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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 110-118, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pectin is an intriguing polymer, which is usually regarded as a byproduct from agricultural and biological processes. In previous studies, ultrasound treatment has been explored to improve the functionality of pectin but most of that work focused on aspects of molecular structure and the chemical properties of pectin. In this study, we utilized ultrasound treatment to modify the physiochemical properties of pectin. Using ultrasound treatment, we evaluated the emulsifying capability of pectin as a function of ultrasonic time and power density, using a response surface approach. A very potent yet unstable coffee-like aroma compound, 2-furfurylthiol, was also used for comparing the encapsulation feasibility of emulsion made with original pectin and ultrasound-treated pectin. RESULTS: Our results showed that the particle size of pectin was highly correlated with power density and ultrasound time. Approximately 370 nm of pectin particle size could be reached at a power density of 1.06 W mL-1 for 40 min. Ultrasound treatment increased emulsion droplet size but significantly improved emulsifying capacities, such as centrifugal stability and surface loading, although it was highly dependent upon the ultrasound treatment condition. When used as the encapsulation wall material, the ultrasound-modified pectin had significantly enhanced performance compared with the original, in terms of flavor retention over time at 45 °C and 65 °C. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound treatment was able to modify the physiochemical properties of pectin, which thus improved emulsification stability and encapsulation feasibility by forming a thicker layer at the oil / water interface to protect the core materials. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Furanos/química , Pectinas/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/efeitos da radiação , Emulsões/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinas/efeitos da radiação , Ultrassom
2.
Food Chem ; 305: 125475, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518841

RESUMO

Pea protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were prepared to encapsulate vitamin D with the aim to develop novel non-dairy functional foods for vitamin D fortifications. Homogenization conditions of 20 kpsi and two homogenization cycles were identified as optimal conditions for producing stable nanoemulsions. The nanoemulsions exhibited controllable sizes (170-350 nm), good stability with zeta-potential of -25 mV, and high vitamin encapsulation efficiency (94-96%). Cellular uptake efficiency of small sized nanoemulsions (233 nm) was ~2.5 times higher than large sized nanoemulsions (350 nm). Interestingly, protein-based nanoemulsions exhibited significantly higher cellular uptake than emulsions prepared using a combination of protein and lecithin. The vitamin D transport efficiency across Caco-2 cells for small sized nanoemulsions (233 nm) was ~5.3 times greater than free vitamin D suspension. This research demonstrated that pea protein can be used as an effective emulsifier for preparing food nanoemulsions, which may enhance vitamin D bioavailability and improve vitamin deficiency status in aged population.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Proteínas de Ervilha/química , Vitamina D/química , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular , Emulsificantes/química , Humanos , Lecitinas/química , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Pressão , Estabilidade Proteica , Vitamina D/metabolismo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 129-138, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capsaicin, as a major pungent ingredient of peppers, has many health benefits. However, the strong irritation effect of capsaicin inhibits its application in the food industry. Emulsions can be an effective approach to alleviate the irritation. RESULTS: In this study, we used tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) as an emulsifier to prepare capsaicin emulsions through high-pressure homogenization. Capsaicin emulsions with a particle size of about 100 nm, -36.4 mV zeta potential, and 91.9% encapsulation efficiency were prepared successfully and showed better environmental stability and higher antioxidant activity. Emulsions reduced the cumulative release of capsaicin and had no toxic effect on buffalo rat liver (BRL-3A) cells. Moreover, the gastrointestinal injury model of rats showed that emulsions reduced the strong irritation of capsaicin. CONCLUSION: This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of irritant ingredients in food industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/química , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Animais , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Vitamina E/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 287-294, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol (DAG) reduces body weight, suppresses body fat accumulation, and lowers the blood lipid concentration, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the risk of occurrence of coronary artery diseases. RESULTS: DAG-rich algae oil with a high DHA content (55.9%) was synthesized via the lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of algae oil, which consisted of triacylglycerol (43.9 mol%), DAG (40.9 mol%), and monoacylglycerol (15.2 mol%). The DAG-rich algae oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using three emulsifiers [whey protein concentrate (WPC), Tween80, and Tween80 + Span80]. The WPC-emulsion formed a thicker serum layer (6.67% at day 51) and larger oil droplets (d32 , 0.37 µm at day 28) than the Tween80- and Tween80 + Span80-emulsions (3.33-4.17%; 0.26 µm), and an upper cream layer with excess oil droplets was observed in only the WPC-emulsion, indicating that WPC-emulsion possesses the lowest emulsification stability. The hydroperoxide value and reduction rate of the DHA content were higher in the WPC-emulsions than in the Tween80- and Tween80 + Span80-emulsions during storage, which suggested that the WPC-emulsion had the lowest oxidation stability. CONCLUSION: The DAG-rich algae oil-in-water emulsion prepared with suitable emulsifiers, such as non-ionic emulsifiers, would have excellent emulsification and oxidative stabilities and provides a health benefit for special purposes in the food processing industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Biocatálise , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Lipase/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Polissorbatos/química , Água/análise , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 695-704, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) nanoemulsion enriched foods offer the potential to address habitually low oily fish intakes. Nanoemulsions increase LCn3PUFA bioavailability, although they may cause lipid oxidation. The present study examined the oxidative stability of LCn3PUFA algal oil-in-water nanoemulsions created by ultrasound using natural and synthetic emulsifiers during 5 weeks of storage at 4, 20 and 40 °C. Fatty acid composition, droplet size ranges and volatile compounds were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found for fatty acid composition at various temperatures and storage times. Lecithin nanoemulsions had significantly larger droplet size ranges at baseline and during storage, regardless of temperatures. Although combined Tween 40 and lecithin nanoemulsions had low initial droplet size ranges, there were significant increases at 40 °C after 5 weeks of storage. Gas chromatograms identified hexanal and propanal as predominant volatile compounds, along with 2-ethylfuran, propan-3-ol and valeraldehyde. The Tween 40 only nanoemulsion sample showed the formation of lower concentrations of volatiles compared to lecithin samples. The formation of hexanal and propanal remained stable at lower temperatures, although higher concentrations were found in nanoemulsions than in bulk oil. The lecithin only sample had formation of higher concentrations of volatiles at increased temperatures, despite having significantly larger droplet size ranges than the other samples. CONCLUSION: Propanal and hexanal were the most prevalent of five volatile compounds detected in bulk oil and lecithin and/or Tween 40 nanoemulsions. Oxidation compounds remained more stable at lower temperatures, indicating suitability for the enrichment of refrigerated foods. Further research aiming to evaluate the oxidation stability of these systems within food matrices is warranted. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Lecitinas/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura Ambiente , Vegetarianos
6.
Food Chem ; 302: 125328, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404868

