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1.
Food Chem ; 306: 125619, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606630

RESUMO

We evaluated the correlation between the interfacial characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and the interfacial/colloidal stability of SLN-stabilized emulsions. Herein, the interfacial properties of SLNs, particularly the surface load (Γs) of emulsifiers, were tuned by controlling the type/concentration of emulsifier used to prepare the SLNs. Increasing the Γs decreased the contact angle at the oil-water interface, which enhanced the displacement free energy of the SLNs at the interface. Moreover, the Γs of emulsifiers bound to the surface of SLNs covering oil droplets was linearly correlated with the SLN-own Γs. The size/ζ-potential of emulsions stabilized by SLNs covered by the highest concentration of emulsifiers was unchanged for 1 month, indicating good emulsion stability. The interfacial/colloidal stability of SLN-stabilized emulsions was thus enhanced by increasing the emulsifier concentration used to produce the SLNs. This study provides baseline data for developing SLN-stabilized emulsions for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas , Emulsificantes , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125475, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518841

RESUMO

Pea protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were prepared to encapsulate vitamin D with the aim to develop novel non-dairy functional foods for vitamin D fortifications. Homogenization conditions of 20 kpsi and two homogenization cycles were identified as optimal conditions for producing stable nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions exhibited controllable sizes (170-350 nm), good stability with zeta-potential of -25 mV, and high vitamin encapsulation efficiency (94-96%). Cellular uptake efficiency of small sized nanoemulsions (233 nm) was ~2.5 times higher than large sized nanoemulsions (350 nm). Interestingly, protein-based nanoemulsions exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than emulsions prepared using a combination of protein and lecithin. The vitamin D transport efficiency across Caco-2 cells for small sized nanoemulsions (233 nm) was ~5.3 times greater than free vitamin D suspension. This research demonstrated that pea protein can be used as an effective emulsifier for preparing food nanoemulsions, which may enhance vitamin D bioavailability and improve vitamin deficiency status in aged population.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Vitamina D/química , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular , Emulsificantes/química , Humanos , Lecitinas/química , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão , Estabilidade Proteica , Vitamina D/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 305: 125476, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525589

RESUMO

Octenylsuccinate quinoa starch (OSQS) granule that stabilized Pickering emulsion gel with different gel networks by modulating the oil volume fraction (Φ) was developed as a carrier for lutein. Pickering emulsion gels stabilized by OSQS were achieved at Φ values ranging from 30% to 60%. Increasing Φ progressively increased the droplet size, storage modulus, and apparent viscosity, resulting in the formation of gel-like structure. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that OSQS formed a densely packed layer at the oil/water interface, the degree of aggregation between droplets increased, and the gel network enhanced through droplet flocculation with increasing Φ. After 31 days of storage, the retention index of lutein in the emulsion gel could reach 55.38%, and the corresponding half-life times increased from 12 to 41 days. This study will be useful for designing starch-based Pickering emulsion gel with tunable gel network and desirable characteristics as delivery carrier of sensitive bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Géis/química , Luteína/química , Amido/química , Succinatos/química , Emulsões/química , Meia-Vida , Luteína/metabolismo , Microscopia Confocal , Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia
4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125633, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644968

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different bran extracts and concentrations, and their influence on the parameters of a mayonnaise-type emulsion. To that end, first ethanol and then water were used to extract two rice bran extracts (RBE) from rice bran. Both these extracts were then added at two different concentrations (0.5 and 2%) to the emulsions that were subsequently analysed after seven days under two different storage temperatures, 4 °C and 20 °C. The antioxidant and antimicrobial ability of the extracts were evaluated, along with a control and a synthetic antioxidant. Results indicate the positive effect of rice bran extracts as additives in the food matrix. Ethanolic rice bran extract (EE) at 2% decreased the oxidation as well as mould and yeast proliferation and preserved the emulsion structure, while the other treatments acted in a similar way although their effect was less pronounced.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Condimentos , Emulsões , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Food Chem ; 306: 125615, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622833

RESUMO

Phycocyanin (PC), a plant-based protein with interesting biological activity, is rarely directly applied in the food industry because it has structural and functional limitations. This study combined ultra-high-pressure (UHP) treatment with glycation to improve PC functionality and explored resulting structural changes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The UHP treatment obviously improved the speed and degree of glycation and the composite-modified PC (CM-PC) showed high solubility and good emulsifying and foaming performance. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the CM-PC surface was loose and fluffy. Gel electrophoresis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and circular dichroism results demonstrated that the content of α-helix decreased from 78.1% in PC to 26.6% in CM-PC, and hydroxyl groups were introduced. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the mechanism of composite modification involved stretching of the PC and promotion of binding with sugars.


