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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22095, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery is the most common and effective therapy for anal fistula, while the postoperative complication, such as pain, edema, pruritus, turgescence, and exudation in surgical wound, can have serious impact on wound healing and patients' quality of life. Chinese herbal fumigant and lotion have been commonly used in postoperative treatment and achieved satisfied effect in China. However, clinical evidence-based literature of Chinese herbal fumigant and lotion for postoperative anal fistula is not sufficient. This protocol is described for a systematic review to investigate the beneficial effects. METHODS: A systematic search will be conducted in database involving PubMed, the Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI), VIP, Wanfang Database, CiNii(National Institute of Informatics), and KISS(Koreanstudies Information Service System) from inceptions to December 31, 2019. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCT) regarding Chinese herbal fumigant and lotion in the treatment of complication in surgical wound of anal fistula. Quality of included RCTs will be assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0. GRADE will be used to assess the quality of evidence. The summary results will be pooled using the random-effects model or fixed-effects model according to the heterogeneity of included studies. RESULTS: After peer-review, the study will be disseminated in scientific journals and conferences. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence for the efficacy of Chinese herbal fumigant and lotion for curing postoperative complication of anal fistula. In addition, it might provide suggestions for Chinese medicine clinical practice or guideline. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42020164975.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Fístula Retal/cirurgia , Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Emulsões , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
Adv Mater ; 32(40): e2004210, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864794

RESUMO

For rapid response against the prevailing COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19), it is a global imperative to exploit the immunogenicity of existing formulations for safe and efficient vaccines. As the most accessible adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide (alum) is still the sole employed adjuvant in most countries. However, alum tends to attach on the membrane rather than entering the dendritic cells (DCs), leading to the absence of intracellular transfer and process of the antigens, and thus limits T-cell-mediated immunity. To address this, alum is packed on the squalene/water interphase is packed, forming an alum-stabilized Pickering emulsion (PAPE). "Inheriting" from alum and squalene, PAPE demonstrates a good biosafety profile. Intriguingly, with the dense array of alum on the oil/water interphase, PAPE not only adsorbs large quantities of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antigens, but also harbors a higher affinity for DC uptake, which provokes the uptake and cross-presentation of the delivered antigens. Compared with alum-treated groups, more than six times higher antigen-specific antibody titer and three-fold more IFN-γ-secreting T cells are induced, indicating the potent humoral and cellular immune activations. Collectively, the data suggest that PAPE may provide potential insights toward a safe and efficient adjuvant platform for the enhanced COVID-19 vaccinations.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Vacinas Virais/química , Compostos de Alúmen/química , Animais , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emulsões , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
3.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(9): 1039-1049, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichostatin A (TSA), being a strong specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, may lead to the inhibition of growth, differentiation and/or apoptosis of cells in a number of tumors. Semisolid drug formulations for topical release of anticancer agents may be an alternative strategy or a supplement of the systemic therapy. OBJECTIVES: To prepare semisolid formulations with TSA to be used directly on the skin and to assess the anticancer effect in vivo on a mouse model with L1 neoplastic tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four formulations were prepared in the form of semisolid systems containing TSA as the active ingredient. Then, an in vitro study was performed concerning the release of the active substance from the prepared formulations. Four formulations were selected for in vivo studies: oil-in-water cream, hydrogel, w/o emulsion ointment on the absorptive hydrophobic medium, and o/w emulsion gel. The tumor size and mouse body weight were measured during the experiment. The tumors and healthy skin of the mice were assessed regarding the skin barrier function with the Corneometer and Tewameter probes. RESULTS: The semisolid formulation with TSA applied on the skin reduced the growth of neoplastic tumors as compared with the control group. This is especially pronounced in the case of w/o emulsion ointment and o/w emulsion gel. The Corneometer shows that neoplastic tumor growth and formulations on the skin have no effect on the skin condition in comparison with the mouse skin without tumor. The measurement performed with the Tewameter has revealed impaired skin barrier function of neoplastic tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Semisolid formulations with TSA fit well in the mainstream of research into topical medicines applied directly on neoplastic tumors, which may support and supplement current oncological treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Emulsões , Camundongos , Pomadas
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3672-3680, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893557

