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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445065

RESUMO

Postmortem studies reveal that the brain pH in schizophrenia patients is lower than normal. The exact cause of this low pH is unclear, but increased lactate levels due to abnormal energy metabolism appear to be involved. Schizophrenia patients display distinct changes in mitochondria number, morphology, and function, and such changes promote anaerobic glycolysis, elevating lactate levels. pH can affect neuronal activity as H+ binds to numerous proteins in the nervous system and alters the structure and function of the bound proteins. There is growing evidence of pH change associated with cognition, emotion, and psychotic behaviors. Brain has delicate pH regulatory mechanisms to maintain normal pH in neurons/glia and extracellular fluid, and a change in these mechanisms can affect, or be affected by, neuronal activities associated with schizophrenia. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cause and effect of decreased brain pH in schizophrenia based on postmortem human brains, animal models, and cellular studies. The topic includes the factors causing decreased brain pH in schizophrenia, mitochondria dysfunction leading to altered energy metabolism, and pH effects on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We also review the acid/base transporters regulating pH in the nervous system and discuss the potential contribution of the major transporters, sodium hydrogen exchangers (NHEs), and sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs), to schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Química Encefálica , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360985

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders can derive from a complex combination of genetic variation and environmental pressures on key developmental processes. Despite this complex aetiology, and the equally complex array of syndromes and conditions diagnosed under the heading of neurodevelopmental disorder, there are parallels in the neuropathology of these conditions that suggest overlapping mechanisms of cellular injury and dysfunction. Neuronal arborisation is a process of dendrite and axon extension that is essential for the connectivity between neurons that underlies normal brain function. Disrupted arborisation and synapse formation are commonly reported in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we summarise the evidence for disrupted neuronal arborisation in these conditions, focusing primarily on the cortex and hippocampus. In addition, we explore the developmentally specific mechanisms by which neuronal arborisation is regulated. Finally, we discuss key regulators of neuronal arborisation that could link to neurodevelopmental disease and the potential for pharmacological modification of arborisation and the formation of synaptic connections that may provide therapeutic benefit in the future.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Crescimento Neuronal , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dendritos/metabolismo , Dendritos/patologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
4.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(9): 753-761, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which any upper respiratory virus, including SARS-CoV-2, impairs chemosensory function are not known. COVID-19 is frequently associated with olfactory dysfunction after viral infection, which provides a research opportunity to evaluate the natural course of this neurological finding. Clinical trials and prospective and histological studies of new-onset post-viral olfactory dysfunction have been limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of advanced neuroimaging data and neuropathological samples. Although data from neuropathological specimens are now available, neuroimaging of the olfactory system during the acute phase of infection is still rare due to infection control concerns and critical illness and represents a substantial gap in knowledge. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS: The active replication of SARS-CoV-2 within the brain parenchyma (ie, in neurons and glia) has not been proven. Nevertheless, post-viral olfactory dysfunction can be viewed as a focal neurological deficit in patients with COVID-19. Evidence is also sparse for a direct causal relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and abnormal brain findings at autopsy, and for trans-synaptic spread of the virus from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb. Taken together, clinical, radiological, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular data implicate inflammation, with or without infection, in either the olfactory epithelium, the olfactory bulb, or both. This inflammation leads to persistent olfactory deficits in a subset of people who have recovered from COVID-19. Neuroimaging has revealed localised inflammation in intracranial olfactory structures. To date, histopathological, ultrastructural, and molecular evidence does not suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is an obligate neuropathogen. WHERE NEXT?: The prevalence of CNS and olfactory bulb pathosis in patients with COVID-19 is not known. We postulate that, in people who have recovered from COVID-19, a chronic, recrudescent, or permanent olfactory deficit could be prognostic for an increased likelihood of neurological sequelae or neurodegenerative disorders in the long term. An inflammatory stimulus from the nasal olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulbs and connected brain regions might accelerate pathological processes and symptomatic progression of neurodegenerative disease. Persistent olfactory impairment with or without perceptual distortions (ie, parosmias or phantosmias) after SARS-CoV-2 infection could, therefore, serve as a marker to identify people with an increased long-term risk of neurological disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Mucosa Olfatória/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/virologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Olfato/fisiologia
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360696

