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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 149-179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583588

RESUMO

Astroglial cells are involved in most if not in all pathologies of the brain. These cells can change the morpho-functional properties in response to pathology or innate changes of these cells can lead to pathologies. Overall pathological changes in astroglia are complex and diverse and often vary with different disease stages. We classify astrogliopathologies into reactive astrogliosis, astrodegeneration with astroglial atrophy and loss of function, and pathological remodelling of astrocytes. Such changes can occur in neurological, neurodevelopmental, metabolic and psychiatric disorders as well as in infection and toxic insults. Mutation in astrocyte-specific genes leads to specific pathologies, such as Alexander disease, which is a leukodystrophy. We discuss changes in astroglia in the pathological context and identify some molecular entities underlying pathology. These entities within astroglia may repent targets for novel therapeutic intervention in the management of brain pathologies.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alexander/fisiopatologia , Atrofia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1175: 273-324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583592

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Cellular changes in the brains of the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease occur well in advance of the clinical symptoms. At the cellular level, the most dramatic is a demise of neurones. As astroglial cells carry out homeostatic functions of the brain, it is certain that these cells are at least in part a cause of Alzheimer's disease. Historically, Alois Alzheimer himself has recognised this at the dawn of the disease description. However, the role of astroglia in this disease has been understudied. In this chapter, we summarise the various aspects of glial contribution to this disease and outline the potential of using these cells in prevention (exercise and environmental enrichment) and intervention of this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Astrócitos/citologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos
3.
Yi Chuan ; 41(9): 801-815, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549679

RESUMO

Development of the human brain is a strictly complex and precisely regulated process. Brain development includes the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, migration and maturation of neurons, myelination of neuronal axons, synaptogenesis and organization of the neural circuits. Abnormalities of these developmental processes can lead to severe malformation and dysfunction of the brain, which may result in brain developmental diseases which have a high medical burden and have attracted global attention. Brain developmental diseases are typically divided into two categories according to abnormal brain morphology and dysfunction: malformation of cortical development (MCD) and neuropsychopathy. Microcephaly and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are representative disorders of MCD and neuropsychopathy respectively. In this review, we summarize the progresses of these two typical and relevant brain developmental diseases including the mechanism and etiology of their development, gene expression, symptoms, and related to provide theoretical guidance for basic research and management and treatment.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios
4.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 303-309, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation of phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein (P-S6) content in blood and brain tissue in mice and rats with seizure. METHODS: Seizure models were induced by intraperitoric injection of kainic acid (KA) in C57BL/mice and SD rats. Flow cytometry was used to detect the content of P-S6 in blood; Western blot was used to detect the expression of P-S6 in brain tissues. The correlation between P-S6 expression in blood and in brain tissue was examine by Pearson analysis, and the correlation between P-S6 expression in blood and the severity of seizure was also observed. RESULTS: Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of P-S6 was significantly increased in peripheral blood and brain tissue in mice 1 h after KA-induced seizure,and the expression levels increased to (1.49±0.45) times (P<0.05) and (2.55±0.66) times (P <0.01) of the control group, respectively. Flow cytometry showed that the positive percentage and average fluorescence intensity of P-S6 in the blood of mice increased significantly 1 h after KA-induced seizures (P<0.01), which was consistent with the expression of P-S6 in brain tissue (r=0.8474, P<0.01). Flow cytometry showed that the average fluorescence intensity of P-S6 in blood increased from 14.89±9.75 to 52.35±21.72 (P<0.01) in rats with seizure, which was consistent with the change of P-S6 in brain tissue (r=0.9385, P<0.01). Rats with higher levels of seizure were of higher levels of P-S6 in peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent correlation of P-S6 expression is demonstrated in peripheral blood and in brain tissue after KA-induced seizure, suggesting that the expression of P-S6 in blood can accurately reflect the changes of mTOR signaling pathway in brain tissue.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Caínico , Convulsões , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Convulsões/sangue , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 154, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558951

