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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6503-6518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922013

RESUMO

Objective: A non-lipolysis nanoemulsion (NNE) was designed to reduce the first-pass metabolism of raloxifene (RAL) by intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) for increasing the oral absorption of RAL, coupled with in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: In vitro stability of NNE was evaluated by lipolysis and the UGT metabolism system. The oral bioavailability of NNE was studied in rats and pigs. Finally, the absorption mechanisms of NNE were investigated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) in rats, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells model, and lymphatic blocking model. Results: The pre-NNE consisted of isopropyl palmitate, linoleic acid, Cremophor RH40, and ethanol in a weight ratio of 3.33:1.67:3:2. Compared to lipolysis nanoemulsion of RAL (RAL-LNE), the RAL-NNE was more stable in in vitro gastrointestinal buffers, lipolysis, and UGT metabolism system (p < 0.05). The oral bioavailability was significantly improved by the NNE (203.30%) and the LNE (205.89%) relative to the suspension group in rats. However, 541.28% relative bioavailability was achieved in pigs after oral NNE intake compared to the suspension and had two-fold greater bioavailability than the LNE (p < 0.05). The RAL-NNE was mainly absorbed in the jejunum and had high permeability at the intestine of rats. The results of both SPIP and MDCK cell models demonstrated that the RAL-NNE was absorbed via endocytosis mediated by caveolin and clathrin. The other absorption route, the lymphatic transport (cycloheximide as blocking agent), was significantly improved by the NNE compared with the LNE (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A NNE was successfully developed to reduce the first-pass metabolism of RAL in the intestine and enhance its lymphatic transport, thereby improving the oral bioavailability. Altogether, NNE is a promising carrier for the oral delivery of drugs with significant first-pass metabolism.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisico-Química , Emulsões/química , Lipólise , Nanopartículas/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Sobrevivência Celular , Cães , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Intestinos/fisiologia , Linfa/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tensoativos/química , Suínos
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5217-5226, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801687

RESUMO

Aim: Chronic use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is commonly associated with gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Therefore, the aim of study was to develop a novel oral drug delivery system with minimum gastric effects and improved dissolution rate for aceclofenac (ACF), a model BCS class-II drug. Methods: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were formulated to increase the solubility and ultimately the oral bioavailability of ACF. Oleic acid was used as an oil phase, Tween 80 (T80) and Kolliphor EL (KEL) were used as surfactants, whereas, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and propylene glycol (PG) were employed as co-surfactants. Optimized formulations (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were analyzed for droplet size, poly dispersity index (PDI), cell viability studies, in vitro dissolution in both simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid, ex vivo permeation studies and thermodynamic stability. Results: The optimized formulations showed mean droplet sizes in the range of 111.3 ± 3.2 nm and 470.9 ± 12.52 nm, PDI from 244.6 nm to 389.4 ± 6.51 and zeta-potential from -33 ± 4.86 mV to -38.5 ± 5.15 mV. Cell viability studies support the safety profile of all formulations for oral administration. The in vitro dissolution studies and ex vivo permeation analysis revealed significantly improved drug release ranging from 95.68 ± 0.02% to 98.15 ± 0.71% when compared with control. The thermodynamic stability studies confirmed that all formulations remain active and stable for a longer period. Conclusion: In conclusion, development of oral SEDDS might be a promising tool to improve the dissolution of BCS class-II drugs along with significantly reduced exposure to gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/administração & dosagem , Diclofenaco/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Excipientes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solubilidade , Tensoativos/química
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5405-5416, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801696