RESUMO

Neurodevelopment is uniquely sensitive to toxic insults and there are concerns that environmental chemicals are contributing to widespread subclinical developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Increased DNT evaluation is needed due to the lack of such information for most chemicals in common use, but in vivo studies recommended in regulatory guidelines are not practical for the large-scale screening of potential DNT chemicals. It is widely acknowledged that developmental neurotoxicity is a consequence of disruptions to basic processes in neurodevelopment and that testing strategies using human cell-based in vitro systems that mimic these processes could aid in prioritizing chemicals with DNT potential. Myelination is a fundamental process in neurodevelopment that should be included in a DNT testing strategy, but there are very few in vitro models of myelination. Thus, there is a need to establish an in vitro myelination assay for DNT. Here, we summarize the routes of myelin toxicity and the known models to study this particular endpoint.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Biológicos , Bainha de Mielina , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Oligodendroglia , Animais , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/fisiopatologia , Organoides , Testes de Toxicidade
6.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108815, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339843

RESUMO

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most prevalent of all head injuries. Microglia play an essential role in homeostasis and diseases of the central nervous system. We hypothesize that microglia may play a beneficial or detrimental role in TBI depending on their state of activation and duration. In this study, we evaluated whether TBI results in a spatiotemporal change in microglia phenotype and whether it affects sensory-motor or learning and memory functions in male C57BL/6 mice. We used a panel of neurological and behavioral tests and a multi-color flow cytometry-based data analysis followed by unsupervised clustering to evaluate isolated microglia from injured brain tissue. We characterized several microglial phenotypes and their association with cognitive deficits. TBI results in a spatiotemporal increase in activated microglia that correlated negatively with spatial learning and memory at 35 days post-injury. These observations could define therapeutic windows and accelerate translational research to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/classificação , Microglia/patologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
7.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360004

RESUMO

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system contributing substantially to health and disease. There is increasing evidence that inflammatory microglia may induce or accelerate brain aging, by interfering with physiological repair and remodeling processes. Many viral infections affect the brain and interfere with microglia functions, including human immune deficiency virus, flaviviruses, SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and human herpes viruses. Especially chronic viral infections causing low-grade neuroinflammation may contribute to brain aging. This review elucidates the potential role of various neurotropic viruses in microglia-driven neurocognitive deficiencies and possibly accelerated brain aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Microglia/virologia , Viroses/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia
8.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7685-7699, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335958

RESUMO

Rationale: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), the most common type of brain trauma, frequently leads to chronic cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits. Intervening effectively is impeded by our poor understanding of its pathophysiological sequelae. Methods: To elucidate the long-term neurovascular sequelae of mTBI, we combined optogenetics, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and intracortical electrophysiological recordings in mice to selectively stimulate peri-contusional neurons weeks following repeated closed-head injury and probe individual vessel's function and local neuronal reactivity. Results: Compared to sham-operated animals, mTBI mice showed doubled cortical venular speeds (115 ± 25%) and strongly elevated cortical venular reactivity (53 ± 17%). Concomitantly, the pericontusional neurons exhibited attenuated spontaneous activity (-57 ± 79%) and decreased reactivity (-47 ± 28%). Post-mortem immunofluorescence revealed signs of peri-contusional senescence and DNA damage, in the absence of neuronal loss or gliosis. Alteration of neuronal and vascular functioning was largely prevented by chronic, low dose, systemic administration of a GABA-A receptor inverse agonist (L-655,708), commencing 3 days following the third impact. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that repeated mTBI leads to dramatic changes in the neurovascular unit function and that attenuation of tonic inhibition can prevent these alterations. The sustained disruption of the neurovascular function may underlie the concussed brain's long-term susceptibility to injury, and calls for development of better functional assays as well as of neurovascularly targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/metabolismo , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética/métodos
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105987, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 10-O-(N N-dimethylaminoethyl)-ginkgolide B methane-sulfonate (XQ-1H) is an effective novel drug for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease derived from Ginkgolide B, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, whether XQ-1H exerts neuroprotective effect via regulating neuronal apoptosis and the underlying mechanism remain to be elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of XQ-1H in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and the oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) induced neuronal apoptosis on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells. RESULTS: The results showed that administration of XQ-1H at different dosage (7.8, 15.6, 31.2 mg/kg) reduced the brain infarct and edema, attenuated the neuro-behavioral dysfunction, and improved cell morphology in brain tissue after MCAO/R in rats. Moreover, incubation with XQ-1H (1 µM, 3 µM, 10 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM) could increase the cell viability, and showed no toxic effect to PC-12 cells. XQ-1H at following 1 µM, 10 µM, 100 µM decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and suppressed the cell apoptosis in PC-12 cells exposed to OGD/R. In addition, XQ-1H treatment could significantly inhibit caspase-3 activation both in vivo and in vitro, reciprocally modulate the expression of apoptosis related proteins, bcl-2, and bax via activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. For mechanism verification, LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K/Akt pathway was introduced the expressions of bcl-2 and phosphorylated Akt were down-regulated, the expression of bax was up-regulated, indicating that XQ-1H could alleviate the cell apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that XQ-1H treatment could provide a neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo and in vitro through regulating neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptosis. The findings of the study confirmed that XQ-1H could be develop as a potential drug for treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Edema Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Células PC12 , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(9): 1313-1323, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294919