Assuntos
Ficocianina/química , Spirulina/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Emulsões/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Pressão , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
6.
Food Chem ; 308: 125597, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648095

RESUMO

The simultaneous application of proteins and surfactants for emulsion preparation and stabilization is a research hotspot in the field of emulsions, and their interfacial adsorption mechanisms remain unclear. In order to analyze the interaction mechanism of gelatin with low-molecular-weight surfactants, we mainly explored the preparation and storage of fish oil-loaded gelatin/surfactant-stabilized emulsions in this work. The results demonstrated that gelatin and four types of surfactants were synergetically (Span 80 and soybean lecithin) or competitively (Tween 80 and SDS) adsorbed on the oil/water interfaces in the emulsions. The adsorption behaviors affected emulsion stability (creaming, liquid-gel transformation, and droplet coalescence behaviors) and size distribution of emulsion droplets. These fish oil-loaded gelatin/surfactant-stabilized emulsions have the potential to reduce the disadvantages of fish oils and to provide multiple prospective applications in beverages, hard foods, and alkaline foods. It would also be beneficial to the basic understanding of protein/surfactant interfacial adsorption in emulsion formation.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/química , Gelatina/química , Tensoativos/química , Adsorção , Emulsões , Peso Molecular , Estudos Prospectivos , Água/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 50-58, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein hydrolysate powder was prepared from non-penaeid shrimp (Acetes indicus) by enzymatic hydrolysis using Alcalase enzyme. Extraction conditions such as pH (6.5, 7.5 and 8.5), enzyme to substrate ratio (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) and temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) were optimized against the degree of hydrolysis using response surface methodology. RESULTS: Protein hydrolysate comprised of 740 g kg-1 protein, 150 g kg-1 ash and 90 g kg-1 fat contents. The amino acid score showed superior attributes with 56% essential amino acids. Furthermore, the functional properties of spray-dried protein hydrolysates were evaluated. Protein solubility was found to be the 90.20% at pH 2 and 96.92% at pH 12. Emulsifying properties were found to vary with the concentration of protein hydrolysates and the highest emulsifying capacity (26.67%) and emulsion stability (23.33%) were found at a concentration of 20 mg mL-1 . The highest and the lowest foaming capacity were observed at pH 6 and pH 10 with a concentration of 20 mg mL-1 . The water holding capacity of protein hydrolysate was found to increase with concentration, with a value of 5.4 mL g-1 at a concentration of 20 mg mL-1 . CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that the use of A. indicus for the production of protein hydrolysate has good functional properties and nutritional value, rendering it suitable for broad industrial food applications. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/química , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Biocatálise , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Valor Nutritivo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Solubilidade , Subtilisinas/química
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 110-118, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pectin is an intriguing polymer, which is usually regarded as a byproduct from agricultural and biological processes. In previous studies, ultrasound treatment has been explored to improve the functionality of pectin but most of that work focused on aspects of molecular structure and the chemical properties of pectin. In this study, we utilized ultrasound treatment to modify the physiochemical properties of pectin. Using ultrasound treatment, we evaluated the emulsifying capability of pectin as a function of ultrasonic time and power density, using a response surface approach. A very potent yet unstable coffee-like aroma compound, 2-furfurylthiol, was also used for comparing the encapsulation feasibility of emulsion made with original pectin and ultrasound-treated pectin. RESULTS: Our results showed that the particle size of pectin was highly correlated with power density and ultrasound time. Approximately 370 nm of pectin particle size could be reached at a power density of 1.06 W mL-1 for 40 min. Ultrasound treatment increased emulsion droplet size but significantly improved emulsifying capacities, such as centrifugal stability and surface loading, although it was highly dependent upon the ultrasound treatment condition. When used as the encapsulation wall material, the ultrasound-modified pectin had significantly enhanced performance compared with the original, in terms of flavor retention over time at 45 °C and 65 °C. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound treatment was able to modify the physiochemical properties of pectin, which thus improved emulsification stability and encapsulation feasibility by forming a thicker layer at the oil / water interface to protect the core materials. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Furanos/química , Pectinas/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/efeitos da radiação , Emulsões/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinas/efeitos da radiação , Ultrassom
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 129-138, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capsaicin, as a major pungent ingredient of peppers, has many health benefits. However, the strong irritation effect of capsaicin inhibits its application in the food industry. Emulsions can be an effective approach to alleviate the irritation. RESULTS: In this study, we used tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as an emulsifier to prepare capsaicin emulsions through high-pressure homogenization. Capsaicin emulsions with a particle size of about 100 nm, -36.4 mV zeta potential, and 91.9% encapsulation efficiency were prepared successfully and showed better environmental stability and higher antioxidant activity. Emulsions reduced the cumulative release of capsaicin and had no toxic effect on buffalo rat liver (BRL-3A) cells. Moreover, the gastrointestinal injury model of rats showed that emulsions reduced the strong irritation of capsaicin. CONCLUSION: This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of irritant ingredients in food industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/química , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina E/química