RESUMO

Purpose: Although the effective and safe medical defoamers, dimethicone (DM) and simethicone (SM) are widely used in electronic gastroscope examination (EGE), their preparations are presented in the form of suspensions or emulsions, these are untransparent or milk-like in appearance and can easily cause misdiagnosis as a result of an unclear field of vision if the doctor does not master the amount of defoamer or operates incorrectly. At the same time, it is also difficult to wash out the camera and pipeline, due to the large oil droplets of preparations. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clear and transparent oil in water (O/W) DM nanoemulsions (DMNs) and observe the effect of application in EGE. Methods: The oil phase was chosen for its antifoaming activity and viscosity. The emulsifier and co-emulsifier were selected according to the solubility of the oil phase in them. The water titration method was used to make the pseudoternary phase diagrams of nanoemulsions and optimize the prescription composition. DM-in-water nanoemulsion was prepared by the low energy method and evaluated for appearance, antifoaming ability, droplet size, and stability. The effect of DMNs utilized in EGEs was also observed. Results: The optimal formulation of DMNs contained CRH-40 as an emulsifier, PEG-400 as a co-emulsifier, DM as oil phase with the viscosity of 10 mPa.s, and their proportion was 4.5:4.5:1, respectively. DMNs obtained the average particle size of 67.98 nm with the polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.332, and 57.14% defoaming rate. The result of using an EGE showed that DMNs were superior in comparison to the emulsions with regard to the defoaming effect, visual clarity, and easy cleanup. Conclusion: DMNs were found to provide excellent visual clarity to its other preparations. The novel DMNs is a promising substitute for DM emulsions or suspensions in EGEs.


Assuntos
Antiespumantes/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Emulsões/química , Gastroscopia/métodos , Antiespumantes/efeitos adversos , Antiespumantes/uso terapêutico , Óleo de Rícino/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/efeitos adversos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/uso terapêutico , Emulsificantes/química , Feminino , Gastroscopia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Nanoestruturas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
4.
Chemosphere ; 259: 126949, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634719

RESUMO

High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) as template for fabrication of porous materials has attracted much attention, due to the high porosity and tunable porous structure. But the enormous consumption of organic solvents is still a nightmare for the practical application. In comparison, the aqueous foam without need any organic solvent and hence has greater advantages in the porous materials preparation. In this study, a novel Pickering foam which was stabilized by modified sepiolite (Sep) was prepared and applied as the template for preparation of the porous material via thermal-initiated polymerization. The Pickering foam had excellent ability and stability in the pH of 4-11 and the obtained porous adsorbent possess sufficient and tuned pore structure. The porous materials as adsorbent has favorable performance for adsorption and selective removal of cationic dyes, and the understanding adsorption capacities for Methylene blue (MB) and Methyl green (MG) can be achieved with 1421.18 mg/g and 638.81 mg/g within 60 and 45 min at 25 °C, respectively. This porous material can be as the potential adsorbent for adsorption or separation of organic pollutants.


Assuntos
Corantes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cátions , Emulsões/química , Silicatos de Magnésio , Azul de Metileno/química , Polimerização , Porosidade , Água
5.
Food Chem ; 332: 127381, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603917

RESUMO

In this work, three different polyether-modified siloxanes (PMS1, PMS2, and PMS3) were applied to stabilize water-in-oil emulsions, and sodium caseinate (SC) was used to establish water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions. Here, PMS polymers were modified by Isolan GPS and SC by Tween 80. The impact of modifications on the physical stability and controlled release of W/O/W emulsions were investigated. It was found that the storage stability and control release of double emulsions were dependent on the types of PMS used, percent of Isolan GPS, and Tween 80. When PMS1 and PMS2 were combined with low percent of Isolan GPS and Tween 80, the dispersed droplet sizes were reduced, lower percent in the gravitational sedimentation were achieved than using PMS3 emulsions. The controlled releases of Mg2+ from W/O/W emulsions by using PMS3 were slower than using other PMS. PMS3 had a strong influence in controlling the release of Mg2+ from the double emulsions.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Siloxanas/química , Caseínas/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Magnésio/metabolismo , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissorbatos/química , Tensão Superficial , Água/química
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127391, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603920