RESUMO

To control the oral bioavailability of curcumin, we fabricated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using tristearin and polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated emulsifiers. Lipolysis of prepared SLNs via simulated gastrointestinal digestion was modulated by altering the types and concentrations of emulsifiers. After digestion, the size/surface charge of micelles formed from SLN digesta were predictable and >91% of curcumin was bioaccessible in all of the SLNs. The curcumin permeation rate through mucus-covered gut epithelium in vitro was dependent on the size/surface charge of the micelles. Curcumin loaded in long-PEGylated SLNs rapidly permeated the epithelium due to the neutral surface charge of the micelles, resulting in a >12.0-fold increase in bioavailability compared to curcumin solution in a rat model. These results suggest that the bioavailability of curcumin can be controlled by modulating the interfacial properties of SLNs, which will facilitate the development of curcumin formulations for use in functional foods and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Emulsificantes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Digestão , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/química
7.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3213-3221, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589344

RESUMO

Vitamin D3 was encapsulated in 10% wt soybean oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions stabilized by either nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or whey protein isolate (WPI) at 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% w/w. The vitamin D3 -enriched emulsions were tested for their stability against temperature (30 °C to 90 °C), pH (2 to 8), and ionic strength (0 to 500 mM NaCl). The mean particle diameter (d32 ), ζ-potential, and creaming stability of the oil droplets in the emulsions were measured, as well as their vitamin D3 encapsulation efficiency (EE). After preparation, the oil droplet size (d32 ) of the emulsions stabilized by NFC increased with increasing emulsifier concentration, whereas the droplet size of emulsions stabilized by WPI decreased. NFC provided good stability to the emulsions through a combination of steric and electrostatic repulsion. The EE of vitamin D3 increased with increasing emulsifier concentration. Heating or ionic strength did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect the emulsions properties and EE. On the other hand, the NFC-stabilized emulsions were sensitive to highly acidic conditions (pH 2), with an increase in particle size and decrease in EE. The WPI-stabilized emulsions aggregated around the isoelectric point of the adsorbed proteins (pI ≈ 4.8). Increasing NFC or WPI concentration improved the stability and EE of the emulsions against environmental stresses. NFC-stabilized emulsions had good long-term stability. The results show that NFC can be used as an effective emulsifier for creating vitamin-enriched emulsions with good stability. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study can be used to develop more effective encapsulation technologies for fat-soluble vitamins in emulsion-based food products. Encapsulation using nanofibrillated cellulose effectively protected the encapsulated vitamins against environmental stresses which occur in industrial food production (such as pH changes, salt addition, and thermal processing). Moreover, nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from mangosteen rind is a nature-derived emulsifier that is environmental friendly.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Colecalciferol/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Garcinia mangostana/química , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/química , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Eletricidade Estática , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química
8.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 173, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioemulsifiers are surface-active compounds, which exhibit advantages including low toxicity, higher biodegradability and biocompatibility over synthetic chemical surfactants. Despite their potential benefits, some obstacles impede the practical applications of bioemulsifiers, including low yields and high purification costs. Here, we aimed to exploit a novel protein bioemulsifier with efficient emulsifying activity and low-production cost, as well as proposed a design-bioemulsifier system that meets different requirements of industrial emulsification in the most economical way. RESULTS: The esterase AXE was first reported for its efficient emulsifying