RESUMO

In order to improve the supersaturation and maintenance time of drug dispersion in curcumin self-nanoemulsion(CUR-SNEDDS), precipitation inhibitors(PPIs) were introduced to prepare curcumin supersaturated self-emulsion(CUR-SSNEDDS). The composition of CUR-SNEDDS prescriptions was selected through the solubility test, the compatibility of oil phase and surfactant, the investigation of the emulsifying ability of the surfactant and the drawing of the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Analytic hierarchy process was used in combination with central composite design-response surface method to optimize the prescription. The type and dosage of precipitation inhibitors(PPIs) were selected to maintain the supersaturated concentration and duration of CUR in artificial gastrointestinal fluids. At the same time, polarizing microscope was used to evaluate the crystallization inhibition effect and the quality and in vitro release behavior of CUR-SSNEDDS. The prepared CUR-SSNEDDS prescription was capryol 90-kolliphor RH40-transcutol HP-Soluplus(7.93∶66.71∶25.36∶5), with the drug loading of(65.12±1.25) mg·g~(-1). CUR-SSNEDDS was transparent yellow, and the nanoemulsion droplets were spherical with uniform distribution. The emulsification time was(21.02±0.13) s, the average particle size was(57.03±0.35) nm, the polydispersity index(PDI) was(0.23 ± 0.01), and the Zeta potential was(-18.10±1.30) mV. CUR-SSNEDDS significantly inhibited the generation and growth of crystals after in vitro dilution. The supersaturation could be maintained above 10 within 2 h, and the dissolution rate and degree of CUR in artificial gastrointestinal fluid were significantly increased. Soluplus could effectively maintain the supersaturated state of CUR and enhance CUR dissolution in vitro.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Tensoativos
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3844-3851, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893579

RESUMO

To optimize the formulation and preparation process of icaritin-coix seed oil microemulsion(IC-MEs) based on quality by design(QbD) concept. IC-MEs were prepared by water titration. Firstly, the risk factors that may affect the quality of IC-MEs were evaluated. Then Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out prescription factors and process parameters that had a significant effect on the indicators. Finally, Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the prescription ratio of IC-MEs. Through the risk assessment and Plackett-Burman design, three formulation factors [drug loading efficiency, the ratio of mixed-oil(coix seed oil-Glycerol tributyrate) to mixed-surfactant(HS15-RH40) and water addition] were determined as the key factors affecting IC-MEs. The regression model established by Box-Behnken design had a good predictability. The optimal formula was as following: the drug loading efficiency of 0.92%, the ratio of mixed-oil(coix seed oil-glycerol tributyrate) to mixed-surfactant(HS15-RH40) of 4∶6, and the water addition of 5.7 mL. According to this prescription, IC-MEs were prepared, and its encapsulation efficiency after 1 week was 92.45%±1.00%. Therefore, the stability of IC-MEs could be improved by optimizing prescription and process parameters of IC-MEs based on the QbD concept, which can provide certain reference value for the future development of IC-MEs.


Assuntos
Coix , Emulsões , Flavonoides , Óleos Vegetais
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6503-6518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922013

