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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 27-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHD) may be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities mainly due to brain hypoperfusion. This defect is attributed to the major cardiac operations these children underwent, but also to hemodynamic instability during fetal life. Advances in imaging techniques have identified changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)in children with CHD. OBJECTIVES: To examine the correlation between CHD and brain injury using fetal brain MRI. METHODS: We evaluated 46 fetuses diagnosed with CHD who underwent brain MRI. CHD was classified according to in situs anomalies, 4 chamber view (4CV), outflow tracts, arches, and veins as well as cyanotic or complex CHD. We compared MRI results of different classes of CHD and CHD fetuses to a control group of 113 healthy brain MRI examinations. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in brain pathologies among different classifications of CHD. The anteroposterior percentile of the vermis was significantly smaller in fetuses with abnormal 4CV. A significantly higher biparietal diameter was found in fetuses with abnormal arches. A significantly smaller transcerebellar diameter was found in fetuses with abnormal veins. Compared to the control group, significant differences were found in overall brain pathology in cortex abnormalities and in extra axial findings in the study group. Significantly higher rates of overall brain pathologies, ventricle pathologies, cortex pathologies, and biometrical parameters were found in the cyanotic group compared to the complex group and to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Fetuses with CHD demonstrate findings in brain MRI that suggest an in utero pathogenesis of the neurological and cognitive anomalies found during child development.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/embriologia , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 3-9, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893387

RESUMO

Neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury were monitored using a broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system in the neonatal intensive care unit. The aim of this work is to use the NIRS cerebral oxygenation data (HbD = oxygenated-haemoglobin - deoxygenated-haemoglobin) combined with arterial saturation (SaO2) from pulse oximetry to calculate cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on the oxygen swing method, during spontaneous desaturation episodes. The method is based on Fick's principle and uses HbD as a tracer; when a sudden change in SaO2 occurs, the change in HbD represents a change in tracer concentration, and thus it is possible to estimate CBF. CBF was successfully calculated with broadband NIRS in 11 HIE infants (3 with severe injury) for 70 oxygenation events on the day of birth. The average CBF was 18.0 ± 12.7 ml 100 g-1 min-1 with a range of 4 ml 100 g-1 min-1 to 60 ml 100 g-1 min-1. For infants with severe HIE (as determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) CBF was significantly lower (p = 0.038, d = 1.35) than those with moderate HIE on the day of birth.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Encéfalo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Oximetria , Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 65-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to document the imaging appearance in the intracranial compartment at the time of the infants' first postnatal brain MR imaging after fetal repair for spinal dysraphisms. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients were evaluated on fetal and postnatal magnetic resonance imaging for a series of features of Chiari II malformation. RESULTS: Of the 29 infants, 55% had resolution of tonsillar ectopia, and 62% showed a dorsal outpouching of the near the foramen magnum on postnatal magnetic resonance imaging. The majority had persistence of Chiari II features including: prominent massa intermedia (93%), tectal beaking (93%), towering cerebellum (55%), flattening of the fourth ventricle (90%), hypoplastic tentorium (97%), and tonsillar hypoplasia (59%). CONCLUSIONS: Normally positioned or minimally descended, oftentimes hypoplastic tonsils in the presence of a posterior fossa configuration typical of Chiari II, was the most common presentation. An additional documented feature was an outpouching of the dorsal thecal sac between the opisthion and the posterior arch of C1.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/epidemiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disrafismo Espinal/cirurgia , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Disrafismo Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 347-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893430

RESUMO

In preterm infants, there is a risk of long-term cognitive, motor and behavioral impairments due to hemorrhagic and/or ischemic lesions. If detected early, lesions can be prevented. A bedside imaging modality, capable of early detection of both disorders, is necessary. We present the state of development of a tomographic imager (named Pioneer), that will be capable of determining the oxygenation of the preterm-infant brain with high spatial resolution. Pioneer is a time-resolved near-infrared optical tomography (TR NIROT) instrument. It employs multiple wavelength laser light in short pulses on 11 distinct locations and measures the re-emerging light in a contactless fashion by means of a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) camera (named Piccolo) covering ~4.9 cm2 with 300 detectors. Timing response of the entire system is 116 ps. An in-house designed biocompatible source ring ensures fixed relative positions of sources and detectors and provides a secure interface between the patient and the probe. At the present state, the NIROT Pioneer system successfully detected a 6x6x50 mm3 inclusion 3 cm deep inside a phantom. These results confirm that the Pioneer imager is working as expected and is on a solid path towards full 3D tissue oxygenation imaging.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Oximetria , Oxigênio , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oximetria/normas , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Imagens de Fantasmas
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 59-83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784957

RESUMO

Neuroimaging shed light on the understanding of psychopathological mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder, despite its inconsistent findings. Noninvasive neuroimaging studies have indicated that various behavioral deficits in major depressive disorder are implicated with structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain regions. Moreover, disrupted brain morphological and functional properties may map out the underlying pathways from genetic and environmental factors to the prognosis of depression. Molecular neuroimaging studies have also provided novel method to probe transmitters and metabolites in brain regions rather than simply measuring brain morphological changes. Recent advanced neuroimaging approaches (e.g., pattern recognition) provides great opportunity to probe neuroimaging biomarkers that may contributes to improving diagnostic accuracy and predicting treatment outcomes. In this chapter, we conclude neuroimaging studies in the research field of depression from psychopathological, molecular, genetic/environmental, diagnostic, and therapeutic perspectives.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Biomarcadores , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18587, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876760

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical diseases. However, complicated subdural empyema rarely occurs after trepanation and drainage of chronic subdural hematoma. PATIENT CONCERNS: A male patient (77 years old) was admitted to the hospital on the 2nd day of fever after an undergoing a "trepanation and drainage of chronic subdural hematoma" operation at a local hospital. After admission, the patient was treated with an emergency operation in which a subdural abscess was diagnosed and then administered antibiotics after the operation. DIAGNOSIS: According to the clinical manifestations, intraoperative findings of imaging examination and the results of pus culture, the diagnosis was subdural empyema. INTERVENTION: We surgically removed the subdural empyema. Postoperative antibiotics were administered according to the results of bacterial culture. OUTCOMES: At 3 months after the operation, the patient returned to the hospital for reexamination and was found to have achieved a good recovery and good self-care. LESSONS: Subdural empyema after trepanation and drainage of chronic subdural hematoma is a very rare and severe disease. Early diagnosis and operative intervention as well as the intravenous administration of antibiotics can improve the prognosis of patients and enhance their quality of life.


Assuntos
Empiema Subdural/etiologia , Hematoma Subdural Crônico/cirurgia , Trepanação , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Empiema Subdural/diagnóstico , Empiema Subdural/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trepanação/efeitos adversos , Trepanação/métodos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18296, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860978

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cerebral microbleeds are increasingly recognized in various neurological disorders such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), Alzheimer disease, and stroke. The presence and number of cerebral microbleeds are known to be independent predictors of cognitive impairment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old woman visited our memory disorder clinic complaining of progressive memory impairment, which started 2 years ago. DIAGNOSES: The patient had innumerable cortical/subcortical cerebral microbleeds in the entire brain. We diagnosed the patient with amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to CAA. Interestingly, only focal ß-amyloid deposits at the bilateral parietal cortices were seen on amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) scan. INTERVENTIONS: We have observed changes in her cognitive function without any medication. OUTCOMES: The cognitive function of the patient was unchanged during the follow-up period. LESSONS: Our case was interesting in a few aspects, including the number of cerebral microbleeds and the atypical ß-amyloid deposition pattern on amyloid PET scan. Further studies on more cases are needed to evaluate ß-amyloid burden and distribution patterns in CAA.


Assuntos
Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Neuroimagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18012, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852064

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune-mediated encephalopathy rarely seen in Graves' disease, with <20 cases reported previously, associated with elevated concentration of circulating serum anti-thyroid antibodies usually responsive to steroid therapy. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a HE case (25-year-old male) with Graves' disease, complicated by fever and pancytopenia. The patient presented with fever, gait impairment, delirium, agitation and disorientation. DIAGNOSES: Thyroid-related antibodies were elevated and brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed symmetrical white-matter lesion. There was no evidence of infection or other reasons to explain all of his clinical manifestations. Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is an autoimmune encephalopathy with various manifestations and the characteristic of elevated anti-thyroid antibodies and has no relationship to thyroid function. INTERVENTIONS: The patient had nonspecific clinical manifestations and excellently respond to glucocorticoid therapy.The symptoms and the radiographic abnormalities disappeared after glucocorticoid therapy. OUTCOMES: We followed up with him for 5 years, in which there was no recurrence and his thyroid function continued to be normal. LESSONS: It is important to evaluate thyroid function and related antibodies in patients present with neuropsychological symptoms to avoid delay in diagnosis.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite/etiologia , Doença de Graves/complicações , Doença de Hashimoto/etiologia , Pancitopenia/complicações , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/imunologia , Doença de Graves/diagnóstico , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pancitopenia/diagnóstico , Pancitopenia/imunologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 317, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692756

RESUMO

Empty sella syndrome is a condition in which the sella turcica is partially or totally filled with cerebrospinal fluid causing a displacement of the pituitary gland. We here report the case of a 49-year old obese patient with progressive headaches, physical asthenia and hypothyroidism. Brain scanner showed empty sella syndrome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/diagnóstico , Obesidade/complicações , Astenia/etiologia , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(11): 844-848, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770852

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the alterations of the cerebral resting-state spontaneous neural activity in colorectal cancer patients with depressive symptoms. Methods: Thirty-three colorectal cancer patients (patient group) with depression and 43 healthy subjects (control group) underwent the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) were calculated. Two independent samples t test were used to compare the ALFF and fALFF values between two groups by DPABI software, and then correlation analysis was performed between ALFF and fALFF with statistical significance and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) scores and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scores. Results: Compared with the control group, the patient group showed significantly lower ALFF and fALFF values in the bilateral precuneus, calcarine gyrus, lingual gyrus, left cuneus, superior, middle, inferior occipital gyrus and right fusiform gyrus (t=-5.730, P<0.05; t=-4.872, P<0.05). There were no significant correlations between the ALFF and fALFF values in these regions and PHQ-9 or GAD-7 scores (P>0.05). Conclusion: Spontaneous decrease of neural activity in occipital and parietal lobes exists in colorectal cancer patients with depression at resting-sate, which may be a potential neurobiological marker.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/complicações , Humanos
11.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(11): 837-843, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665837

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize the clinical features of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter disease (VWM) in children. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 54 genetically diagnosed VWM patients in Peking University First Hospital from January 2007 to March 2019. Paper registration form and electronic medical record system were used to collect the data,and the children were divided into five groups according to the age of disease onset:<1 year, 1-<2 years, 2-<4 years, 4-<8 years and 8-<18 years respectively. The progression of motor function, episodic aggravation, epileptic seizures, survival time, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genotype features were analyzed and compared. Non-parametric test, χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test were used for comparison among groups; Kaplan-Meier survival curve was adopted to delineate the survival status of the children. Results: Fifty-four VWM patients were included in the study, including 34 males and 20 females.The age of disease onset was 2 years and 8 months (ranged from 6 months to 9 years and 7 months). Onset age was less than 1 year in 5 cases; onset age was 1-<2 years in 12 cases; onset age was 2-<4 years in 25 cases; onset age was 4-<8 years, in 10 cases; onset age was 8-<18 years in 2 cases; 94% (51/54) of patients had complaint of motor regression at the first visit; 87% (47/54) of patients suffered from episodic aggravation. Episodic seizures occurred in 43% (23/54) patients. In survivors with disease durations of 1-3 years, in 38% (9/24) patients the disease was classified as grades Ⅳ-Ⅴ by gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). For the onset age 1-<2 years group, 1 patient was classified as GMFCS Ⅳ among 3 survivors with disease durations of 1-3 years. As for the 2-<4 years group, 6 patients were classified as GMFCS Ⅳ-Ⅴ among 15 patients with disease durations of 1-3 years, whereas 1 patient was classified as GMFCS Ⅳ-Ⅴ among 4 patients with disease durations of 1-3 years in the 4-<8 years group. Lesions, liquefaction and diffusion restriction in brain MRI were compared among different groups, and it was revealed that the earlier the age of disease onset was, the more likely the subcortical white matter (frontal lobe P<0.01,temporal and parieto-occipital lobe both P=0.002), internal capsule (anterior limb P<0.01, posterior limb P=0.00) and brain stem (midbrain P=0.001, pons P<0.01) were to be involved. In addition, internal capsule (anterior limb P=0.002, posterior limb P=0.005) and brain stem (midbrain P=0.001, pons P=0.003) showed more diffuse restricted diffusion. Moreover, the subcortical white matter (frontal and parieto-occipital lobe both P<0.01, temporal lobe P=0.005) showed earlier rarefaction. The 1-year and 2-year survival rates of the overall patients were 81% and 75% respectively, while the 15-year survival rate was 45%. EIF2B5 gene variation was the most common, which accounts for 43% (23/54), followed by EIF2B3 (22%, 12/54). Conclusions: The majority of VWM patients complained of motor regression at the first visit, episodic aggravation and epileptic seizures are common in the course. Earlier age at onset is associated with more rapid clinical progression, shorter survival time as well as more extensive lesions, liquefaction and diffusion restriction in brain MRI. The most common variant gene is EIF2B5, followed by EIF2B3.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Adolescente , Tronco Encefálico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos dos Movimentos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 159-195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705495

RESUMO

This chapter presents an overview of accumulating neuroimaging data with emphasis on translational potential. The subject will be described in the context of three disease states, i.e., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder, and for three clinical goals, i.e., disease risk assessment, subtyping, and treatment decision.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem , Psiquiatria , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Medição de Risco
13.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 86(5): 342-347, 2019.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748109

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of our study is to show the pitfalls of performing skull X-rays in patients with head injuries and the lack of accuracy of this examination nowadays, and to clarify the current trend in the MTBI investigation algorithm. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study of 3,950 patients treated for acute head injury at the Department of Trauma Surgery (University Hospital Brno) in the period from 2015 to 2016. Inclusion criteria were the following: mild brain injury (GCS = 15), primary skull X-ray design in head injury diagnosis. Patients with a positive skull X-ray finding underwent a head CT evaluation up to 24-hours from the injury except for the patients with an isolated nose bone fracture. A CT head scan was also performed in patients indicated by the neurologist at the initial examination based on the anamnestic data and an objective finding. RESULTS Inclusion criteria were met by 1,938 patients. In 1806 (93.2%) cases the X-ray was negative, in 132 (6.8%) patients the X-ray was positive, of which in 62% of patients a nasal fracture was detected. A skull fracture reported in 16 cases. Once the CT scan of the head was obtained, all of these cases were classified as false negative. After the CT scan of the head, intracranial bleeding was observed in 12 patients, in 4 cases accompanied by fractures of the skull, not visible on the X-ray images. After the statistical evaluation, the sensitivity and specificity of the X-ray examination compared to the CT scan of the head was determined to be 0.00 and 0.94, respectively. DISCUSSION The aim of MTBI diagnostics is primarily to detect serious intracranial lesions requiring neurosurgical intervention. A simple X-ray of the skull shows fractures only and does not allow to visualize both the brain and any traces of bleeding that would show an intracranial injury. Hofman, in his meta-analysis, points out that a simple X-ray image of the skull has only very little noticeable value when diagnosing MTBI. The prevalence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) over MTBI is 0.083. The sensitivity of a radiographic finding of skull fracture in the diagnosis of ICH based on the CT verification is only 0.38 with a specificity of 0.95, which is consistent with our study where the sensitivity of the radiographic finding was 0.00 with a specificity of 0.94 relative to CT. Thus, the question is not whether to perform an X-ray of the skull in mild head injuries, but rather when to indicate a CT scan of the brain, when to admit the patient to the hospital for observation, and for how long or when the patient can be safely discharged into home care. The purpose of MTBI diagnostics, however, should not be a rashly decision to perform a brain CT scan, but to put into practice the CT indication criteria in MTBI applying and respecting the validated guidelines known worldwide. CONCLUSIONS Our study, in which no X-ray examination revealed possible intracranial bleeding, clearly shows that nowadays the plain radiograph of the skull does not bring any benefit in the diagnosis of minor traumatic brain injury. Key words:skull X-ray, CT of the head, head injury, minor traumatic brain injury.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Cranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas Cranianas/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Raios X
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17797, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689857

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rapidly progressing disease associated with frequent neurologic sequelae and has poor prognosis. Currently, the diagnosis and treatment of ANE rely on neuroradiologic findings and offering supportive care. Here, we report the successful treatment of a teenager diagnosed with ANE using combination of high-dose methylprednisolone and oseltamivir. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient, a 15-year-old female, presented with impaired consciousness and seizures secondary to acute upper respiratory tract infection. A series of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were obtained toward establishing a possible diagnosis. DIAGNOSIS: Based on the history of presenting illness and subsequent brain MRI scans, the patient was diagnosed to be suffering from ANE. INTERVENTIONS: Following the diagnosis, the patient was placed on therapy comprising of high-dose methylprednisolone and oseltamivir. OUTCOMES: After treatment with methylprednisolone and oseltamivir for 15 days, the patient recovered nearly completely from ANE as confirmed by subsequent brain MRI scans. No complications or other emerging clinical symptoms were noted for the duration of follow-up that lasted 6 months. LESSONS: Contrary to common reports, ANE can occur beyond pediatric populations and its treatment should not be restricted to supportive care. Our case suggests that the use of high-dose corticosteroids and oseltamivir leads to promising prognosis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Convulsões/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , China , Encefalite Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Necrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Necrose/virologia , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Convulsões/patologia , Convulsões/virologia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e16525, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725599

RESUMO

To evaluate the clinical value of NeuroGam software in assessing the brain foci perfusion changes by TC-ECD single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) brain imaging in patients with Moyamoya Disease (MMD).Seventy-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass combined with encephalo-duro-myo-synangiosis (EDMS) surgical revascularization were included. Baseline and follow-up TC-ECD SPECT/CT brain scans were performed on all patients at least twice before and after operation. Pre- and post-SPECT dicom images were reoriented into Talairach space using NeuroGam Software package. Additional visual analysis was performed. Differences mean pixel value between pre- and post- operation brain perfusion were assessed with paired t test and McNemar test.Significant differences in the number of hypoperfusion foci were found between visual assessment and NeuroGam aided assessment. More hypoperfusion foci were found by NeuroGam software aided assessment in the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobe, thalamus, basal ganglia and cerebellum before and after surgery (P < .0001). According to NeuroGam software assessment, the perfusion of frontal, parietal, temporal lobe, anterior and middle cerebral regions on the operative side significantly improved before and after surgery (t = -3.734, t = -3.935, t = -5.099, t = -4.006, t = -5.170, all P < .001). However, no significant differences were found in the occipital lobe (t = -1.962, P = .054), thalamus (t = 1.362, P = .177), basal ganglia (t = -2.394, P = .019), and cerebellum (t = 1.383, P = .171) before and after surgery.The NeuroGam software provides a quantitative approach for monitoring surgical effect of MMD in a variable time (3-12 months after surgery). It could discover the perfusion changes that are neglected in conventional visual assessment.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos de Organotecnécio , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/cirurgia , Revascularização Cerebral/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/cirurgia , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Software , Artérias Temporais/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(10): 778-780, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726511

RESUMO

Retrospective analysis of 18 cases of occupational acute 1, 2-dichloroethane (1, 2-DCE) poisoning. The results showed that all patients have the main manifestations such as dizziness, headache, unresponsiveness and other symptoms of nervous system damage; Brain CT showed varying degrees of diffuse white matter lesions. Brain MRI showed extensive involvement of white matter in both cerebral hemispheres. Affected white matter area presented low intensity on T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI and T2-Flair; Lumbar puncture examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure (262.5±48.39) mm H(2)O; After treatment, the required time for CSF pressure to restore was (161.56±75.27) days (50-280) days. Summary, Occupational acute 1, 2-DCE poisoning caused by toxic encephalopathy can be manifested as persistent abnormalities in CSF pressure, and the CSF pressure drops slowly during treatment; Early head CT and lumbar puncture examination will be helpful for early detection of intracranial pressure in toxic encephalopathy caused by acute 1, 2-DCE poisoning. Dynamic monitoring of CSF provides guidance for acute 1, 2-DCE poisoning with a long time of treatment and various types of dehydrating agents.


Assuntos
Dicloretos de Etileno/envenenamento , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(86): 12932-12935, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599282

RESUMO

Here, we report the development of novel PET radiotracer ([11C]CW22) of BET proteins. In vivo imaging results in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHP) demonstrate that [11C]CW22 has excellent brain uptake, good specificity, good selectivity, suitable metabolism, appropriate kinetics and distribution in the brain. Our studies demonstrated that [11C]CW22 exhibits ideal properties as a PET imaging probe of BET proteins for further validation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Animais , Barreira Hematotesticular/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cinética , Macaca , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Neurônios , Domínios Proteicos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(7): 516-522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of AlNPs on rat brain mitochondria and compare it with that of aluminium's ionic form. METHODS: Mitochondria were isolated from rat brain. Isolated mitochondria were treated with normal saline (Control) and different concentrations of aluminium ions (AlIs) and AlNPs (50, 100 and 200 µM). Then, the effect of AlNPs on electron transport chain complexes as well as various endpoints such as mitochondrial oxidative damage (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, and protein carbonyl) and mitochondrial function were assessed. Also, apoptosis was evaluated by cytochrome c release, mitochondrial membrane potential and swelling. RESULTS: When compared to the control group, the exposure to AlNPs showed a marked elevation in oxidative stress markers and inhibition of complex III which was accompanied by disturbance in mitochondrial function. Also, AlNPs induced a significant collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison of mitochondrial toxicity markers between both forms of aluminium revealed that the toxic effect of AlNPs on isolated brain mitochondria was substantially greater than that that caused by AlIs, which can probably be ascribed to its higher reactivity (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 45).


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Íons , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Estresse Oxidativo , Carbonilação Proteica , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 66-70, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603847

RESUMO

The two main demyelinating diseases in children are reviewed. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS). For its physiopathological characteristics, probable etiologies, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, evolution, as well as atypical alterations that complicate its diagnosis, the smaller the child is, more study is needed before reaching the diagnosis. The International Study Group of Multiple Pediatric Sclerosis, published the operating definitions for demyelinating diseases acquired from the central nervous system in children: the ADEM is monophasic, polysymptomatic and with encephalopathy. Its duration is up to 3 months, with fluctuating symptoms and magnetic resonance findings. MS is an isolated monofocal or polyfocal syndrome, without encephalopathy. Currently, two different and distinguishable diseases are considered from the onset of symptoms.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Quimioterapia Combinada , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome
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