RESUMO

The objectives of the present work were to investigate the influence of Gum Arabic (GA) on the physicochemical properties and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processability of ß-lactoglobulin(ß-lg)-stabilized d-limonene emulsions. Moreover, we also wanted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of ß-lg-GA bilayer d-limonene emulsions. Physicochemically stable bilayer emulsions could be formed with an optimal concentration of GA (1.00 wt%), which showed a higher tolerance to both flocculation and coalescence, as well as better protective effects on d-limonene against UHT-treatment that up to 94.32% of d-limonene was retained in emulsions. Likewise, it is also noteworthy that no obvious difference in the minimal inhibitory concentration could be found between bilayer emulsions with or without UHT processing. Moreover, the antimicrobial effects of the bilayer emulsions with UHT treatment were shown to be dose-dependent, which was evidenced from the results of scanning electron microscopy and the determination of released cell constituents. Keywords: ß-lactoglobulin; gum arabic; d-limonene emulsion; physicochemical stability; UHT processability, antimicrobial efficiency.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Emulsões/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Limoneno/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Elasticidade , Emulsões/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Goma Arábica/química , Temperatura Alta , Lactoglobulinas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viscosidade
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127461, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659698

RESUMO

The self-microemulsifying delivery system was fabricated by whey protein isolate (WPI), daidzein (Dai) and surfactants, the interaction of WPI, Dai and D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) was hereby studied in the absence or presence of Tween 20. The increase of surfactant concentration led to the decrease of the modulus and changes of protein interfacial conformation, which allowed the formation of a strong intermolecular network. The environment and structure of WPI and daidzein could be changed by TPGS, and the addition of Tween 20 could further enhance the interaction between the components by changing TPGS structure. With the increase of surfactants and oil phase, Ksv and Ka values of WPI-Dai increased first and then decreased. Therefore, the interaction between the components was also dependent on the WPI-surfactant ration. These findings provide a potential strategy for designing microemulsion food system based on the understanding of the interactions among individual composition of microemulsions.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas/química , Tensoativos/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Emulsões/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polissorbatos/química
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 182, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613377

RESUMO

The aim of the present investigation was to formulate self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) tablets to enhance the oral bioavailability of tizanidine hydrochloride. SMEDDS was prepared by using Capmul G as the oil phase, Tween 20 as the surfactant, and propylene glycol as the co-surfactant. The optimized formulation was characterized by dilution test, % transmittance, thermodynamic stability, dye solubility, assay, globule size, zeta potential, and TEM. A dye solubility test confirmed the formation of o/w microemulsion. Optimized formulation of SMEDDS had a drug content of 98 ± 0.75% (3.2± 0.3 mg) and droplet size of 96.61 ± 2.3 nm. Dilution and centrifugation tests indicated the physical stability of the formulation. The optimized SMEDDS was mixed with Neusilin as adsorbent, microcrystalline cellulose as diluent, and magnesium stearate as flow promoter, and compressed into tablets. The prepared tablets passed the tests of weight variation, hardness, friability, and assay. In vitro dissolution test indicated sustained release of tizanidine hydrochloride from the SMEDDS tablet for a period of 4 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies performed on male New Zealand rabbits showed a 4.61-fold increase in bioavailability compared with the marketed formulation. Thus, the developed SMEDDS tablet proved to be capable of enhancing oral bioavailability of tizanidine hydrochloride. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Clonidina/análogos & derivados , Emulsões/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Química Farmacêutica , Clonidina/administração & dosagem , Clonidina/química , Clonidina/farmacocinética , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Coelhos , Solubilidade , Comprimidos
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108786, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659617