RESUMO

Objective: A non-lipolysis nanoemulsion (NNE) was designed to reduce the first-pass metabolism of raloxifene (RAL) by intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) for increasing the oral absorption of RAL, coupled with in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: In vitro stability of NNE was evaluated by lipolysis and the UGT metabolism system. The oral bioavailability of NNE was studied in rats and pigs. Finally, the absorption mechanisms of NNE were investigated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) in rats, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells model, and lymphatic blocking model. Results: The pre-NNE consisted of isopropyl palmitate, linoleic acid, Cremophor RH40, and ethanol in a weight ratio of 3.33:1.67:3:2. Compared to lipolysis nanoemulsion of RAL (RAL-LNE), the RAL-NNE was more stable in in vitro gastrointestinal buffers, lipolysis, and UGT metabolism system (p < 0.05). The oral bioavailability was significantly improved by the NNE (203.30%) and the LNE (205.89%) relative to the suspension group in rats. However, 541.28% relative bioavailability was achieved in pigs after oral NNE intake compared to the suspension and had two-fold greater bioavailability than the LNE (p < 0.05). The RAL-NNE was mainly absorbed in the jejunum and had high permeability at the intestine of rats. The results of both SPIP and MDCK cell models demonstrated that the RAL-NNE was absorbed via endocytosis mediated by caveolin and clathrin. The other absorption route, the lymphatic transport (cycloheximide as blocking agent), was significantly improved by the NNE compared with the LNE (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A NNE was successfully developed to reduce the first-pass metabolism of RAL in the intestine and enhance its lymphatic transport, thereby improving the oral bioavailability. Altogether, NNE is a promising carrier for the oral delivery of drugs with significant first-pass metabolism.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisico-Química , Emulsões/química , Lipólise , Nanopartículas/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Sobrevivência Celular , Cães , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Intestinos/fisiologia , Linfa/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tensoativos/química , Suínos
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5405-5416, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801696

RESUMO

Purpose: Although the effective and safe medical defoamers, dimethicone (DM) and simethicone (SM) are widely used in electronic gastroscope examination (EGE), their preparations are presented in the form of suspensions or emulsions, these are untransparent or milk-like in appearance and can easily cause misdiagnosis as a result of an unclear field of vision if the doctor does not master the amount of defoamer or operates incorrectly. At the same time, it is also difficult to wash out the camera and pipeline, due to the large oil droplets of preparations. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clear and transparent oil in water (O/W) DM nanoemulsions (DMNs) and observe the effect of application in EGE. Methods: The oil phase was chosen for its antifoaming activity and viscosity. The emulsifier and co-emulsifier were selected according to the solubility of the oil phase in them. The water titration method was used to make the pseudoternary phase diagrams of nanoemulsions and optimize the prescription composition. DM-in-water nanoemulsion was prepared by the low energy method and evaluated for appearance, antifoaming ability, droplet size, and stability. The effect of DMNs utilized in EGEs was also observed. Results: The optimal formulation of DMNs contained CRH-40 as an emulsifier, PEG-400 as a co-emulsifier, DM as oil phase with the viscosity of 10 mPa.s, and their proportion was 4.5:4.5:1, respectively. DMNs obtained the average particle size of 67.98 nm with the polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.332, and 57.14% defoaming rate. The result of using an EGE showed that DMNs were superior in comparison to the emulsions with regard to the defoaming effect, visual clarity, and easy cleanup. Conclusion: DMNs were found to provide excellent visual clarity to its other preparations. The novel DMNs is a promising substitute for DM emulsions or suspensions in EGEs.


Assuntos
Antiespumantes/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Emulsões/química , Gastroscopia/métodos , Antiespumantes/efeitos adversos , Antiespumantes/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Rícino/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/efeitos adversos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/uso terapêutico , Emulsificantes/química , Feminino , Gastroscopia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5217-5226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801687

RESUMO

Aim: Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is commonly associated with gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a novel oral drug delivery system with minimum gastric effects and improved dissolution rate for aceclofenac (ACF), a model BCS class-II drug. Methods: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were formulated to increase the solubility and ultimately the oral bioavailability of ACF. Oleic acid was used as an oil phase, Tween 80 (T80) and Kolliphor EL (KEL) were used as surfactants, whereas, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG) were employed as co-surfactants. Optimized formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were analyzed for droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI), cell viability studies, in vitro dissolution in both simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, ex vivo permeation studies and thermodynamic stability. Results: The optimized formulations showed mean droplet sizes in the range of 111.3 ± 3.2 nm and 470.9 ± 12.52 nm, PDI from 244.6 nm to 389.4 ± 6.51 and zeta-potential from -33 ± 4.86 mV to -38.5 ± 5.15 mV. Cell viability studies support the safety profile of all formulations for oral administration. The in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation analysis revealed significantly improved drug release ranging from 95.68 ± 0.02% to 98.15 ± 0.71% when compared with control. The thermodynamic stability studies confirmed that all formulations remain active and stable for a longer period. Conclusion: In conclusion, development of oral SEDDS might be a promising tool to improve the dissolution of BCS class-II drugs along with significantly reduced exposure to gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20191445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785428