RESUMO

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a radioclinical entity associating a reversible central nervous system involvement with a common brain imaging feature. There is a great variability in the clinical presentation of this syndrome and in the features of its sometimes atypical imaging appearance. PRES is an unusual neurological complication occurring during pregnancy or in the post-partum period, other than any pre-existing pathology occurred during pregnancy. Vasogenic edema due to the rupture of the blood-brain barrier seems to be its main cause. We here report the case of a primiparous patient with generalized tonic-clonic seizures associated with hypertensive peak occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed posterior reversible encephalopathy. PRES should be suspected in patients with any sign of neurological disorder. It has a favorable outcome without sequelae under early and fast treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Convulsões/etiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
6.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(4): 464-478, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439308

RESUMO

Cognitive recovery after anaesthesia and surgery is a concern for older adults, their families, and caregivers. Reports of patients who were 'never the same' prompted a scientific inquiry into the nature of what patients have experienced. In June 2018, the ASA Brain Health Initiative held a summit to discuss the state of the science on perioperative cognition, and to create an implementation plan for patients and providers leveraging the current evidence. This group included representatives from the AARP (formerly the American Association of Retired Persons), American College of Surgeons, American Heart Association, and Alzheimer's Association Perioperative Cognition and Delirium Professional Interest Area. This paper summarises the state of the relevant clinical science, including risk factors, identification and diagnosis, prognosis, disparities, outcomes, and treatment of perioperative neurocognitive disorders. Finally, we discuss gaps in current knowledge with suggestions for future directions and opportunities for clinical and translational projects.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Delírio do Despertar/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Delírio do Despertar/fisiopatologia , Delírio do Despertar/prevenção & controle , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9820-9830, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411471

RESUMO

Brain aging is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but the ameliorative effect of krill oil and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the components of krill oil were measured, and the antiaging effects of krill oil were investigated in mice with d-galactose (d-gal)-induced brain aging via proteomics and gut microbiota analysis. Krill oil treatment decreased the expression of truncated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway. In addition, the concentrations of dopamine were increased in the serum (p < 0.05) and brain (p > 0.05) due to the enhanced expressions of tyrosine-3-monooxygenase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase. Moreover, krill oil alleviated gut microbiota dysbiosis, decreased the abundance of bacteria that consume the precursor tyrosine, and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and short-chain fatty acid producers. This study revealed the beneficial effect of krill oil against d-gal-induced brain aging and clarified the underlying mechanism through proteomics and gut microbiota analysis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Euphausiacea/química , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1173: 67-104, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456206

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative condition associated with pathological accumulation of amyloid plaques and with the appearance of deposit of neurofibrillary tangles. Increasing evidence suggests that disorders of metal ion metabolism in the brain are one of the risk factors for the pathogenesis of AD. Iron, one of the endogenous metal ions, involves in many important physiological activities in the brain. Iron metabolism mainly depends on iron regulatory proteins including ferritin, transferrin and transferrin receptor, hepcidin, ferroportin, lactoferrin. Abnormal iron metabolism generates hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reaction, triggers oxidative stress reactions, damages cell lipids, protein and DNA structure and function, leads to cell death, and ultimately influences the process of ß-amyloid (Aß) misfolding and plaque aggregation. Although the results are different, in general, iron has deposition in different brain regions of AD patients, which may impair normal cognitive function and behavior. Therefore, neuroimaging changes have so far been largely attributed to focal iron deposition accompanying the plaques at preclinical stages of AD, and iron-targeted therapeutic strategies have become a new direction. Iron chelators have received a great deal of attention and have obtained good results in scientific experiments and some clinical trials. Future research will also focus on iron as an opportunity to study the mechanism of the occurrence and development of AD from the iron steady state to more fully clarify the etiology and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1173: 153-177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456210

RESUMO

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of seriously devastating and life-threatening rare monogenic diseases characterized by focal iron accumulation in the brain. The main symptoms of NBIA comprise progressive movement disorder, often including painful dystonia, parkinsonism, mental disability, and early death. Currently, a single established therapy is not available to reverse the progression of these debilitating disorders. The complexity of NBIA emerged from the identification of various causative genes, and up to 15 genes have been identified to date. Although the NBIA genes are involved in different cellular biochemical pathways, they show the common characteristic of generating severe iron accumulation in the basal ganglia of the patients' brains. Thus, the molecular events that lead to brain iron overload and their important roles in the pathophysiology of the diseases are not easy to identify and are poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge on NBIA disorders, with a particular focus on the data describing the role of iron in the pathogenic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Gânglios da Base , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Doenças Neurodegenerativas
10.
Br J Radiol ; 92(1101): 20190165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364398