RESUMO

Gene networks have yielded numerous neurobiological insights, yet an integrated view across brain regions is lacking. We leverage RNA sequencing in 864 samples representing 12 brain regions to robustly identify 12 brain-wide, 50 cross-regional and 114 region-specific coexpression modules. Nearly 40% of genes fall into brain-wide modules, while 25% comprise region-specific modules reflecting regional biology, such as oxytocin signaling in the hypothalamus, or addiction pathways in the nucleus accumbens. Schizophrenia and autism genetic risk are enriched in brain-wide and multiregional modules, indicative of broad impact; these modules implicate neuronal proliferation and activity-dependent processes, including endocytosis and splicing, in disease pathophysiology. We find that cell-type-specific long noncoding RNA and gene isoforms contribute substantially to regional synaptic diversity and that constrained, mutation-intolerant genes are primarily enriched in neurons. We leverage these data using an omnigenic-inspired network framework to characterize how coexpression and gene regulatory networks reflect neuropsychiatric disease risk, supporting polygenic models.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transcriptoma
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209299

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated neurodegeneration is triggered by different fragments of amyloid beta (Aß). Among them, Aß (25-35) fragment plays a critical role in the development of neurodegeneration-it reduces synaptic integrity by disruption of excitatory/inhibitory ratio across networks and alters the growth factors synthesis. Thus, in this study, we aimed to identify the involvement of neurotrophic factors-the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and nerve growth factor (NGF)-of AD-like neurodegeneration induced by Aß (25-35). Taking into account our previous findings on the neuroprotective effects of the mix of proteoglycans of embryonic genesis (PEG), it was suggested to test its regulatory effect on IGF-1 and NGF levels. To evaluate the progress of neurodegeneration, in vivo electrophysiological investigation of synaptic activity disruption of the entorhinal cortex-hippocampus circuit at AD was performed and the potential recovery effects of PEG with relative structural changes were provided. To reveal the direct effects of PEG on brain functional activity, the electrophysiological pattern of the single cells from nucleus supraopticus, sensomotor cortex and hippocampus after acute injection of PEG was examined. Our results demonstrated that after i.c.v. injection of Aß (25-35), the level of NGF decreased in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and, in contrast, increased in hippocampus, prompting its multidirectional role in case of brain damage. The concentration of IGF-1 significantly increased in all investigated brain structures. The administration of PEG balanced the growth factor levels accompanied by substantial restoration of neural tissue architecture and synaptic activity. Acute injection of PEG activated the hypothalamic nucleus supraopticus and hippocampal neurons. IGF-1 and NGF levels were found to be elevated in animals receiving PEG in an absence of amyloid exposure. We suggest that IGF-1 and NGF play a critical role in the development of AD. At the same time, it becomes clear that the neuroprotective effects of PEG are likely mediated via the regulation of neurotrophins.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Eletrocardiografia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Neurology ; 97(10): e996-e1006, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the behavioral and neuronal responses of patients with migraine to a visual simulation of self-motion through a virtual roller coaster ride in comparison to controls. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with migraine from a university-based hospital headache clinic and 20 controls were included. Participants underwent an experiment where a visually displayed self-motion paradigm was presented based on customized roller coaster videos during fMRI. Within each video, blocks of motion stimulation were interleaved with low-speed upward motion in a random order. In the scanning intervals and after the experiment, participants rated their perceived level of vestibular symptoms and motion sickness during the videos. We hypothesized that patients with migraine will perceive more motion sickness and that it correlates with different central processing and brain responses. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with migraine reported more dizziness (65% vs 30%; p = 0.03) and motion sickness (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire score 47.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 37.1, 57.5] vs 24.3 [95% CI, 18.2, 30.4]) as well as longer symptom duration (01:19 minutes [95% CI, 00:51, 01:48] vs 00:27 minutes [95% CI, 00:03, 00:51]) and intensity (visual analogue scale score 0-100, 22.0 [95% CI, 14.8, 29.2] vs 9.9 [95% CI, 4.9, 14.7]) during the virtual roller coaster ride. Neuronal activity in patients with migraine was more pronounced in clusters within the superior (contrast estimate 3.005 [90% CI, 1.817, 4.194]) and inferior occipital gyrus (contrast estimate 1.759 [90% CI, 1.062, 2.456]), pontine nuclei (contrast estimate 0.665 [90% CI, 0.383, 0.946]), and within the cerebellar lobules V/VI (contrast estimate 0.672 [90% CI, 0.380, 0.964]), while decreased activity was seen in the cerebellar lobule VIIb (contrast estimate 0.787 [90% CI, 0.444, 1.130]) and in the middle frontal gyrus (contrast estimate 0.962 [90% CI, 0.557, 1.367]). These activations correlated with migraine disability (r = -0.46, p = 0.04) and motion sickness scores (r = 0.32, p = 0.04). We found enhanced connectivity between the pontine nuclei, cerebellar areas V/VI, and interior and superior occipital gyrus with numerous cortical areas in patients with migraine but not in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Migraine is related to abnormal modulation of visual motion stimuli within superior and inferior occipital gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, pontine nuclei, and cerebellar lobules V, VI, and VIIb. These abnormalities relate to migraine disability and motion sickness susceptibility.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203457

RESUMO

The extraordinary cellular diversity and the complex connections established within different cells types render the nervous system of vertebrates one of the most sophisticated tissues found in living organisms. Such complexity is ensured by numerous regulatory mechanisms that provide tight spatiotemporal control, robustness and reliability. While the unusual abundance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in nervous tissues was traditionally puzzling, it is becoming clear that these molecules have genuine regulatory functions in the brain and they are essential for neuronal physiology. The canonical view of RNA as predominantly a 'coding molecule' has been largely surpassed, together with the conception that lncRNAs only represent 'waste material' produced by cells as a side effect of pervasive transcription. Here we review a growing body of evidence showing that lncRNAs play key roles in several regulatory mechanisms of neurons and other brain cells. In particular, neuronal lncRNAs are crucial for orchestrating neurogenesis, for tuning neuronal differentiation and for the exact calibration of neuronal excitability. Moreover, their diversity and the association to neurodegenerative diseases render them particularly interesting as putative biomarkers for brain disease. Overall, we foresee that in the future a more systematic scrutiny of lncRNA functions will be instrumental for an exhaustive understanding of neuronal pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/patologia
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202047

RESUMO

Ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) are widely used treatments for epilepsy, but the factors influencing their responsiveness remain unknown. This study aimed to explore the predictors or associated factors for KDTs effectiveness by evaluating the subtle changes in brain functional connectivity (FC) before and after KDTs. Segments of interictal sleep electroencephalography (EEG) were acquired before and after six months of KDTs. Analyses of FC were based on network-based statistics and graph theory, with a focus on different frequency bands. Seventeen responders and 14 non-responders were enrolled. After six months of KDTs, the responders exhibited a significant functional connectivity strength decrease compared with the non-responders; reductions in global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and nodal strength in the beta frequency band for a consecutive range of weighted proportional thresholds were observed in the responders. The alteration of betweenness centrality was significantly and positively correlated with seizure reduction rate in alpha, beta, and theta frequency bands in weighted adjacency matrices with densities of 90%. We conclude that KDTs tended to modify minor-to-moderate-intensity brain connections; the reduction of global connectivity and the increment of betweenness centrality after six months of KDTs were associated with better KD effectiveness.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica/psicologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/dietoterapia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adolescente , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(6): 716-728, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225594