RESUMO

Sildenafil is a potent selective inhibitor of phosphosdiesterase-5 previously used in erectile dysfunction and subsequently approved in 2005 for pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment. Since oral administration of sildenafil shows pharmacokinetic problems with mean absolute bioavailability of 41%, the goal of this work was to develop a novel sildenafil self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for oral absorption improvement and management of dosage. One pharmaceutical solution and four SEDDS containing sildenafil were successfully obtained and SEDDS formed O/W nanoemulsion with droplet size less than 300 nm. The stability studies evidenced that the SEDDS containing 3.3% w/w of sildenafil yielded the best results. The safety of 2-pyrrolidone/isobutanol in oral formulations was assessed in mice and no lethality was achieved in the placebo groups with LD50 of 490 mg/Kg for SEDDS II-3.3, suggesting it as a safe excipient for humans. Therewithal, in silico studies using PBPK models provided the pharmacokinetic profile of sildenafil SEDDS. Subsequently, in silico evaluation indicated that the sildenafil SEDDS droplet size influenced its bioavailability, enhancing absorption, assuring a good pharmacokinetic profile. These findings suggest that the formulations developed here presented the potential to enhance drug oral absorption with the possibility to control drug dosage as they are liquid pharmaceutical formulations.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar , Animais , Química Farmacêutica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Humanos , Camundongos , Citrato de Sildenafila
10.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1405-1413, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748598

RESUMO

In vitro compartmentalization (IVC) links genotype and phenotype by compartmentalizing individual genes (including expression system) or cells into a micro-droplet reaction region. Combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), it can detect and separate single droplets in ultra-high throughput. IVC-FACS screening method has been widely used in protein engineering, enzyme directed evolution, etc. However, it is difficult to control the homogeneity of droplet size by mechanical dispersion method in previous studies, which seriously affects the quantitative detection of droplets and reduces the efficiency and accuracy of this screening method. With the rapid development of microfluidic chip manufacturing technology, the microfluidic chip-based methods for droplet generation are becoming more efficient and controllable. In this study, firstly, the water-in-oil (W/O) single-layer droplet generation chip was used to prepare single-layer monodisperse W1/O droplets at a high generation frequency, and then the W1/O droplets were reinjected into water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double-layer droplet generation chip to prepare uniform W1/O/W2 double-layer emulsion droplets. By optimizing the flow rate and ratio of the oil and water phases, a single-layer micro-droplet can be generated with a diameter range from 15.4 to 23.2 µm and remain stable for several days under normal incubation. Then the single-layer droplets were reinjected into the double emulsion generation chip. By adjusting the flow rate of drop phase, oil phase and water phase, the double-layer emulsion droplets with a diameter range from 30 to 100 µm at a rate of 1 000 droplets/s could be obtained. Escherichia coli embedded in the double-layer emulsion droplets could be cultured and induced for protein expression. This study lays a foundation for the establishment of a high-throughput screening method based on the droplet and flow cytometry.


Assuntos
Emulsões , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Microfluídica , Citometria de Fluxo , Microfluídica/métodos
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1125-1132, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788521