RESUMO

The recreational consumption of cannabis has increased significantly across the world with an estimated 180 million people currently using. In the United States, 4.1 million are currently diagnosed with cannabis use disorder. Cannabis dependence and abuse was combined into a single entity as a behavioral disorder with a problematic pattern of cannabis use and termed cannabis use disorder by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Chronic use of cannabis has been linked with region-specific effects across the brain mediating reward processing, cognitive control and decision-making that are central to understanding addictive behaviors. This review presents a snapshot of the current literature assessing the effects of chronic cannabis use on human brain function via functional MRI. Studies employing various paradigms and contrasting cognitive activation amongst cannabis users and non-users were incorporated. The effects of trans-del-ta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in marijuana and other preparations of cannabis are mediated by the endocannabinoid system, which is also briefly introduced.Much variation exists in the current literature regarding the functional changes associated with chronic cannabis use. One possible explanation for this variation is the heterogeneity in study designs, with little implementation of standardized diagnostic criteria when selecting chronic users, distinct time points of participant assessment, differing cognitive paradigms and imaging protocols. As such, there is an urgent requirement for future investigations that further characterize functional changes associated with chronic cannabis use.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Abuso de Maconha/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(4): 1073-1084, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389227

RESUMO

This study used Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with stroke-prone renovascular hypertension (RHRSP) to establish an animal model of hypertensive white matter lesions (WML), so as to explore the brain functions and unusual ß-amyloid (Aß) accumulation in WML. Hypertensive WML and brain dysfunctions were evaluated by measuring the caudal arterial pressure of model rats, and by observing the histomorphological deformations o f the prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus and corpus callosum, as well as by counting of the number of neurons using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) staining, and by evaluating the changes in rat brain functions, including memory and the ability of visual space learning, using the Morris Water Maze Test. In addition, the study discussed the correlation between Aß accumulation and hypertensive WML cognitive impairment by adopting an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the level of Aß 1-42, and by detecting the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) using Western blot. Results of the study showed that at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks after operation, the blood pressure and brain Aß expression in the rats of the model group notably increased (P less than 0.01), along with deformed and degenerated brain tissues, confirming that the unusual Aß accumulation may participate in the occurrence and development of hypertensive WML as well as the induction of cerebral cognitive decreases.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/análise , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Substância Branca/patologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/análise , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/análise , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Nature ; 571(7764): 198-204, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292557

RESUMO

Slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement (or paradoxical) sleep have been found in mammals, birds and lizards, but it is unclear whether these neuronal signatures are found in non-amniotic vertebrates. Here we develop non-invasive fluorescence-based polysomnography for zebrafish, and show-using unbiased, brain-wide activity recording coupled with assessment of eye movement, muscle dynamics and heart rate-that there are at least two major sleep signatures in zebrafish. These signatures, which we term slow bursting sleep and propagating wave sleep, share commonalities with those of slow-wave sleep and paradoxical or rapid eye movement sleep, respectively. Further, we find that melanin-concentrating hormone signalling (which is involved in mammalian sleep) also regulates propagating wave sleep signatures and the overall amount of sleep in zebrafish, probably via activation of ependymal cells. These observations suggest that common neural signatures of sleep may have emerged in the vertebrate brain over 450 million years ago.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Epêndima/citologia , Movimentos Oculares , Fluorescência , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hormônios Hipotalâmicos/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Hormônios Hipofisários/metabolismo , Polissonografia/métodos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sono REM/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono REM/fisiologia , Sono de Ondas Lentas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono de Ondas Lentas/fisiologia
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2496-2505, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine may have neuroprotective effects on the injured brain through modulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and outcomes in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: This was a retrospective review of consecutive ICH patients enrolled in the ICH Outcomes Project from 2009 to 2017. Patients with age ≥18 years and baseline modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2 were included. Smoking patterns were categorized as recent smoker (≤30 days prior to ICH) and not recent smoker (>30 days prior to ICH). Not recent smokers were further categorized into former smokers and nonsmokers. The primary outcome was good outcome (90-day mRS ≤ 2). Secondary outcomes were excellent outcome (90-day mRS 0-1), 90-day Barthel Index, and in-hospital and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 545 patients, including 60 recent smokers and 485 not recent smokers. Recent smokers had higher rates of good (35% versus 23%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.787, P = .047) and excellent (25% versus 13%; OR = 2.220, P = .015) outcomes compared to not recent smokers. These differences were not significant after baseline adjustments. Recent smokers had higher rates of good (36% versus 24%; OR = 1.732, P = .063) and excellent (25% versus 13%; OR = 2.203, P = .018) outcomes compared to nonsmokers. These differences were not significant after baseline adjustments. A 90-day Barthel Index, in-hospital, and 90-day mortality were comparable between recent and not recent smokers, recent and nonsmokers, and former and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite potential neuroprotective effects of nicotine found in cigarettes, these may be outweighed by the detrimental effects of cigarette smoking on health outcomes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment subjects exhibit high cortisol levels that are associated with low brain activity, but negative emotions with high cortisol are associated with high brain activity and reduced cognition. Emotion regulation, glucocorticoid hormones, and brain activity all interact with cognitive impairment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cognitive impairment differences related to sex, morning salivary cortisol, emotion regulation, and brain activity in elderly people. METHODS: A total of 64 participants (19 males and 45 females) were tested by the Montreal cognitive assessment. Next, morning saliva was collected from each participant and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the brain activity of the participants was subsequently recorded. Finally, emotion regulation was assessed via the Brunel mood scale questionnaire. RESULTS: The results revealed that attention was significantly lower in elderly females than in elderly males. Depression and vigor were significantly higher in elderly females than in elderly males. Brain activity of the slow (delta and theta) and fast (beta and high beta) waves was significantly higher in elderly females than in elderly males. Moreover, attention was negatively correlated with the theta wave, whereas delayed recall was positively correlated with the theta wave and salivary cortisol. Depression was positively correlated with the high beta wave and language skill, whereas the high beta wave was negatively correlated with visuoconstructional skill. CONCLUSION: The brain activity, emotion, and cortisol were influenced by cognitive impairments, although the relation of brain activity with glucocorticoid hormones remains inconclusive. This finding may be useful to the brain aging process, promote healthy brain aging, and prevent neurodegenerative conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Emoções , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Idoso , Atenção , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Saliva/metabolismo , Autocontrole , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Brain Nerve ; 71(7): 657-664, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289240

RESUMO

This article aims at understanding the essential dynamical characteristics of the brain by modeling the brain as a simplified dynamical control system. Although the brain is a highly complex system, such a simplified model provides us insights into its essential features. Using a control system model, the first half of this article describes the dynamics of a system comprising the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and striatum with dopaminergic modulation and argue its relevance to the functions of the brain with schizophrenia. The second half of this article introduces a model-based analysis of molecular imaging data.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Corpo Estriado , Dopamina , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal
16.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(8): 675-682, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306049

RESUMO

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are accompanied by autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance which is characterized by decreased vagal tone. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that increasing vagal activity via vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could protect the heart. Based on these studies, VNS has emerged as a potential non-pharmaceutical treatment strategy. Although it's still difficult to find the optimal stimulus parameters, however, in arrhythmia model, it is reported that low-level VNS (LL-VNS) exacts paradoxical effects from the high-level VNS. Thus, the concept of LL-VNS is introduced. Areas covered: Animal and human studies have discussed the safety and efficacy of VNS and LL-VNS, and this review will discuss the research data in cardiovascular diseases, including atrial arrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure, and hypertension. Expert opinion: In this regard, various clinical studies have been performed to verify the safety and efficacy of VNS. It is shown that VNS is well-tolerated and safe, but the results of its efficacy are conflicting, which may well block the translational process of VNS. The appearance of LL-VNS brings new idea and inspiration, suggesting an important role of subthreshold stimulation. A better understanding of the LL-VNS will contribute to translational research of VNS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia
17.
Gut ; 68(9): 1701-1715, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175206