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 268-276, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of Pickering emulsion stabilized by food-derived particles is of great interest in the food field, including meat processing. However, the creaming phenomenon is a thorny problem and may impact the resulting product quality. Here, we used polysaccharide nanoparticles from Flammulina velutipes (FVPN) as a stabilizer to prepare a oil/water Pickering emulsion and partly replace the original fat of common emulsified sausage, focusing on exploring the influence of phase separation on the sausage's techno-functional and sensory quality, with the aim of developing a new alternative fat substitute. RESULTS: Reformulated sausages showed increases in moisture (53.24-64.85%) and protein content (11.97-12.76%), but were reduced in fat content (27.28-18.76%). The increased FPOE (FVPN-palm oil emulsion; substitution rate 5-37%) amount in sausages resulted in significantly reduced (P < 0.05) cooking loss (18.87-8.63%). Meanwhile, emulsion improved the springiness and cohesiveness of sausage and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) hardness and chewiness when the replacement amount was less than 20%. Experimental sausages attained a more compact pore structure without harming sensory characteristics. Compared with creaming emulsion, pristine emulsion resulted in a sausage with higher moisture content, lower cooking loss, better elasticity and denser structure. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of sausages could be influenced by emulsion stability. Emulsion, especially with no creaming, can be effectively used as fat substitute at a level of 20% or less without adversely affecting the sensory characteristics of emulsified sausages. The incorporation of FPOE provides the potential for developing a new alternative approach for animal fat improvement in meat products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Flammulina/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Animais , Culinária , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Dureza , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Óleo de Palmeira/análise , Suínos , Paladar , Água/análise
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 287-294, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol (DAG) reduces body weight, suppresses body fat accumulation, and lowers the blood lipid concentration, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the risk of occurrence of coronary artery diseases. RESULTS: DAG-rich algae oil with a high DHA content (55.9%) was synthesized via the lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of algae oil, which consisted of triacylglycerol (43.9 mol%), DAG (40.9 mol%), and monoacylglycerol (15.2 mol%). The DAG-rich algae oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using three emulsifiers [whey protein concentrate (WPC), Tween80, and Tween80 + Span80]. The WPC-emulsion formed a thicker serum layer (6.67% at day 51) and larger oil droplets (d32 , 0.37 µm at day 28) than the Tween80- and Tween80 + Span80-emulsions (3.33-4.17%; 0.26 µm), and an upper cream layer with excess oil droplets was observed in only the WPC-emulsion, indicating that WPC-emulsion possesses the lowest emulsification stability. The hydroperoxide value and reduction rate of the DHA content were higher in the WPC-emulsions than in the Tween80- and Tween80 + Span80-emulsions during storage, which suggested that the WPC-emulsion had the lowest oxidation stability. CONCLUSION: The DAG-rich algae oil-in-water emulsion prepared with suitable emulsifiers, such as non-ionic emulsifiers, would have excellent emulsification and oxidative stabilities and provides a health benefit for special purposes in the food processing industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Biocatálise , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Lipase/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissorbatos/química , Água/análise , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 695-704, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) nanoemulsion enriched foods offer the potential to address habitually low oily fish intakes. Nanoemulsions increase LCn3PUFA bioavailability, although they may cause lipid oxidation. The present study examined the oxidative stability of LCn3PUFA algal oil-in-water nanoemulsions created by ultrasound using natural and synthetic emulsifiers during 5 weeks of storage at 4, 20 and 40 °C. Fatty acid composition, droplet size ranges and volatile compounds were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found for fatty acid composition at various temperatures and storage times. Lecithin nanoemulsions had significantly larger droplet size ranges at baseline and during storage, regardless of temperatures. Although combined Tween 40 and lecithin nanoemulsions had low initial droplet size ranges, there were significant increases at 40 °C after 5 weeks of storage. Gas chromatograms identified hexanal and propanal as predominant volatile compounds, along with 2-ethylfuran, propan-3-ol and valeraldehyde. The Tween 40 only nanoemulsion sample showed the formation of lower concentrations of volatiles compared to lecithin samples. The formation of hexanal and propanal remained stable at lower temperatures, although higher concentrations were found in nanoemulsions than in bulk oil. The lecithin only sample had formation of higher concentrations of volatiles at increased temperatures, despite having significantly larger droplet size ranges than the other samples. CONCLUSION: Propanal and hexanal were the most prevalent of five volatile compounds detected in bulk oil and lecithin and/or Tween 40 nanoemulsions. Oxidation compounds remained more stable at lower temperatures, indicating suitability for the enrichment of refrigerated foods. Further research aiming to evaluate the oxidation stability of these systems within food matrices is warranted. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Lecitinas/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura Ambiente , Vegetarianos
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12895-12903, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682429

RESUMO

Genipin, a natural electrophilic cross-linker, was applied (5, 10, 20, and 30 mM) to modify hempseed protein isolate (HPI). Genipin treatments resulted in general losses of total sulfhydryls (up to 2.9 nmol/mg) and free amines (up to 77.3 nmol/mg). Surface hydrophobicity decreased by nearly 90% with 30 mM genipin, corresponding to similar tryptophan fluorescence quenching. The genipin treatment converted HPI into highly cross-linked polymers. Hydrogels formed with such polymers when also incorporated with hemp oil emulsions exhibited substantially enhanced gelling ability: up to 3.3- and 2.6-fold increases, respectively, in gel strength and gel elasticity over genipin-untreated protein. The genipin-modified composite gels also exhibited superior water-holding capacity. Microstructural analysis revealed a compact gel network filled with protein-coated oil globules that interacted intimately with the protein matrix when treated with genipin. Such gels remained readily digestible. Hence, genipin-treated hemp protein hydrogels show promise as functional food components.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Hidrogéis/química , Iridoides/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Emulsões/química , Reologia , Sementes/química
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3569-3575, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602924

RESUMO

To further investigate the metabolism of Tripterygium wilfordii and Paeonia lactiflora micro-emulsion gel in vivo,an LCMS/MS method was established for the determination of triptolide and paeoniflorin in T. wilfordii and P. lactiflora micro-emulsion gel.The extracorporeal recovery rate of blood probe was measured by concentration difference methods( incremental method and decremental method). Meanwhile,the skin and blood micro-dialysis methods of tripterine and paeoniflorin were established,and the pharmacokinetics of T. wilfordii microemulsion gel in skin and blood was studied by micro-dialysis combined with LC-MS/MS quantitative analysis. The results showed that the established method for the determination of triptolide and paeoniflorin in T. wilfordii microemulsion gel was well linear within the required range,and the specificity,recovery rate and degree of precision of the chromatography all conformed to the research requirements of micro-dialysis samples. The stability of freeze-thawing and the residual effect all conformed to the criteria of biological sample methodology. The probe recovery rates measured by incremental method and decremental method were almost consistent with the extracorporeal recovery rate test. The recovery rates of paeoniflorin in skin and blood micro-dialysis were( 30. 60±1. 09) % and( 28. 01± 1. 75) %,respectively. And the recovery rates of skin and blood micro-dialysis were( 26. 79 ± 2. 78) % and( 25. 39±1. 86) %,respectively. The intraday recovery rate of probes was stable within 11 h. The results of pharmacokinetic study showed that the Cmaxvalues of triptolide in skin and blood were( 148. 03±41. 51) and( 76. 77±15. 27) µg·L-1,respectively. And the Tmaxvalues were( 2. 33±0. 29) and( 3. 00± 0) h,respectively. The AUC0-11 hvalues were( 2 814. 05± 1 070. 37) and( 1 580. 63±208. 27) µg·h·L-1,respectively. The MRT0-11 hvalues were( 4. 20± 0. 33) and( 4. 54± 0. 34) h,respectively. The T1/2 values were( 4. 61±4. 11) and( 1. 07± 0. 13) h,respectively. The Cmaxvalues of paeoniflorin in skin and blood were( 991. 88 ± 152. 22) and( 407. 02±120. 06) µg·L-1,respectively. The Tmaxvalues were( 2. 00±0) h and( 2. 83±0. 29) h,respectively. The AUC0-11 hvalues were( 18 430. 27±3 289. 35) and( 6 338. 59 ± 1 659. 32) µg·h·L-1,respectively. The MRT0-11 hvalues were( 4. 29 ± 0. 16) and( 4. 00±0. 05) h,respectively. The T1/2 values were( 2. 16±0. 43) and( 1. 78±0. 48) h,respectively. The results suggested that micro-emulsion gel played a role in forming skin reservoir through percutaneous penetration. It not only could improve drug transdermal efficiency,but also control the sustained release of drug and form a long-term effect.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Paeonia/química , Pele/metabolismo , Tripterygium/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Emulsões , Géis , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7095-7106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564867

RESUMO

Background: Norisoboldine (NOR), the main isoquinoline alkaloid constituent in Radix Linderae, was demonstrated to have an outstanding anti-arthritis activity. However, a poor oral bioavailability of NOR creates a barrier for its development and application. Methods: A new self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) loaded with the phospholipid complex (PC) was designed to improve the oral bioavailability of NOR. NOR-PC was prepared by solvent evaporation method with a mixture of phospholipid and NOR at a mass ratio of 3:1. The property of PC is to improve the liposolubility of NOR, and made PC embedded in the drug delivery system. The physicochemical property of NOR-PC was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). According to the ability to dissolve NOR-PC, the oil and cosurfactant were chosen. The surfactant was selected based on its emulsification efficiency in SNEDDS. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was created to select the best formulation of NOR-PC-SNEDDS, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were detected in rats. In addition, intestinal lymphatic transport and liver microsome experiment were studied to gain insight into the mechanism for NOR-PC-SNEDDS increasing the oral bioavailability of NOR. Results: Solubility detection showed that the PC significantly improved the liposolubility of NOR. NOR-PC-SNEDDS was prepared using NOR-PC, Ethyl oleate, Labrasol, Cremophor EL and transcutol HP at a weight ratio of 1:2:3.36:2.24:2.4 (w/w/w/w/w). The particle size and zeta potential of NOR-PC-SNEDDS were 36.72±1.47 nm and -4.91±0.49 mV after dilution with distilled water at a ratio of 1:50 (w/w). The absolute bioavailability of NOR in the NOR-PC-SNEDDS group significantly increased and the value was 372% in relative to NOR group. Further studies indicated that NOR-PC-SNEDDS promoted the oral bioavailability of NOR by enhancing intestinal lymphatic absorption and inhibiting Phase II metabolism of NOR. Conclusion: These findings suggested that NOR-PC-SNEDDS was able to promote the oral bioavailability of NOR, which provided a foundation for the further development and application of NOR.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisiológica , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Administração Oral , Alcaloides/sangue , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Intestinos/fisiologia , Sistema Linfático/fisiologia , Masculino , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Transição de Fase , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Tensoativos/química , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7291-7306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564878

RESUMO

Purpose: The aims of this study were to prepare a baicalein self-microemulsion with baicalein-phospholipid complex as the intermediate (BAPC-SMEDDS) and to compare its effects with those of conventional baicalein self-microemulsion (CBA-SMEDDS) on baicalein oral absorption and lymphatic transport. Methods: Two SMEDDS were characterized by emulsifying efficiency, droplet size, zeta potential, cloud point, dilution stability, physical stability, and in vitro release and lipolysis. Different formulations of 40 mg/kg baicalein were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate their respective bioavailabilities. The chylomicron flow blocking rat model was used to evaluate their lymphatic transport. Results: The droplet sizes of BAPC-SMEDDS and CBA-SMEDDS after 100x dilution were 9.6±0.2 nm and 11.3±0.4 nm, respectively. In vivo experiments indicated that the relative bioavailability of CBA-SMEDDS and BAPC-SMEDDS was 342.5% and 448.7% compared to that of free baicalein (BA). The AUC0-t and Cmax of BAPC-SMEDDS were 1.31 and 1.87 times higher than those of CBA-SMEDDS, respectively. The lymphatic transport study revealed that 81.2% of orally absorbed BA entered the circulation directly through the portal vein, whereas approximately 18.8% was transported into the blood via lymphatic transport. CBA-SMEDDS and BAPC-SMEDDS increased the lymphatic transport ratio of BA from 18.8% to 56.2% and 70.2%, respectively. Therefore, self-microemulsion not only significantly improves oral bioavailability of baicalein, but also increases the proportion lymphatically transported. This is beneficial to the direct interaction of baicalein with relevant immune cells in the lymphatic system and for proper display of its effects. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the oral absorption and lymphatic transport characteristics of free baicalein and baicalein SMEDDS with different compositions. This is of great significance to studies on lymphatic targeted delivery of natural immunomodulatory compounds.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisiológica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistema Linfático/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Linfático/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12461-12471, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613618

RESUMO

In this study, derivatization of epigallocatechin (EGC) by representative phytosterols (stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol) was performed employing Steglich esterification. The structural identity and purity of epigallocatechin ß-sitosterol (ESi) and epigallocatechin stigmasterol (ESt) were confirmed by NMR, FT-IR, and HPLC-MS. Further evaluation of ESi and ESt revealed their extraordinary antioxidant activities in O/W emulsion. Two different radical sources in oil or aqueous phase were applied to explore the antioxidant behavior in O/W emulsion. The mechanism was further investigated by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, incorporation of EGC with stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol notably enhanced the cholesterol-reducing activity. TEM studies suggested the hydrogen bonding of EGC strengthened the aggregation network of ESi and ESt in the bile salt micelle. The exceptional properties of ESi and ESt signified their intriguing utilization in the food industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/química , Fitosteróis/química , Catequina/química , Emulsões/química , Esterificação , Oxirredução , Sitosteroides/química , Estigmasterol/química
18.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 789-793, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663356

RESUMO

AIM: Lipid emulsions are promising with regard to the treatment of toxicity by agents of high lipophilic nature. Our objective is to investigate the efficacy of intralipid 20% and calcium administration at different times when symptoms of cardiac toxicity occur during verapamil infusion. METHOD: 24 adult male Spraque-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 different groups, the control group, calcium group, calcium following 20% intralipid group and concomitant 20% intralipid and calcium group. Following monitoring under ketamine anesthesia, all groups were administered 37.5 mg kg-1 h-1 verapamil infusion until a 50% decrease occurred in MAPb. At the end of the infusion, verapamil infusion was decreased down to 15 mg kg-1h-1 and the treatment agents predetermined for the groups were administered concomitantly. RESULTS: There is no statistically significant difference between the administration of 20% intralipid synchronized with calcium or as a pretreatment, but both groups provided a higher survival rate when compared to the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of calcium alone in verapamil toxicity is not sufficient; when calcium and 20% intralipid are administered together, there is no difference between the administration of lipid and calcium concomitantly and the administration of lipid prior to calcium (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 23).