RESUMO

Controlling the size of nanoparticles is important for drug delivery methods such as pulmonary administration, transdermal administration, and intravenous administration. In this study, we have investigated the effect of polymer conformation in organic solvents on the size of the nanoparticles. Poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLLGA), a promising nanoparticle carrier, was used as the polymer. A mixed solution of dichloromethane, which is a good solvent, and a lower alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol), which is a poor solvent, was used as the solvent for dissolving PLLGA. An oil-in-water emulsion was prepared by sonication using the mixed solution of organic solvents in which PLLGA was dissolved as a dispersed phase and an amino acid aqueous solution as a continuous phase. Nanocomposite particles were prepared from the emulsion using a spray dryer and redispersed in purified water to obtain the PLLGA nanoparticles. The conformation of PLLGA molecules in the organic solvents was evaluated by analyzing the results of the viscosity measurements. The polymer coil radius and the volume per polymer coil were observed to decrease with the increase in the ratio of the lower alcohol in the solvent, whereas these values tended to decrease with the use of more hydrophilic lower alcohols. In addition, based on the results of the calculated entanglement index, it was found that when the hydrophobicity of the dispersed phase is reduced, the polymers were hardly entangled with each other. These results were significant, specifically when the ratio of the lower alcohol in the solvent was low. Estimation of the Pearson's correlation coefficients indicated that there were positive correlations between these indices and the mean volume diameter of PLLGA nanoparticles. This study shows that changing the composition of the dispersed phase, in which the PLLGA is dissolved, can change the conformation of the PLLGA molecules and control the size of the PLLGA nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Metileno/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Solventes/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Conformação Molecular , Psicoterapia Breve , Sonicação
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0222553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756561

RESUMO

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a standard treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma; however, it does not always result in tumor control. Nevertheless, treatment outcome can be improved with monodisperse emulsions of anticancer agents. In this study, the distribution of a monodisperse miriplatin-Lipiodol emulsion in the tumor and its safety were evaluated in ten Japanese white rabbits. VX2 tumor was implanted into the left liver lobe. The animals were divided into control and experimental groups (of five animals each) and respectively administered a conventional miriplatin suspension or the emulsion via the left hepatic artery. Computed tomography (CT) was performed before, immediately after, and two days following TACE. All rabbits were sacrificed two days after the procedure. Each tumor was removed and cut in half for assessment of iodine concentration in one half by mass spectroscopy and evaluation of Lipiodol accumulation and adverse events in the other half. Mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were measured using plain CT images taken before and after TACE. Iodine concentration was higher in the experimental group [1100 (750-1500) ppm, median (range)] than in the control group [840 (660-1800) ppm], although statistically not significant. Additionally, the HU value for the experimental group was higher than that for the control group immediately after [199.6 (134.0-301.7) vs. 165.3 (131.4-280.5)] and two days after [114.2 (56.1-229.8) vs. 58.3 (42.9-132.5)] TACE, although statistically not significant. Cholecystitis was observed in one rabbit in the control group. Ischemic bile duct injury was not observed in any group. The results show that Lipiodol accumulation and retention in VX2 tumor can possibly be improved with a monodisperse emulsion; however, it should be verified with a larger study. Moreover, no significant adverse events are associated with the use of the emulsion.


Assuntos
Emulsões/uso terapêutico , Óleo Etiodado/uso terapêutico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Artéria Hepática/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Coelhos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108786, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659617

RESUMO

Sweet orange essential oil is obtained from the peels of Citrus sinensis (CSEO) by cold pressing, and used as a valuable product by the food industry. Nanoencapsulation is known as a valid strategy to improve chemical stability, organoleptic properties, and delivery of EO-based products. In the present study we encapsulated CSEO using chitosan nanoemulsions (cn) as nanocarrier, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity in combination with mild heat, as well as its sensorial acceptability in orange and apple juices. CSEO composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and 19 components were identified, with limonene as the predominant constituent (95.1%). cn-CSEO was prepared under low shear conditions and characterized according to droplet size (<60 nm) and polydispersity index (<0.260 nm). Nanoemulsions were stable for at least 3 months at 4 ± 2 °C. cn-CSEO were compared with suspensions of CSEO (s-CSEO) (0.2 µL of CSEO/mL) in terms of antibacterial activity in combination with mild heat (52 °C) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai. cn-CSEO displayed a greater bactericidal activity than s-CSEO at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0. The validation in fruit juices showed an improved bactericidal effect of cn-CSEO in comparison with s-CSEO when combined with mild heat in apple juice, but not in orange juice. In both juices, the combination of CSEO and mild heat exerted synergistic lethal effects, reducing the treatment time to cause the inactivation of up to 5 Log10 cycles of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai cells. Finally, the sensory characteristics of both juices were acceptable either when using s-CSEO or CSEO nanoemulsified with chitosan. Therefore, as a promising carrier for lipophilic substances, the encapsulation of EOs with chitosan nanoemulsions might represent an advantageous alternative when combined with mild heat to preserve fruit juices.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Temperatura Alta , Malus/microbiologia
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127381, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603917