activity and had been studied for possible application as a protein bioemulsifier. AXE showed an excellent emulsification effect with different hydrophobic substrates, especially short-chain aliphatic and benzene derivatives, as well as excellent stability under extreme conditions such as high temperature (85 °C) and acidic conditions. AXE also exhibited good stability over a range of NaCl, MgSO4, and CaCl2 concentrations from 0 to 1000 mM, and the emulsifying activity even showed a slight increase at salt concentrations over 500 mM. A design-bioemulsifier system was proposed that uses AXE in combination with a variety of polysaccharides to form efficient bioemulsifier, which enhanced the emulsifying activity and further lowered the concentration of AXE needed in the complex. CONCLUSIONS: AXE showed a great application potential as a novel bioemulsifier with excellent emulsifying ability. The AXE-based-designer bioemulsifier could be obtained in the most economical way and open broad new fields for low-cost, environmentally friendly bioemulsifiers.


Assuntos
Acetilesterase/química , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Emulsificantes/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Acetilesterase/biossíntese , Biodegradação Ambiental
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10904-10912, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508953

RESUMO

High-order multiple emulsions are of great interest in both fundamental research and industrial applications as vehicles for their encapsulation capability of actives. In this work, we report a hierarchically multicompartmental highly stable triple emulsion by emulsifying and assembling of natural Quillaja saponin. Water-in-oil-in-(oil-in-water) (W2/O2/(O1/W1)) triple emulsion indicates that the compartmented system consisted of surfaced saponin-coated nanodroplets (SNDs) and dispersed oil globules, which in turn contained smaller aqueous droplets. The effects of formulation parameters, including lipophilic emulsifier content, oil fraction, and SND concentration, on the formation of multiple emulsions were systematically investigated. The assembly into fibrillar network of SNDs at the outer oil-water interface effectively protected the triple emulsion droplets against flocculation and coalescence, and strongly prevented the osmotic-driven water diffusion between the internal water droplets and the external water phase, thus contributing to superior stability during 180 days storage. All of these characteristics make the multicompartmentalized emulsions suitable to co-encapsulate a hydrophilic bioactive (gardenia blue) and two hydrophobic bioactives (eapsanthin and curcumin) in a single emulsion droplet hierarchically for the segregation and protection of multiple cargos. This approach offers a promising route toward accessing the next generation of functional deliveries and encapsulation strategies.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quillaja/química , Saponinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Glucosídeos/química , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
10.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2777-2784, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524956

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the potential of using infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics to monitor Maillard reaction. Sodium caseinate (NaCAS) and gum Arabic (GA) or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) powders were mixed at 1:1, spray-dried, and incubated at 60 °C and 76% of relative humidity from 0 to 72 hr. Sample infrared spectra were collected, and browning degree, conjugation efficiency, and stabilization properties of the conjugates were analyzed by spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidity, and zeta potential measurements. Pairwise soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) models showed significant chemical differences among NaCAS-GA mixtures incubated for 0 (Control) and 16 hr, attributed to functional groups linked to different Maillard reaction products such as Schiff's base and pyridine compounds. Infrared spectroscopy combined with SIMCA is a powerful tool to monitor the formation of protein-polysaccharide conjugates by Maillard reaction. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Protein-polysaccharide conjugates obtained by Maillard reaction are currently used as novel food emulsifiers. However, conventional methods to study this chemical reaction are time consuming or involve the use of toxic and harmful reactants. Infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis is evaluated to be used as a rapid tool to monitor Maillard reaction.