RESUMO

Sweet orange essential oil is obtained from the peels of Citrus sinensis (CSEO) by cold pressing, and used as a valuable product by the food industry. Nanoencapsulation is known as a valid strategy to improve chemical stability, organoleptic properties, and delivery of EO-based products. In the present study we encapsulated CSEO using chitosan nanoemulsions (cn) as nanocarrier, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity in combination with mild heat, as well as its sensorial acceptability in orange and apple juices. CSEO composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and 19 components were identified, with limonene as the predominant constituent (95.1%). cn-CSEO was prepared under low shear conditions and characterized according to droplet size (<60 nm) and polydispersity index (<0.260 nm). Nanoemulsions were stable for at least 3 months at 4 ± 2 °C. cn-CSEO were compared with suspensions of CSEO (s-CSEO) (0.2 µL of CSEO/mL) in terms of antibacterial activity in combination with mild heat (52 °C) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai. cn-CSEO displayed a greater bactericidal activity than s-CSEO at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0. The validation in fruit juices showed an improved bactericidal effect of cn-CSEO in comparison with s-CSEO when combined with mild heat in apple juice, but not in orange juice. In both juices, the combination of CSEO and mild heat exerted synergistic lethal effects, reducing the treatment time to cause the inactivation of up to 5 Log10 cycles of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai cells. Finally, the sensory characteristics of both juices were acceptable either when using s-CSEO or CSEO nanoemulsified with chitosan. Therefore, as a promising carrier for lipophilic substances, the encapsulation of EOs with chitosan nanoemulsions might represent an advantageous alternative when combined with mild heat to preserve fruit juices.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Temperatura Alta , Malus/microbiologia
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461204, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505292

RESUMO

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as an extractant for the determination of pyrethroids in environmental water and tea beverage samples. Three different acids were chosen as hydrogen bond donors for preparation of DESs, and decanoic acid was optimal because of its high recovery. Factors affecting relative recovery were optimized individually, including salt addition, surfactant addition, extraction temperature, DES amount, and sample volume etc. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative recovery of pyrethroids was from 89.3% to 97.7%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from 1.75% to 2.73%. The linear correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9992, and the linear range was between 1.9 and 500 µg/L. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1, the limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.56 to 1.24 µg/L. The enrichment factor ranged from 92 to 105. In conclusion, good extraction efficiency was achieved in tea beverage samples under the optimized conditions.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Emulsões/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Piretrinas/análise , Solventes/química , Chá/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Tensoativos/química , Temperatura , Água/química
11.
Food Chem ; 329: 127219, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516714

RESUMO

Plant-based proteins and polyphenols are increasingly being explored as functional food ingredients. Colloidal complexes were prepared from pea protein (PP) and grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) and the ability of the PP/GSP complexes to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. The main interactions between PP and GSP were hydrogen bonding. The stability of PP-GSP complexes to environmental changes were studied: pH (2-9); ion strength (0-0.3 M); and temperature (30-90 °C). Emulsions produced using PP-GSP complexes as emulsifiers had small mean droplet diameters (~200 nm) and strongly negative surface potentials (~-60 mV). Compared to PP alone, PP-GSP complexes slightly decreased the isoelectric point, thermostability, and salt stability of the emulsions, but increased their storage stability. The presence of GSP gave the emulsions a strong salmon (red-yellow) color, which may be beneficial for some specific applications. These results may assist in the creation of more efficacious food-based strategies for delivering proanthocyanidins.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Sítios de Ligação , Calorimetria , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Proteínas de Ervilha/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Temperatura , Água/química
12.
Food Chem ; 330: 127280, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540520

RESUMO

We investigated changes in the chemical composition of WPI as a result of heating (60 °C, 72 h) with SBP in solution (pH 6.75). The concentration of WPI was kept at a constant (3%), whereas the level of SBP was varied at 1, 1.5, and 3%. The reaction products were examined using the Ellman's reagent, ninhydrin assay, and gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrated that the losses of the free sulfhydryl (-SH) and primary amine (-NH2) contents in WPI were less severe compared to those occurring in the dry-state at similar conditions (mass ratio, temperature, and reaction duration). The mixtures were used as emulsifiers in an O/W emulsion system at pH 3.20 and 6.75 and showed an improved ability to stabilize the average size of the droplets than WPI alone at acidic pH. The mixtures at higher levels of SBP, ≥ 1.5%, however, adversely affected the emulsion stability at neutral pH.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Pectinas/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/isolamento & purificação
13.
Food Chem ; 330: 127325, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569939

