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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 407-466, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571171

RESUMO

Blood-brain interfaces comprise the cerebral microvessel endothelium forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelium of the choroid plexuses forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Their main functions are to impede free diffusion between brain fluids and blood; to provide transport processes for essential nutrients, ions, and metabolic waste products; and to regulate the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS), all of which are attributed to absent fenestrations, high expression of tight junction proteins at cell-cell contacts, and expression of multiple transporters, receptors, and enzymes. Existence of BBB is an important reason that systemic drug administration is not suitable for the treatment of CNS diseases. Some diseases, such epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and diabetes, alter BBB function via affecting tight junction proteins or altering expression and function of these transporters. This chapter will illustrate function of BBB, expression of transporters, as well as their alterations under disease status.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Transporte Biológico , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17334, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574870

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a disease caused by decreased vitamin B12 intake or metabolic disorders. It is more common in the elderly and rarely seen in children. Here, we report 2 pediatric cases of SCD in late-onset cobalamin C (CblC) deficiency. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patients complained of unsteady gait. Their physical examination showed sensory ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed classic manifestations of SCD. The serum vitamin B12 level was normal, but urine methylmalonic acid and serum homocysteine levels were high. DIAGNOSIS: The pathogenic gene was confirmed as MMACHC. The 2 patients each had 2 pathogenic mutations C.482 G>A and C.271dupA and C.365A>T and C.609G>A in this gene. They were diagnosed with combined methylmalonic acidemia and homocysteinemia-CblC subtype. INTERVENTIONS: The patients were treated with methylcobalamin 500 µg intravenous injection daily after being admitted. After the diagnosis, levocarnitine, betaine, and vitamin B12 were added to the treatment. OUTCOMES: Twelve days after treatment, the boy could walk normally, and his tendon reflex and sense of position returned to normal. The abnormal gait seemed to have become permanent in the girl and she walked with her legs raised higher than normal. LESSONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 2 cases of isolated SCD in children with late-onset CblC disorder. Doctors should consider that SCD could be an isolated symptom of CblC disorder. The earlier the treatment, the lower the likelihood of sequelae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Homocistinúria , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/congênito , Vitamina B 12/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Ataxia/diagnóstico , Ataxia/etiologia , Ataxia/terapia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Homocistinúria/diagnóstico , Homocistinúria/genética , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Transtornos de Início Tardio , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Ácido Metilmalônico/urina , Mutação , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/diagnóstico , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/etiologia , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/fisiopatologia , Degeneração Combinada Subaguda/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/genética , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem
3.
Brain Nerve ; 71(10): 1053-1060, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588049

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is reported to be a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), broadly contributing to the AD pathologies observed in most populations. However, it is difficult to explicate these AD pathologies based only on the known functions of APOE. In this review article, we revisited the histories and functions of APOE and also reviewed its recently elucidated the pleiotropic roles in the brain.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Encéfalo , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 45-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583584

RESUMO

Astrocytes are principal cells responsible for maintaining the brain homeostasis. Additionally, these glial cells are also involved in homocellular (astrocyte-astrocyte) and heterocellular (astrocyte-other cell types) signalling and metabolism. These astroglial functions require an expression of the assortment of molecules, be that transporters or pumps, to maintain ion concentration gradients across the plasmalemma and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Astrocytes sense and balance their neurochemical environment via variety of transmitter receptors and transporters. As they are electrically non-excitable, astrocytes display intracellular calcium and sodium fluctuations, which are not only used for operative signalling but can also affect metabolism. In this chapter we discuss the molecules that achieve ionic gradients and underlie astrocyte signalling.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Cálcio , Homeostase , Humanos , Bombas de Íon/fisiologia , Neuroglia , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Sódio
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 129-148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583587

RESUMO

Microglia constitute the major immune cells that permanently reside in the central nervous system (CNS) alongside neurons and other glial cells. These resident immune cells are critical for proper brain development, actively maintain brain health throughout the lifespan and rapidly adapt their function to the physiological or pathophysiological needs of the organism. Cutting-edge fate mapping and imaging techniques applied to animal models enabled a revolution in our understanding of their roles during normal physiological conditions. Here, we highlight studies that demonstrate the embryonic yolk sac origin of microglia and describe factors, including crosstalk with the periphery and external environment, that regulate their differentiation, homeostasis and function in the context of healthy CNS. The diversity of microglial phenotypes observed across the lifespan, between brain compartments and between sexes is also discussed. Understanding what defines specific microglial phenotypes is critical for the development of innovative therapies to modulate their effector functions and improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/citologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo , Homeostase , Humanos , Saco Vitelino/citologia
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 149-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583588

RESUMO

Astroglial cells are involved in most if not in all pathologies of the brain. These cells can change the morpho-functional properties in response to pathology or innate changes of these cells can lead to pathologies. Overall pathological changes in astroglia are complex and diverse and often vary with different disease stages. We classify astrogliopathologies into reactive astrogliosis, astrodegeneration with astroglial atrophy and loss of function, and pathological remodelling of astrocytes. Such changes can occur in neurological, neurodevelopmental, metabolic and psychiatric disorders as well as in infection and toxic insults. Mutation in astrocyte-specific genes leads to specific pathologies, such as Alexander disease, which is a leukodystrophy. We discuss changes in astroglia in the pathological context and identify some molecular entities underlying pathology. These entities within astroglia may repent targets for novel therapeutic intervention in the management of brain pathologies.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alexander/fisiopatologia , Atrofia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 273-324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583592

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Cellular changes in the brains of the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease occur well in advance of the clinical symptoms. At the cellular level, the most dramatic is a demise of neurones. As astroglial cells carry out homeostatic functions of the brain, it is certain that these cells are at least in part a cause of Alzheimer's disease. Historically, Alois Alzheimer himself has recognised this at the dawn of the disease description. However, the role of astroglia in this disease has been understudied. In this chapter, we summarise the various aspects of glial contribution to this disease and outline the potential of using these cells in prevention (exercise and environmental enrichment) and intervention of this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Astrócitos/citologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos
8.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 801-815, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549679

RESUMO

Development of the human brain is a strictly complex and precisely regulated process. Brain development includes the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, migration and maturation of neurons, myelination of neuronal axons, synaptogenesis and organization of the neural circuits. Abnormalities of these developmental processes can lead to severe malformation and dysfunction of the brain, which may result in brain developmental diseases which have a high medical burden and have attracted global attention. Brain developmental diseases are typically divided into two categories according to abnormal brain morphology and dysfunction: malformation of cortical development (MCD) and neuropsychopathy. Microcephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are representative disorders of MCD and neuropsychopathy respectively. In this review, we summarize the progresses of these two typical and relevant brain developmental diseases including the mechanism and etiology of their development, gene expression, symptoms, and related to provide theoretical guidance for basic research and management and treatment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(7): 11-12, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559780

RESUMO

Context: Subependymal nodular heterotopia is a cortical development malformation that is commonly associated with refractory epilepsy. Patients with heterotopia show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from being asymptomatic to presenting with intractable seizures and intellectual impairment. Case Report: We report a case of refractory epilepsy with normal intelligence, having bilateral subependymal heterotopic nodules in brain, presenting to us with a movement disorder in the form of myoclonus of bilateral lower limbs which is an unusual manifestation of gray matter heterotopias. Conclusion: Though rare, gray matter heterotopias may present as movement disorder and should be considered in differential diagnosis while work up of movement disorders.


Assuntos
Coristoma , Epilepsia , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Encéfalo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(35): 2773-2776, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550801

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the brain activities of exercise addiction (EA) group people with the task-functional magnetic resonance image (task-fMRI). Methods: A total of 29 exercise addicts (addiction group, average age 46±4 years) and 26 non-exercise addicts (control group, average age 46±6 years) matched by sex, age, average education level and sports dependence degree were selected by using exercise addiction index (EAI) through questionnaires to members of Jiangsu Local Fitness and Long-distance Running Association between January 2018 and June 2018. The participants were scanned with fMRI while watching sports pictures or non-sports pictures. The brain responses of the two groups under two stimulation tasks were analyzed and compared. Results: Compared with the control group, while watching sports pictures, the right fusiform gyrus (MNI:x=30, y=-87, z=0), left posterior central gyrus (MNI:x=-51, y=-21, z=54), left medial superior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-9, y=54, z=30), and right middle occipital gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=-72, z=36) were significantly inhibited in the addiction group (t-test, all P<0.05). When watching non-sports pictures, the addictive group showed the left superior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-12, y=54, z=30), left middle frontal gyrus (MNI:x=-30, y=18, z=45), right inferior frontal gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=33, z=-12), right occipital gyrus (MNI:x=42, y=-72, z=36), and they were more significantly inhibited than the control group (t-test, all P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared to the control group, the EA group shows significant brain inhibition with visual stimulation, particularly with non-sports pictures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Temporal
11.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 251-256, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517457

RESUMO

Background and purpose: In this study, we aimed to examine the risk factors, topographic features and stroke mechanisms of acute ischemic unilateral infarcts of thalamus. Methods: Patient with isolated thalamic infarct and those with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarction who were admitted to our hospital between January 2014 and January 2017 with acute unilateral thalamic infarction (TI) were included in this study (isolated thalamic infarction/ isolated TI; thalamic and posterior cerebral artery infarction/PCA+TI). Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors of the patients were determined. Thalamic infarct areas were recorded topographically as anterior, posteromedial, ventrolateral, posterolateral, more than one area, and variant areas. Stroke mechanism was determined according to the criteria of "Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment" (TOAST). Patients with isolated TI and PCA TI were compared according to risk factors, stroke mechanism and infarct topography. Results: Forty-three patients with a mean age of 63.3 ± 14.5 years were included in the study. Twenty-eight patients (60.1%) were found to have isolated TI and the remaining 15 patients (34.9%) had PCA+TI. 32.1% of patients with isolated TI had sensory symptoms on presentation, and 60% of patients with PCA-TI had sensorimotor symptoms. The mean age, the mean score on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the mean frequency of atrial fibrillation were higher in PCA+TI patients than in isolated-TI patients (p: 0.04, p: 0.004, p: 0.02 respectively). 32.6% of the patients had ventrolateral, 30.2% had posteromedial involvement. Ventrolateral topography was seen in 46.7% of the PCA+TI patients, while posteromedial topography was seen in 39.3% of the isolated-TI patients. 53.6% of the isolated-TI had small vessel disease etiology, while 40% of the PCA+TI had cardioembolic etiology, and the other 40% had large artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Our study showed that the most ommon stroke mechanism in patients with thalamic infarction is the small vessel disease. Isolated TI and PCA+TI patients differ in terms of etiologic mechanism and infarct topography. Variant territorial involvement and multiple area involvements can be quite common in thalamic infarcts.


Assuntos
Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Posterior/patologia , Artéria Cerebral Posterior , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Doenças Talâmicas/diagnóstico , Tálamo/irrigação sanguínea , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Posterior/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Talâmicas/etiologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia
12.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 285-288, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517463

RESUMO

Morvan syndrome is a rare disease characterized by peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, encephalopathy, dys-autonomia and significant insomnia. The patient, who was included in the present study, was followed-up at our clinics for confusion, myokymia, hyperhidrosis, epileptic seizures, tachycardia, agitation, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. The cranial MRI of the patient demonstrated hyperintensities at the T2 and FLAIR sections of the medial temporal lobe and insular lobes. Electromyography and neurotransmission examination results were concordant with peripheral nerve hyperreactivity. Contactin-associated protein-like 2 antibodies and leucine-rich glioma inactivated protein 1 antibodies were detected as positive. The patient was diagnosed with Morvan syndrome; intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroid treatment was started. Almost full remission was achieved. This very rare syndrome implies challenges in diagnosis and treatment; however, remission can be achieved during the follow-up. In addition, caution is needed in the long-term follow-up of these patients regarding the development of malignancies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/diagnóstico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Encefalite Límbica , Transtornos dos Movimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Musculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1169: 1-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487016

RESUMO

In this chapter, heterogeneity is explored in the context of the ventricular-subventricular zone, the largest stem cell niche in the mammalian brain. This niche generates up to 10,000 new neurons daily in adult mice and extends over a large spatial area with dorso-ventral and medio-lateral subdivisions. The stem cells of the ventricular-subventricular zone can be subdivided by their anatomical position and transcriptional profile, and the stem cell lineage can also be further subdivided into stages of pre- and post-natal quiescence and activation. Beyond the stem cells proper, additional differences exist in their interactions with other cellular constituents of the niche, including neurons, vasculature, and cerebrospinal fluid. These variations in stem cell potential and local interactions are discussed, as well as unanswered questions within this system.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Ventrículos Laterais , Células-Tronco Neurais , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Linhagem da Célula , Ventrículos Laterais/citologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia
15.
Brain Nerve ; 71(9): 993-1002, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506401

RESUMO

Joint attention behaviors involve sharing attention with others to an object or event by means of eye-gazing or pointing, which form the common basis for communication. There are two types of these behaviors: responding to joint attention (RJA) and initiating joint attention (IJA). RJA is the ability to follow the gaze of others, suggesting reception of a social signal from others; IJA is the ability to voluntarily direct the attention of others, to share the experience of an object or event, suggesting transmission of a social signal to others. Infants experience these roles (as signal receiver and signal transmitter) throughout the first year of life and learn social cognitive skills. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that joint attention is supported by widely distributed neural systems with nodes in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and insula, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, the superior temporal cortex, the precuneus and parietal cortex, and the amygdala and striatum.


Assuntos
Atenção , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Lactente , Lobo Parietal , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Lobo Temporal
16.
Brain Nerve ; 71(9): 1003-1012, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506402

RESUMO

We present a case of a 73-year-old female who developed subacute memory disturbance, reduced consciousness and quadriparesis following pernicious anemia. Brain magnetic resonance imagings (MRI) in diffusion weighted, T2 weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images revealed hyperintensities in bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices, left thalamus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, and bilateral subcortical white matters. Brain gadolinium enhanced T1 weighted MRI revealed very slight post-contrast enhancement lesions in the right posterior temporal region and bilateral parietal regions. Serum was negative for anti- aquaporin (AQP) 4 antibody, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibody and anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibody, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was negative for anti- N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody. CSF analysis showed slight protein elevation with normal cellular content. No evidence of neoplasm was observed using whole-body 18 F -fluorodeoxyglucose- positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Pathological findings of the left frontal lesion revealed perivascular and scattered parechymal T-lymphocytic infiltration, and astrogliosis without vascular hyalinization. Patient achieved partial recovery during two intraveneous pulse methylprednisolone treatments, and exacerbation afterwards. After the third intraveneous pulse methylprednisolone treatment, remission is sustained for six years. This case can be regarded as autoantibody-negative but probable autoimmune encephalitis with the features of nonparaneoplastic panencephalitis and treatable dementia. Nonparaneoplastic autoimmune panencephalitis with widespread multifocal brain lesions on brain MRI is extremely rare, with exception of anti- NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis.


Assuntos
Anemia Perniciosa/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Demência/etiologia , Encefalite/etiologia , Idoso , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
17.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(3): 138-142, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527364

RESUMO

Zinc, an essential trace element, plays an important role in a large number of biological functions. In mammalian brain, whereas the majority of brain zinc is bound to proteins including metallothionein, about 5-15% is stored in presynaptic vesicles of glutamatergic neurons throughout the forebrain, especially in the hippocampus, in a relatively free state. Thus, free zinc (Zn2+) concentration in the brain is considered to be regulated in order to maintain normal brain functions such as learning and memory. On the other hand, brain Zn2+ dyshomeostasis has been recognized as a mechanism for neuronal injury in brain disorders including Alzheimer's disease and brain ischemia. In particular, after transient brain ischemia, Zn2+ accumulates in hippocampal neurons via a zinc transport system, or via release from cytosolic zinc-binding proteins, which results in neuronal cell death. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Zn2+ dyshomeostasis also occurs in glial cells such as microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes after brain ischemia. In oligodendrocytes, ischemic insult triggers intracellular Zn2+ accumulation, resulting in cell death via mitochondrial dysfunction. Increased extracellular Zn2+ inhibits astrocytic glutamate uptake. In addition, extracellular Zn2+ massively released from ischemic neurons primes microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation. This review aims to describe the impact of brain Zn2+ dyshomeostasis on alterations in glial cell survival and functions in post-ischemic brains.


Assuntos
Química Encefálica , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Zinco/fisiologia , Animais , Astrócitos , Encéfalo , Microglia , Neurônios , Oligodendroglia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16887, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490372

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Multiple syphilitic gummas involving both the brain and spinal cord are quite rare. Central nervous system (CNS) syphilitic gummas are commonly misdiagnosed as CNS tumors, and clinical suspicion and diagnosis of a syphilitic gumma by physicians are vital to avoiding unnecessary surgeries. Our case emphasizes the importance of routine serologic syphilis tests and standard therapy with penicillin in patients with a CNS mass. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 22-year-old previously healthy man presented with a 9-day history of progressive right lower limb weakness. DIAGNOSIS: The diagnosis of gummatous neurosyphilis was based on positive serological, cerebrospinal fluid tests for syphilis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which revealed the presence of multiple dural-based enhancing masses with marked edema. INTERVENTIONS: Therapy consisting of intravenous penicillin G at 24 million units daily divided into 6 doses were given for a total of 21 days, along with 3 weekly intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin G (2.4 million units) to ensure that the syphilitic lesions in the CNS were adequately treated. OUTCOMES: Complete resolution of the lesions was observed on MRI over a 3-month period. LESSONS: The importance of routine serologic syphilis tests and standard therapy with penicillin in patients with central CNS mass lesions is noted to avoiding unnecessary surgeries.


Assuntos
Neurossífilis/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurossífilis/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurossífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Penicilina G/uso terapêutico , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 289-295, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of glucosides of chaenomeles speciosa (GCS) on ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in mouse model. METHODS: Fifty 8-week C57BL/C mice were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each group:sham group, model group, GCS 30 mg/kg group, GCS 60 mg/kg group and GCS 90 mg/kg group, and the GCS was administrated by gavage (once a day) for 14 d. HE staining was performed to investigate the cell morphology; the Zea-Longa scores were measured for neurological activity; TUNEL staining was performed to investigate the cell apoptosis; ELISA was used to detected the oxidative stress and inflammation; Western Blot was performed to investigate the key pathway and neurological functional molecules. RESULTS: Compared with the sham group, the brain tissues in model group were seriously damaged, presenting severe cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, associated with increased NF-κB P65 and TNF-α levels as well as decreased myelin associate glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp)levels (all P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the brain tissues in GCS groups were ameliorated, and cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation were inhibited, associated with decreased NF-κB P65 and TNF-α levels as well as increased MAG and OMgp levels (all P<0.01), which were more markedly in GCS 60 mg/kg group. CONCLUSIONS: GCS can inhibit the NF-κB P65 and TNF-α, reduce the oxidative stress and inflammation, decrease the cell apoptosis in mouse ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury model, and 60 mg/kg GCS may be the optimal dose.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Glucosídeos , Rosaceae , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Rosaceae/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
20.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 303-309, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation of phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein (P-S6) content in blood and brain tissue in mice and rats with seizure. METHODS: Seizure models were induced by intraperitoric injection of kainic acid (KA) in C57BL/mice and SD rats. Flow cytometry was used to detect the content of P-S6 in blood; Western blot was used to detect the expression of P-S6 in brain tissues. The correlation between P-S6 expression in blood and in brain tissue was examine by Pearson analysis, and the correlation between P-S6 expression in blood and the severity of seizure was also observed. RESULTS: Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of P-S6 was significantly increased in peripheral blood and brain tissue in mice 1 h after KA-induced seizure,and the expression levels increased to (1.49±0.45) times (P<0.05) and (2.55±0.66) times (P <0.01) of the control group, respectively. Flow cytometry showed that the positive percentage and average fluorescence intensity of P-S6 in the blood of mice increased significantly 1 h after KA-induced seizures (P<0.01), which was consistent with the expression of P-S6 in brain tissue (r=0.8474, P<0.01). Flow cytometry showed that the average fluorescence intensity of P-S6 in blood increased from 14.89±9.75 to 52.35±21.72 (P<0.01) in rats with seizure, which was consistent with the change of P-S6 in brain tissue (r=0.9385, P<0.01). Rats with higher levels of seizure were of higher levels of P-S6 in peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent correlation of P-S6 expression is demonstrated in peripheral blood and in brain tissue after KA-induced seizure, suggesting that the expression of P-S6 in blood can accurately reflect the changes of mTOR signaling pathway in brain tissue.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Caínico , Convulsões , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Convulsões/sangue , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
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