RESUMO

The article presents current views on maternal hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as an important factor causing prenatal stress and impaired nervous system development in fetuses and newborns in early ontogenesis, as well as complications in adulthood. Experimental data demonstrate that prenatal HHcy (PHHcy) affects the morphological maturation of the brain and activity of its neurotransmitter systems. Cognitive deficit observed in the offspring subjected to PHHcy in experimental studies can presumably cause the predisposition to various neurodegenerative diseases, as the role of maternal HHcy in the pathogenesis such diseases has been proven in clinical studies. The review also discusses molecular mechanisms of the HHcy neurotoxic action on the nervous system development in the prenatal and early postnatal periods, which include oxidative stress, apoptosis activation, changes in the DNA methylation patterns and microRNA levels, altered expression and processing of neurotrophins, and neuroinflammation induced by an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Special attention is given to the maternal HHcy impact on the placenta function and its possible contribution to the brain function impairments in the offspring. Published data suggest that some effects of PHHcy on the developing fetal brain can be due to the disturbances in the transport functions of the placenta resulting in an insufficient supply of nutrients necessary for the proper formation and functioning of brain structures.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Doenças Fetais/etiologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Placenta/fisiopatologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202978

RESUMO

Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol in the late endo-lysosomal system of cells. Progressive neurological deterioration and the onset of symptoms, such as ataxia, seizures, cognitive decline, and severe dementia, are pathognomonic features of the disease. In addition, different pathological similarities, including degeneration of hippocampal and cortical neurons, hyperphosphorylated tau, and neurofibrillary tangle formation, have been identified between NPC disease and other neurodegenerative pathologies. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet well understood, and even a real cure to counteract neurodegeneration has not been identified. Therefore, the combination of current pharmacological therapies, represented by miglustat and cyclodextrin, and non-pharmacological approaches, such as physical exercise and appropriate diet, could represent a strategy to improve the quality of life of NPC patients. Based on this evidence, in our review we focused on the neurodegenerative aspects of NPC disease, summarizing the current knowledge on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for cognitive impairment, and suggesting physical exercise and nutritional treatments as additional non-pharmacologic approaches to reduce the progression and neurodegenerative course of NPC disease.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Degeneração Neural/etiologia , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/etiologia , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/terapia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Degeneração Neural/diagnóstico , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/diagnóstico , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208781

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by persistent widespread pain that significantly reduces quality of life in patients. The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) seems to be involved in different pain states and neuroinflammation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the positive effects of P2X7R inhibition by the antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in a rat model of reserpine-induced fibromyalgia. Sprague-Dawley male rats were injected with 1 mg/kg of reserpine for three consecutive days. Later, animals were administered BBG (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for seven days. Reserpine injections induced a significant increase in pain pro-inflammatory mediators as well as a significant increase in neuroinflammation. Chronic pain, in turn, led to depressive-like symptoms and reduced neurogenesis. Blockage of P2X7R by BBG administrations is able to attenuate the behavioral deficits, pain mediators and microglial activation induced by reserpine injection. Additionally, BBG prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequently the release of active interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-18, involved in the activation of nociceptors. In conclusion, these results suggest that inhibition of P2X7R should be further investigated to develop a potential approach for the management of fibromyalgia.


Assuntos
Fibromialgia/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibromialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Fibromialgia/etiologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111465, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311522

RESUMO

Acidic mammalian chitinase (CHIA) belongs to the 18-glycosidase family and is expressed in epithelial cells and certain immune cells (such as neutrophils and macrophages) in various organs. Under physiological conditions, as a hydrolase, CHIA can degrade chitin-containing pathogens, participate in Type 2 helper T (Th2)-mediated inflammation, and enhance innate and adaptive immunity to pathogen invasion. Under pathological conditions, such as rhinitis, ocular conjunctivitis, asthma, chronic atrophic gastritis, type 2 diabetes, and pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, CHIA expression is significantly changed. In addition, studies have shown that CHIA has an anti-apoptotic effect, promotes epithelial cell proliferation and maintains organ integrity, and these effects are not related to chitinase degradation. CHIA can also be used as a biomolecular marker in diseases such as chronic atrophic gastritis, dry eye, and acute kidney damage caused by sepsis. Analysis of the authoritative TCGA database shows that CHIA expression in gastric adenocarcinoma, liver cancer, renal clear cell carcinoma and other tumors is significantly downregulated compared with that in normal tissues, but the specific mechanism is unclear. This review is based on all surveys conducted to date and summarizes the expression patterns and functional diversity of CHIA in various organs. Understanding the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of CHIA in multiple organs opens new possibilities for disease treatment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/enzimologia , Quitinases/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/enzimologia , Olho/enzimologia , Rim/enzimologia , Sistema Respiratório/enzimologia , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Sistema Digestório/fisiopatologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 2005-2007, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218872
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