Assuntos
Goma Arábica/química , Reação de Maillard , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos , Emulsificantes/química , Análise de Fourier , Análise Multivariada , Polissacarídeos/química , Proteínas/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11728-11740, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525998

RESUMO

Pickering emulsions stabilized by food-grade particles have garnered increasing interest in recent years due to their promising applications in biorelated fields such as foods, cosmetics, and drug delivery. However, it remains a big challenge to formulate nanoscale Pickering emulsions from these edible particles. Herein we show that a new Pickering nanoemulsion that is stable, monodisperse, and controllable can be produced by employing the spherical micellar nanoparticles (EYPNs), self-assembled from the food-derived, amphiphilic egg yolk peptides, as an edible particulate emulsifier. As natural peptide-based nanoparticles, the EYPNs have a small particle size, intermediate wettability, high surface activity, and deformability at the interface, which enable the formation of stable Pickering nanodroplets with a mean dynamic light scattering diameter below 200 nm and a polydispersity index below 0.2. This nanoparticle system is versatile for different oil phases with various polarities and demonstrates the easy control of nanodroplet size through tuning the microfluidization conditions or the ratio of EYPNs to oil phase. These food-grade Pickering nanoemulsions, obtained when the internal phase is an edible vegetable oil, have superior stability during long-term storage and spray-drying based on the irreversible and compact adsorption of intact EYPNs at the nanodroplet surface. This is the first finding of a natural edible nano-Pickering emulsifier that can be used solely to make stable food Pickering nanoemulsions with the qualities of simplicity, versatility, low cost, and the possibility of controllable and mass production, which make them viable for many sustainable applications.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Emulsificantes/química , Fixadores/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Peptídeos/química , Animais , Galinhas , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química , Molhabilidade
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 556: 616-627, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494392

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: The development of functional and nutritional surfactants for the food industry remains a subject of great interest. Herein, therefore, we report on the design and synthesis of novel trisaccharide (raffinose) monoester-based surfactants in the expectation that they would display functional properties superior to certain disaccharide-based, commercially-deployed emulsifiers and thus have potential for industrial applications. EXPERIMENTS: The title esters were prepared by enzymatic methods and their properties as surfactants evaluated through determination of their HLB values, water solubilities, CMCs, foamabilities and foaming stabilities as well as through investigation of their impacts on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions over a range of storage times and under certain other conditions. FINDINGS: The emulsifying properties of 6-O-acylraffinose esters are dictated, in large part, by the length of the associated alkyl chains. The results of storage and environmental stress experiments revealed that the increasing length of alkyl chains enhances the stability of the derived emulsions. All the raffinose ester-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions displayed stratification effects under strongly acidic conditions (pH ≤ 4) or at high ionic strength (≥300 mM) while possessing reasonable resistance to variations in temperature. As such, a number of the raffinose monoesters showed greater stability to environmental stress than their commercially-deployed and sucrose-based counterparts. The structure-property profiles established through the present study provide a definitive guide for the development of raffinose esters as novel emulsifiers, particularly in the food industry.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lipase/química , Rafinose/química , Emulsificantes/síntese química , Emulsificantes/química , Ésteres/síntese química , Ésteres/química , Estrutura Molecular
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11129-11136, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487456

RESUMO

4-Amion-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (Temp) was grafted into sodium lignosulfonate (SL) to obtain hindered amine-modified lignosulfonate (SL-Temp). Then, the polymer surfactant (SL-Temp-CTAB) was prepared using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and SL-Temp. Obtained SL-Temp-CTAB was used as an emulsifier to prepare a green emulsifiable concentrate (EC) of avermectin (AVM), which shows good emulsifying property and storage stability. The prepared AVM green EC can form AVM-loaded microspheres with nanometer particle size distribution after emulsification in water. After ultraviolet irradiation for 70 h, the AVM retention rate of the green EC prepared using SL-Temp-CTAB was 75.8%, which is much higher than that of commercial EC (0.4%) and the green EC prepared using unmodified SL (31.4%). Moreover, the AVM green EC prepared using SL-Temp-CTAB has slow-release performance, and the release equilibrium time is 5.3 times the commercial EC. Therefore, the newly prepared AVM green EC using a lignin-based functional emulsifier shows good antiphotolysis and slow-release performance compared to the traditional EC.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Emulsificantes/síntese química , Lignina/química , Cetrimônio/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Cinética , Lignina/análogos & derivados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
14.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 144: 40-49, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505225

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to develop zeta potential changing self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) via a flip-flop mechanism in order to improve their mucus permeating and cellular uptake properties. METHODS: Phosphorylated serine-oleylamine (p-Ser-OA) conjugates were synthesized and incorporated into SEDDS at a concentration of 1% (v/v). Cytotoxic potential of p-Ser-OA and p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS was investigated on Caco-2 cells. Phosphate release was evaluated using isolated as well as cell-associated intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP). In parallel, change in zeta potential and amino group concentration on the surface of SEDDS was determined. Furthermore, mucus permeation and cellular uptake studies were performed. RESULTS: p-Ser-OA was synthesized by covalent attachment of serine (Ser) to oleylamine (OA) via a carbodiimide-mediated reaction followed by phosphorylation using phosphorous pentoxide (P2O5) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The chemical structure of p-Ser-OA was confirmed via FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS exhibited a droplet size and zeta potential of 46.42 ±â€¯0.35 nm and -11.53 mV, respectively. A significant amount of phosphate was released after incubation with isolated as well as cell-associated AP within 6 h and zeta potential raised up to -2.04 mV. p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS showed improved mucus permeation in comparison to p-Ser-OA loaded SEDDS treated with AP. Moreover, cellular uptake increased almost 2-fold after phosphate cleavage using AP. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study show that SEDDS changing their zeta potential via a flip-flop mechanism exhibit both high mucus permeating and high cellular uptake properties.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Muco/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsificantes/química , Humanos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos/química , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10165-10173, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398024

RESUMO

Chin-brick tea polysaccharide conjugates (TPC-C) were prepared to study their emulsion capabilities. Interfacial tension and the effects of some factors, such as storage time, metal ion concentrations (Na+, Ca2+), pH (2.0-8.0), and heat treatment (70-100 °C) on the emulsions stabilized by TPC-C were studied. The interfacial tension of TPC-C (10.88 mN/m) was lower than that of gum arabic (15.18 mN/m) at a concentration of 0.08%. As the TPC-C concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 wt %, the mean particle diameter (MPD) (d32) of emulsions stabilized by TPC-C decreased from 1.88 to 0.16 µm. Furthermore, at a concentration of 0.5 wt % or higher, the MPD (d32) of emulsions stabilized by TPC-C at 25 and 60 °C for 10 days was between 0.20 and 0.50 µm. In the tested pH conditions from 2.0 to 8.0, the MPD (d32) of emulsions stabilized by 2.0 wt % TPC-C was less than 0.20 µm. At Na+ concentration conditions between 0.10 and 0.50 mol/L, the MPD (d32) of emulsions was between 0.19 and 0.20 µm, and the zeta potential values varied from -34.10 to -32.60 mV. However, with an increasing Ca2+ concentration from 0.01 to 0.05 mol/L, the MPD (d32) of emulsions was between 0.20 and 21.65 µm, and the zeta potential raised sharply from -34.10 to -28.46 mV. The emulsions stabilized by TPC-C have a decent storage stability after a high-temperature heat treatment. Overall, tea polysaccharide conjugates strongly stabilized the emulsions, which support their new application as natural emulsifiers.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Emulsificantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Emulsões/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula
16.
Food Chem ; 301: 125259, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376691

RESUMO

Complex hydrocolloids have been isolated and fractionated using a consecutive elution process, starting from winery waste. These extracts consist mainly of polysaccharidic populations and of smaller protein molecules and they exhibit emulsifying, thickening and texture-modifying activity. This work is a systematic study of these individual populations, as fractionated with preparative size exclusion chromatography (Prep-SEC) in terms of their chemical identity, surface properties, and emulsification behavior. The fractions have been characterized via SEC-MALLS, FTIR, DLS, zeta potential, and interfacial tension measurements. The results highlight the antagonistic and synergistic effects of the individual components of the above-mentioned complex natural material (winery waste extract) towards its emulsifying behavior, and provide a model for the kinetics of the evolution of a Pickering interfacial layer.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Vinho , Coloides , Cinética , Tensão Superficial
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374944

RESUMO

Microalgae are considered as excellent candidates for bioactive compounds, yet microalgal residues remaining after the extraction of one or two compounds are usually discarded, which is not economical. This study demonstrates the alkaline extraction of proteins from Chlorella pyrenoidosa residue after lipid and pigment extractions, and their functional properties. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were used to obtain the optimal conditions for protein extraction. Based on our results, a maximum protein yield of 722.70 mg/g, was obtained under the following extraction conditions: sodium hydroxide concentration 7.90%, extraction temperature 70.00 °C, extraction time 34.80 min, and microalgal residue concentration 8.20 mg/mL. The molecular weight of microalgal residue protein isolate (MRPI) was mainly distributed at the regions of 0.18-0.50 kDa, 0.50-1.50 kDa, and 1.50-5.00 kDa. The essential amino acid content was greater than the values recommended by FAO/WHO standards; a high essential amino acid index value (1.49) was another good indication that MRPI is suitable for human consumption. Moreover, MRPI exhibited excellent emulsifying properties and antioxidant activity, which suggests it may be useful as an emulsifying agent and antioxidant. These findings could improve the extraction methods of functional protein from microalgal residue and add value to microalgae-based bioactive compound production processes.


Assuntos
Chlorella/química , Microalgas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos Essenciais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5446-5460, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403644

RESUMO

A high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) was firstly fabricated with octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch through simple shear dispersion. The impact of the emulsifier level, pH, and ionic strength on the rheology, microstructure, interfacial properties, water binding and thermal stability of the HIPE was determined. The results indicated that HIPEs could be formed at a suitably modified starch concentration (≥3 wt%), a wider range of pH (3 to 7) and all test salt levels (0 to 400 mM NaCl). Encapsulation of a sensitive hydrophobic nutraceutical (ß-carotene) within the HIPEs could improve its chemical stability under UV exposure, and the degradation ratio was fairly similar at all test pH values. The ß-carotene stability and bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion were improved by encapsulation into HIPEs, but their values depended on pH to some extent. These results are useful for designing and fabricating modified starch-stabilized HIPEs which can be utilized in functional food and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Amido/análogos & derivados , beta Caroteno/química , Camellia/química , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Reologia , Amido/química
19.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426272

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid compound of Cannabis sativa, shows limited oral bioavailability due to its lipophilicity and extensive first-pass metabolism. CBD is also known for its high intra- and inter-subject absorption variability in humans. To overcome these limitations a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) based on VESIsorb® formulation technology incorporating CBD, as Hemp-Extract, was developed (SEDDS-CBD). The study objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of SEDDS-CBD in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design in 16 healthy volunteers under fasted conditions. As reference formulation, the same Hemp-Extract diluted with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT-CBD) was used. CBD dose was standardized to 25 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed from individual concentration-time curves. Single oral administration of SEDDS-CBD led to a 4.4-fold higher Cmax and a 2.85-/1.70-fold higher AUC0-8h/AUC0-24h compared to the reference formulation. Tmax was substantially shorter for SEDDS-CBD (1.0 h) compared to MCT-CBD (3.0 h). Subgroup analysis demonstrated a higher bioavailability in women compared to men. This difference was seen for MCT-CBD while SEDDS-CBD mitigated this gender effect. Overall, SEDDS-CBD showed a significant improvement for all determined pharmacokinetic parameters: increased CBD plasma values (Cmax), favorably enhanced bioavailability (AUC) and fast absorption (Tmax). No safety concerns were noted following either administration.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacocinética , Ansiolíticos/farmacocinética , Canabidiol/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsificantes/química , Administração Oral , Adulto , Analgésicos/sangue , Ansiolíticos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Canabidiol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Emulsificantes/administração & dosagem , Jejum , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
20.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 554: 183-190, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299546

RESUMO

We report on the structural evaluation of high fat fish oil-in-water emulsions emulsified with sodium caseinate (CAS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The microemulsions contained 70% (w/w) fish oil with 1.05-1.4% (w/w) CAS and 0.4-1.75% (w/w) PC and were studied by the combination of light scattering together with small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS/SANS). Aqueous CAS forms aggregates having a denser core of about 100 kDa and less dense shell about 400 kDa with the hard sphere diameter of 20.4 nm. PC appears as multilayers whose coherence length spans from 40 to 100 nm. PC monolayer separates oil and water phases. Moreover, 80% CAS particles are loosely bound to the interface but are not forming continuous coverage. The distance between aggregated CAS particles in microemulsion is increased compared to CAS aggregates in pure CAS-in-water system. PC multilayers become larger in the presence of oil-water interface compared to the pure PC mixtures. Bilayers become larger with increasing PC concentration. This study forms a structural base for the combination of CAS and PC emulsifiers forming a well-defined thin and dense PC layer together with thick but less dense CAS layer, which is assumed to explain its better oxidative stability compared to single emulsifiers.


Assuntos
Caseínas/química , Emulsões/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Água/química , Emulsificantes/química
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