Assuntos
Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Verapamil/toxicidade , Animais , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12875-12884, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644278

RESUMO

ß-Cyclodextrin (ß-CD) was modified using octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) to introduce amphiphilic groups (hydrophilic carboxyl and lipophilic octenyl chains) by esterification under alkaline conditions. The FT-IR results indicated that the OSA-modified ß-CD (OCD) showed new absorption peaks of an ester bond and a carboxylate (RCOO-) at 1724 and 1570 cm-1, respectively, confirming the successful preparation of OCD. Then the embedding effects of ß-CD and OCD on ß-carotene and the emulsifying and antioxidant properties of their inclusion complexes were evaluated. The results of XRD showed that the ß-CD (or OCD)/ß-carotene inclusion complexes were converted from a cage-type structure to a channel-type structure. AFM and SEM showed that the crystal characteristics and surface morphologies of the inclusion complexes were different from those of the physical mixture. The emulsion stabilized by OCD exhibited smaller droplet sizes and larger zeta-potentials than that stabilized by ß-CD. In addition, the inclusion complexes-prepared emulsion exhibited lower POV values and TBARS contents than did the physical mixture. OCD/ß-carotene inclusion complexes can improve the physical and oxidative stability of the emulsion, which is of great significance to the food industry.


Assuntos
Fixadores/química , beta Caroteno/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Emulsões/química , Esterificação , Ésteres/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1011-1018, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184620

RESUMO

Introducción: la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria (NPD) es una técnica compleja que implica un seguimiento multidisciplinar. Objetivos: análisis descriptivo de todos los pacientes incluidos en el programa de NPD. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes con NPD entre 1985 y 2017 en nuestro centro, un hospital universitario terciario. Resultados: analizamos 61 pacientes (32 hombres, edad media: 51,2 años). La patología de base más frecuente fue la neoplasia (32,8%), siendo el síndrome de intestino corto (SIC) la principal indicación de NPD (70,5%). Recibieron NPD parcial 45 pacientes y total, 16. El tipo de catéter más empleado fue el venoso tunelizado. Veinte pacientes la suspendieron por ingesta oral completa (19 los primeros cinco años), 26 por exitus (18 los primeros cinco años) y 15 la mantienen. La neoplasia fue la causa de muerte más frecuente (46,2%) y en un 15,4%, la hepatopatía asociada a NPD. La duración mediana de la NPD fue de 25 meses (1-394), siendo en 24 pacientes mayor a cinco años (ocho fallecidos, solo uno de causa oncológica no relacionada con la NPD). Un 54% presentaron infecciones de catéter, aislándose Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo en el 55,2%, con una tasa de infección de 1,04 por 1,000 días de cateterización. Conclusiones: la NPD es una estrategia terapéutica útil en el fracaso intestinal. El SIC es la indicación más frecuente en nuestra casuística. La patología de base, como la neoplasia, determinará el pronóstico. La infección por catéter es la complicación más frecuente, por lo que es necesario reforzar la educación sanitaria y la profilaxis antiséptica


Introduction: home parenteral nutrition (NPD) is a complex technique that involves multidisciplinary follow-up. Objectives: descriptive analysis of all patients included in the NPD program. Methods: retrospective study of patients with NPD between 1985 and 2017 in our center, a tertiary university hospital. Results: we analyzed 61 patients (32 men, mean age: 51.2 years). The most common underlying pathology was neoplasia (32.8%), with short bowel syndrome (SIC) being the main indication of NPD (70.5%). Forty-five patients received partial NPD and 16 total. The tunnelled vein catheter was the most common venous access used. 20 patients suspended it for complete oral intake (19 the first 5 years), 26 were deceased (18 the first 5 years) and 15 maintain it. Neoplasia was the most frequent cause of death (46.2%) and in 15.4% liver disease was associated with NPD. The median duration of NPD was 25 months [1-394]; being in 24 patients longer than 5 years (8 dead, only 1 for oncologic cause not related to the NPD). Fifty-four per cent had catheter infections, being isolated 55.2% Staphylococcus coagulase negative, with an infection rate of 1.04 per 1000 days of catheterization. Conclusions: NPD is a useful therapeutic strategy in intestinal failure. The SIC is the most frequent indication in our case study. The underlying pathology, such as neoplasia, will determine the prognosis. Catheter infection is the more frequent complication, so it is necessary to strengthen health education and antiseptic prophylaxis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Comunicação Acadêmica , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais
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