RESUMO

In this work, three different polyether-modified siloxanes (PMS1, PMS2, and PMS3) were applied to stabilize water-in-oil emulsions, and sodium caseinate (SC) was used to establish water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions. Here, PMS polymers were modified by Isolan GPS and SC by Tween 80. The impact of modifications on the physical stability and controlled release of W/O/W emulsions were investigated. It was found that the storage stability and control release of double emulsions were dependent on the types of PMS used, percent of Isolan GPS, and Tween 80. When PMS1 and PMS2 were combined with low percent of Isolan GPS and Tween 80, the dispersed droplet sizes were reduced, lower percent in the gravitational sedimentation were achieved than using PMS3 emulsions. The controlled releases of Mg2+ from W/O/W emulsions by using PMS3 were slower than using other PMS. PMS3 had a strong influence in controlling the release of Mg2+ from the double emulsions.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Siloxanas/química , Caseínas/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Magnésio/metabolismo , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissorbatos/química , Tensão Superficial , Água/química
15.
Food Chem ; 332: 127391, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603920

RESUMO

The objectives of the present work were to investigate the influence of Gum Arabic (GA) on the physicochemical properties and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processability of ß-lactoglobulin(ß-lg)-stabilized d-limonene emulsions. Moreover, we also wanted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of ß-lg-GA bilayer d-limonene emulsions. Physicochemically stable bilayer emulsions could be formed with an optimal concentration of GA (1.00 wt%), which showed a higher tolerance to both flocculation and coalescence, as well as better protective effects on d-limonene against UHT-treatment that up to 94.32% of d-limonene was retained in emulsions. Likewise, it is also noteworthy that no obvious difference in the minimal inhibitory concentration could be found between bilayer emulsions with or without UHT processing. Moreover, the antimicrobial effects of the bilayer emulsions with UHT treatment were shown to be dose-dependent, which was evidenced from the results of scanning electron microscopy and the determination of released cell constituents. Keywords: ß-lactoglobulin; gum arabic; d-limonene emulsion; physicochemical stability; UHT processability, antimicrobial efficiency.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Limoneno/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Elasticidade , Emulsões/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Goma Arábica/química , Temperatura Alta , Lactoglobulinas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viscosidade
16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 182, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613377

RESUMO

The aim of the present investigation was to formulate self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) tablets to enhance the oral bioavailability of tizanidine hydrochloride. SMEDDS was prepared by using Capmul G as the oil phase, Tween 20 as the surfactant, and propylene glycol as the co-surfactant. The optimized formulation was characterized by dilution test, % transmittance, thermodynamic stability, dye solubility, assay, globule size, zeta potential, and TEM. A dye solubility test confirmed the formation of o/w microemulsion. Optimized formulation of SMEDDS had a drug content of 98 ± 0.75% (3.2± 0.3 mg) and droplet size of 96.61 ± 2.3 nm. Dilution and centrifugation tests indicated the physical stability of the formulation. The optimized SMEDDS was mixed with Neusilin as adsorbent, microcrystalline cellulose as diluent, and magnesium stearate as flow promoter, and compressed into tablets. The prepared tablets passed the tests of weight variation, hardness, friability, and assay. In vitro dissolution test indicated sustained release of tizanidine hydrochloride from the SMEDDS tablet for a period of 4 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies performed on male New Zealand rabbits showed a 4.61-fold increase in bioavailability compared with the marketed formulation. Thus, the developed SMEDDS tablet proved to be capable of enhancing oral bioavailability of tizanidine hydrochloride. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Clonidina/análogos & derivados , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica , Clonidina/administração & dosagem , Clonidina/química , Clonidina/farmacocinética , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Coelhos , Solubilidade , Comprimidos
17.
Food Chem ; 333: 127538, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712546

