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Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6231-6247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496683


Purpose: A palmitoylated prodrug of emtricitabine (FTC) was synthesized to extend the drug's half-life, antiretroviral activities and biodistribution. Methods: A modified FTC prodrug (MFTC) was synthesized by palmitoyl chloride esterification. MFTC's chemical structure was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance. The created hydrophobic prodrug nanocrystals were encased into a poloxamer surfactant and the pharmacokinetics (PK), biodistribution and antiretroviral activities of the nanoformulation (NMFTC) were assessed. The conversion of MFTC to FTC triphosphates was evaluated. Results: MFTC coated with poloxamer formed stable nanocrystals (NMFTC). NMFTC demonstrated an average particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 350 nm, 0.24 and -20 mV, respectively. Drug encapsulation efficiency was 90%. NMFTC was readily taken up by human monocyte-derived macrophages yielding readily detected intracellular FTC triphosphates and an extended PK profile. Conclusion: NMFTC shows improved antiretroviral activities over native FTC. This is coordinate with its extended apparent half-life. The work represents an incremental advance in the development of a long-acting FTC formulation.

Composição de Medicamentos , Emtricitabina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Emtricitabina/sangue , Emtricitabina/síntese química , Emtricitabina/química , Humanos , Cinética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley