidence on the total cost of cancer is needed to inform policy decisions. This study estimates the cost of cancer in Europe in 2018 and extends a previous analysis for 1995-2014. METHODS: Cancer-specific health expenditure were derived from national estimates. Data on cancer drug sales were obtained from IQVIA. The productivity loss from premature mortality was estimated from data from Eurostat and the World Health Organization. Estimates of the productivity loss from morbidity and informal care costs were based on previous studies. FINDINGS: The total cost of cancer was €199 billion in Europe (EU-27 plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) in 2018. Total costs ranged from €160 per capita in Romania to €578 in Switzerland (after adjustment for price differentials). Health expenditure on cancer care were €103 billion, of which €32 billion were spent on cancer drugs. Informal care costs were €26 billion. The total productivity loss was €70 billion, composed of €50 billion from premature mortality and €20 billion from morbidity. INTERPRETATION: Health expenditure on cancer care were of a similar magnitude as the sum of non-health-care costs in 2018. Over the last two decades, health spending on cancer has increased faster than the increase in cancer incidence. The productivity loss from premature mortality has decreased because of reductions in mortality in the working-age population. Trends in informal care costs and productivity loss from morbidity are uncertain because of lack of comparable data.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Neoplasias/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Emprego/economia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/tendências , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(2): 251-264, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105129

RESUMO

Grounded in Psychology of Working Theory (PWT), the current study investigated predictors of decent work among a sample of employed women (N = 528). A structural equation model was examined finding that women's experiences of marginalization, work volition, and career adaptability all directly predicted the attainment of decent work, and economic constraints and marginalization experiences indirectly predicted decent work via work volition. Additionally, workplace climate for women employees was examined as both a predictor and moderator variable to explore best positioning of this additive construct. Workplace climate did not significantly moderate any model paths; however, it was a unique predictor of work volition and decent work, suggesting that this construct may be better positioned as a predictor variable in understanding the work experiences of women. These results highlight the importance of further investigating the role of workplace climate in PWT as well as the need for refining our understanding of how marginalized employees achieve decent work. Implications of the present study's results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Direitos da Mulher/métodos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/tendências , Direitos da Mulher/tendências , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935252

RESUMO

The exchange of diverse ideas has been shown to be a major driver of economic growth and innovation in local labor markets across the U.S. Yet, persistently high levels of occupational gender segregation pose a barrier to such exchange between women and men workers. Consistent with this, organizational sociologists have identified multiple economic benefits to gender diversity in workplaces. Yet, it is unclear whether these trends apply to local labor markets, which constitute the ecological geographic environment for firms. In this study, I use fixed effects regression models to examine the relationship between labor market levels of segregation and economic growth from 1980 through 2010. I find that gender segregation hinders the expansion of finance and technology sectors as two industries that rely on the exchange of information and innovation. Consequently, higher levels of gender segregation are also a bane to economic productivity, as measured through hourly wages. Results from this study suggest that gender equity, manifested in lower levels of occupational segregation, is a vital ingredient in the economic development of local U.S. labor markets.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Emprego/economia , Sexismo/economia , Demografia , Emprego/tendências , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Indústrias/tendências , Masculino , Ocupações/economia , Ocupações/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/tendências , Segregação Social/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
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