RESUMO

In order to develop natural, food-grade particles as emulsifiers, wet-milled has been conducted to obtain apple pomace particles in varying sizes. Structural characteristics, physicochemical properties and Pickering emulsifying potential of the particle in different sizes were investigated. Particle size of apple pomace was gradually reduced from 12.9 µm to 550 nm during 8 h milling. With the decrease of particles size, the morphology became less angular. Meanwhile, some insoluble dietary fibers transformed into soluble ones, and the wettability tended to be hydrophilic, therefore, the water and oil holding capacities and free-radical-scavenging capacities increased. The properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by wet-milled apple pomace particles in different sizes were then investigated. The decrease of particle size resulted in the size reduction of emulsion droplets, and gave rise to enhance gel-like properties and antioxidative activities of emulsions. The results demonstrated promising prospect of wet-milled apple pomace particles as emulsifiers in food industry.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Malus/química , Fibras na Dieta , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química , Molhabilidade
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492039

RESUMO

Increasing pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity is considered strategic by WHO. Adjuvant use is key in this strategy in order to spare the vaccine doses and by increasing immune protection. We describe here the production and stability studies of a squalene based oil-in-water emulsion, adjuvant IB160, and the immune response of the H7N9 vaccine combined with IB160. To qualify the production of IB160 we produced 10 consistency lots of IB160 and the average results were: pH 6.4±0.05; squalene 48.8±.0.03 mg/ml; osmolality 47.6±6.9 mmol/kg; Z-average 157±2 nm, with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.085±0.024 and endotoxin levels <0.5 EU/mL. The emulsion particle size was stable for at least six months at 25°C and 24 months at 4-8°C. Two doses of H7N9 vaccine formulated at 7.5 µg/dose or 15 µg/dose with adjuvant IB160 showed a significant increase of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers in sera of immunized BALB/c mice when compared to control sera from animals immunized with the H7N9 antigens without adjuvant. Thus the antigen-sparing capacity of IB160 can potentially increase the production of the H7N9 pandemic vaccine and represents an important achievement for preparedness against pandemic influenza and a successful North (IDRI) to South (Butantan Institute) technology transfer for the production of the adjuvant emulsion IB160.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/síntese química , Emulsões/síntese química , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/química , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Polissorbatos/química , Esqualeno/química , Transferência de Tecnologia , Vacinação/métodos
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1772-1780, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484970

RESUMO

The combined application of CaCl2 and Alcalase 2.4 L to the aqueous extraction process of peanuts was evaluated as a method to destabilize the oil body (OB) emulsion and improve the oil yield. After adding 5 mM CaCl2 , the oil yield was reached to 92.0% which was similar with that obtained using Alcalase 2.4 L alone, and the required enzyme loading was decreased by approximately 60 times. In addition, the demulsification mechanism during aqueous extraction process was also investigated. Particle size and zeta-potential measurements indicated that the stability of the peanut OB emulsion dramatically decreased when CaCl2 was added. Under these conditions, the demulsification of Alcalase 2.4 L performed was more efficiently. SDS-PAGE results showed that adding CaCl2 changed the subunit structure of the peanut OB interface proteins and promoted the cross-linking among the arachin Ara h3 isoforms, resulting in unstable emulsions.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Óleo de Amendoim/análise , Óleo de Amendoim/isolamento & purificação , Subtilisinas/química , Biocatálise , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Emulsões/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Tamanho da Partícula
16.
Food Chem ; 331: 127108, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593036

RESUMO

In this work, novel edible coating films based on beeswax-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions had been investigated. The Pickering emulsions were stabilized with cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS). The emulsions with a droplet diameter of around 10 µm had uniform particle size distribution, and the creaming stability was improved with the increasing the contents of CNFs in the complexes, rheological analysis demonstrated that the Pickering emulsions had an elastic gel-like network. Furthermore, free-standing films were obtained when the emulsions were dried at ambient condition, the tensile strength of the coating films could be 5.0 MPa at a strain of 2.2%, and the water vapor permeability (WVP) value was lower than 2 × 10-7 g∙h-1∙m-1∙Pa-1. Moreover, the coating films could inhibit the growth of typical spoilage organisms such as S. aureus or E. coli, it indicated that the coatings films would have promising applications in antiseptic and fresh keeping for berry fruits.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Celulose/química , Emulsões/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Ceras/química , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Escherichia coli , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Nanoestruturas/química , Permeabilidade , Staphylococcus aureus , Vapor , Resistência à Tração , Água
17.
Food Chem ; 329: 127162, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492599