RESUMO

Imaging of the living human brain is a powerful tool to probe the interactions between brain, gut and microbiome in health and in disorders of brain-gut interactions, in particular IBS. While altered signals from the viscera contribute to clinical symptoms, the brain integrates these interoceptive signals with emotional, cognitive and memory related inputs in a non-linear fashion to produce symptoms. Tremendous progress has occurred in the development of new imaging techniques that look at structural, functional and metabolic properties of brain regions and networks. Standardisation in image acquisition and advances in computational approaches has made it possible to study large data sets of imaging studies, identify network properties and integrate them with non-imaging data. These approaches are beginning to generate brain signatures in IBS that share some features with those obtained in other often overlapping chronic pain disorders such as urological pelvic pain syndromes and vulvodynia, suggesting shared mechanisms. Despite this progress, the identification of preclinical vulnerability factors and outcome predictors has been slow. To overcome current obstacles, the creation of consortia and the generation of standardised multisite repositories for brain imaging and metadata from multisite studies are required.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem/métodos , Big Data , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2555-2562, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesenchymal stem cells/glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (MSCs/GDNF) transplantation on nerve reconstruction in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: GDNF transduction to MSCs was using adenovirus vector pAdEasy-1-pAdTrack-CMV prepared. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) was induced by injection of collagenase and heparin into the caudate putamen. At the third day after a collagenase-induced ICH, adult male SD rats were randomly divided into saline group, MSCs group and MSCs/GDNF group. Immunofluorescence and RT-PCR were performed to detect the differentiation of MSCs or MSCs with an adenovirus vector encoding GDNF gene in vivo and in vitro. RESULT: After 6 hours of induction, both MSCs and MSCs/GDNF expressed neuro or glial specific markers and synaptic-associated proteins (SYN, GAP-43, PSD-95); additionally, they secreted bioactive compounds (BDNF, NGF-ß). MSCs/GDNF transplantation, compared to MSCs and saline solution injection, significantly improved neurological functions after ICH. The grafted MSCs or MSCs/GDNF survived in the striatum after 2 weeks of transplantation and expressed the neural cell-specific biomarkers NSE, MAP2, and GFAP. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that MSCs/GDNF transplantation contributes to improved neurological function in experimental ICH rats. The mechanisms are possibly due to neuronal replacement and enhanced neurotrophic factor secretion.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/cirurgia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/biossíntese , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Regeneração Nervosa , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Transfecção , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Masculino , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurogênese , Fenótipo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Eur J Radiol ; 116: 106-115, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the potential value of MRI signs in the assessment of intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase were systematically searched for original studies investigating the accuracy of MRI signs in diagnosing IIH. Methodologic quality of included studies was assessed. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled with a bivariate random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies, comprising a total of 724 patients with IIH, were included. All studies had a case-control design. "Empty" sella (11 studies), posterior displacement of pituitary stalk (2 studies), meningoceles (2 studies), posterior globe flattening (8 studies), optic nerve head protrusion (6 studies), optic nerve enhancement (3 studies), optic nerve sheath distension (12 studies), optic nerve tortuosity (7 studies), slit-like ventricles (4 studies), tight subarachnoid spaces (3 studies), and inferior position of cerebellar tonsils (4 studies) had pooled sensitivity ranging between 6.1% and 68.6%, and pooled specificity ranging between 84.0% and 99.2%. Transverse sinus stenosis (8 studies) had pooled sensitivity of 84.4%; (95% CI: 65.9-93.9%) and pooled specificity of 94.9% (95% CI: 91.7-96.9%). CONCLUSION: "Empty" sella, posterior pituitary stalk displacement, meningoceles, posterior globe flattening, optic nerve head protrusion, optic nerve enhancement, optic nerve sheath distension, optic nerve tortuosity, slit-like ventricles, tight subarachnoid spaces, and inferior position of cerebellar tonsils have overall high specificity but low sensitivity. Transverse sinus stenosis appears to be the most useful sign, because it has high specificity and fairly high sensitivity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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