RESUMO

The effects of water content; 15, 30, and 40% (w/w), water droplet size; d43 15.0-19.6 µm (larger) and d43 1.2-2.7 µm (smaller), and sodium alginate (0.5%, w/w) induced water gelation on crystallization kinetics and water and fat proton relaxation were studied in water-in-milk fat emulsions during in situ cooling from 40 °C to 5 °C. Anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and commercial butter were employed as two separate fat sources. Although emulsions were crystallized faster than the bulk fat, the variations in the water fraction and droplet size did not show major influence on crystallization properties. Smaller droplet size induced significant (p < 0.05) reduction in water mobility with a minimal effect of the temperature. In AMF-based emulsions, gelation of water phase not only immobilized the water molecules but also enhanced the rate of fat crystallization. Globular fat and serum solids in butter-based emulsions showed to fasten the water proton relaxation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Leite/química , Movimento (Física) , Transição de Fase , Água/química , Animais , Manteiga/análise , Cristalização , Emulsões , Géis , Cinética , Temperatura
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21155, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucea javanica oil emulsion injection (BJOEI) has been widely applied as a promising adjunctive drug for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the exact effects and safety of BJOEI remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to summarize the efficacy and safety of BJOEI for the treatment of advanced CRC through the meta-analysis, in order to provide scientific reference for the design of future clinical trials. METHODS: Eligible prospective controlled clinical trials were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Medline, Web of Science (WOS), Excerpt Medica Database (Embase), Chinese BioMedical Database (CBM), China Scientific Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Database. Papers in English or Chinese published from January 2000 to May 2020 will be included without any restrictions. The clinical outcomes including therapeutic effects, quality of life (QoL), immune function and adverse events, were systematically evaluated.Study selection and data extraction will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 14.0 were used for data analysis, and a fixed or random-effect model will be used depending upon the heterogeneity observed between trials. Subgroup and meta-regression analysis will be carried out depending on the availability of sufficient data. RESULTS: The results of this systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: Our study will draw an objective conclusion of the effects and safety of BJOEI for advanced CRC, and provide a helpful evidence for clinicians to formulate the best postoperative adjuvant treatment strategy for CRC patients.INPLASY registration number: INPLASY202060014.


Assuntos
Brucea/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Emulsões/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Chemosphere ; 259: 126949, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634719

RESUMO

High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) as template for fabrication of porous materials has attracted much attention, due to the high porosity and tunable porous structure. But the enormous consumption of organic solvents is still a nightmare for the practical application. In comparison, the aqueous foam without need any organic solvent and hence has greater advantages in the porous materials preparation. In this study, a novel Pickering foam which was stabilized by modified sepiolite (Sep) was prepared and applied as the template for preparation of the porous material via thermal-initiated polymerization. The Pickering foam had excellent ability and stability in the pH of 4-11 and the obtained porous adsorbent possess sufficient and tuned pore structure. The porous materials as adsorbent has favorable performance for adsorption and selective removal of cationic dyes, and the understanding adsorption capacities for Methylene blue (MB) and Methyl green (MG) can be achieved with 1421.18 mg/g and 638.81 mg/g within 60 and 45 min at 25 °C, respectively. This porous material can be as the potential adsorbent for adsorption or separation of organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cátions , Emulsões/química , Silicatos de Magnésio , Azul de Metileno/química , Polimerização , Porosidade , Água
20.
Food Chem ; 332: 127366, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619940

RESUMO

High methyl-esterified citrus pectin (HMCP) molecules could be self-assembled into micelles in water. The morphology of HMCP micelles in water was irregular spheres, long rods, and arc-shaped. Most of HMCP molecules cross-linked with HMCP micelles in the presence of calcium chloride and increased the range of size distribution of HMCP micelles. A little number of HMCP molecules cross-linked with each other to form 80 nn ~ 200 nm microgel particles. Calcium chloride could improve HMCP emulsification when its concentration was more than 70 mmol/L. HMCP micelles could be adsorbed on the surface of emulsion droplets. The emulsion prepared with HMCP and calcium chloride was similar to the Pickering emulsion.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Pectinas/química , Emulsões , Esterificação , Metilação , Micelas , Água/química
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