RESUMO

We report for the first time the use of biochar as a stabilizer for oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion. The emulsion is subsequently used to prepare tetracycline-imprinted biochar composite microspheres (MIPMs) with tailored sizes and good uniformity. The adsorption properties of tetracycline to the MIPMs were investigated using different adsorption experiments including adsorption kinetic experiment, equilibrium binding experiment, selectivity evaluation and competitive adsorption tests. The MIPMs were used as adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) for the extraction of tetracycline present in drinking water, fish, and chicken samples. Under optimal conditions, the results showed good recovery yield ranging from ~73% to ~95% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) ranging from ~0.3% to ~8.4%, respectively.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Emulsões/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Tetraciclina/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Microesferas , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/instrumentação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127217, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521404

RESUMO

Low pH-shifting was firstly applied in the black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolate treatment by acidic (pH 1.0-3.0) buffer incubation for 8 h, then was adjusted to pH 7.2 and kept 3 h for protein stabilizing. Mild loss of secondary structure was confirmed in the protein isolate after low pH-shifting treatment by CD and FT-IR analyses. Intrinsic fluorescence, UV spectra, surface hydrophobicity, SH content and SDS-PAGE analyses indicated the protein conformation was unfolded with the exposure of much more buried hydrophobic residues, which would result in the enhancement of emulsifying properties, foaming properties and fat holding capacity, and lead to the reduction of solubility and water holding capacity. Furthermore, lower immunoreactivity was observed by the ELISA, and improved digestibility was found in in vitro digestion assay. Our results suggested the low pH-shifting treatments would broaden the application of bean protein isolate with better hydrophobic processing functions and safety.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Emulsões/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Imunoensaio , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Solubilidade
19.
Food Chem ; 330: 127215, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534158

RESUMO

This study investigated changes of the structure and emulsifying properties of peanut protein isolate (PPI) during multiple freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles. According to the Fourier transform infrared spectrum, the F-T treatment to PPI reduced the content of protein ordered structure significantly. The result of fluorescence spectrum revealed that the polarity of PPI surroundings first increased and then decreased. Similarly, the free sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity of PPI increased firstly and decreased. However, the carbonyl content and particle size of PPI increased continuously after F-T treatment. The emulsification performance of PPI after F-T treatment was significantly improved. The emulsion prepared by PPI after 3 F-T cycles had the smallest mean particle size, the highest absolute value of zeta-potential and the most uniform microstructure distribution, showed the best performance of emulsifying ability. Therefore, it can be known that F-T cycles treatment could effectively change protein structure and improve protein emulsifying properties.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Emulsões/química , Congelamento , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Tamanho da Partícula
20.
Food Chem ; 331: 127367, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574946

RESUMO

PC (phosphatidylcholine), PE (phosphatidylethanolamine), PI (phosphatidylinositol), and PA (phosphatidic acid) in 9 peanut matrices obtained during the AEP (aqueous extraction processing) of peanut were quantified employing HPLC-ELSD analysis in this study. Phosphorus contents of crude oils obtained from different demulsification treatments were also investigated. Decantation had a larger effect than grinding in terms of phospholipids loss due to alkaline-hydrolysis, indicating this processing step was vital for the manipulation of phospholipids levels remained in oil. Over 80% of initial phospholipids were lost during AEP and only 19.8% of initial phospholipids ended up in cream, skim and sediment phase. 52.55% of the remained phospholipids trapped in cream phase. Just 22.16-32.61 mg/kg phosphorus content could be detected in crude oils, which indicated the separation of phospholipids from the cream phase into aqueous medium. Degumming was not essential in AEP of peanut and the waste generated after demulsification could be a source of phospholipids.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleo de Amendoim/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fósforo/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Emulsões/química , Óleo de Amendoim/química , Fosfolipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Água
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