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2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(12): 128102, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016724

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, show characteristic degradation of structural brain networks. This degradation eventually leads to changes in the network dynamics and degradation of cognitive functions. Here, we model the progression in terms of coupled physical processes: The accumulation of toxic proteins, given by a nonlinear reaction-diffusion transport process, yields an evolving brain connectome characterized by weighted edges on which a neuronal-mass model evolves. The progression of the brain functions can be tested by simulating the resting-state activity on the evolving brain network. We show that while the evolution of edge weights plays a minor role in the overall progression of the disease, dynamic biomarkers predict a transition over a period of 10 years associated with strong cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Demência/patologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Animais , Relógios Biológicos , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Conectoma/métodos , Demência/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/patologia
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1503-1506, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018276

RESUMO

At present, only professional doctors can use the professional scales to diagnose depression and anxiety in clinical practice. In recent years, the problems of detecting the presence of anxiety or depression using Electroencephalography (EEG) has received attention as a way to implement assistant diagnosis, and some researchers explored that there are differences in the degree of prefrontal lateralization and functional connectivity of brain networks between patients with anxiety and depression and normal people. In this paper, we proposed a new approach that combines functional connectivity of brain networks and convolutional neural networks (CNN) for EEG-based anxiety and depression recognition. EEG data are collected from subjects consisting ten healthy controls and ten patients with anxiety or depression. In this way, we achieved 67.67% classification accuracy. It points out the way to further explore the application of functional connectivity of brain networks and deep learning technology in EEG about patients with anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Depressão , Eletroencefalografia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos
4.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(10): 80, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880739

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Precision Aging® is a novel concept that we have recently employed to describe how the model of precision medicine can be used to understand and define the multivariate risks that drive age-related cognitive impairment (ARCI). Hypertension and cardiovascular disease are key risk factors for both brain function and cognitive aging. In this review, we will discuss the common mechanisms underlying the risk factors for both hypertension and ARCI and how the convergence of these mechanisms may be amplified in an individual to drive changes in brain health and accelerate cognitive decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, our cognitive health span does not match our life span. Age-related cognitive impairment and preventing and treating ARCI will require an in-depth understanding of the interrelated risk factors, including individual genetic profiles, that affect brain health and brain aging. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease are important risk factors for ARCI. And, many of the risk factors for developing hypertension, such as diabetes, smoking, stress, viral infection, and age, are shared with the development of ARCI. We must first understand the mechanisms common to the converging risk factors in hypertension and ARCI and then design person-specific therapies to optimize individual brain health. The understanding of the convergence of shared risk factors between hypertension and ARCI is required to develop individualized interventions to optimize brain health across the life span. We will conclude with a discussion of possible steps that may be taken to decrease ARCI and optimize an individual's cognitive life span.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva , Hipertensão/complicações , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Fatores de Risco
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21595, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a frequent form of acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients. Screening tools have been developed to identify delirium, but it is unclear which tool is the most accurate. Therefore, we provide a protocol of systematic evaluation to assess the accuracy of delirium screening tools in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library will be searched. Studies involving mechanically ventilated patients which compared diagnostic tools with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria as a reference standard will be included. We will use MetaDiSC and STATA 15.1 to analyze carefully when a network meta-analysis is allowed. RESULTS: This study will provide a high-quality synthesis to assess the accuracy of different screening methods in mechanically ventilated patients. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge which screening method is the best for mechanically ventilated patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Delírio/etiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede
6.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 811-817, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867523

RESUMO

Causal pathways to disruptive behavior disorders, even within the same diagnostic category, are varied. Both equifinality and multifinality pose considerable challenges to uncovering underlying mechanisms and understanding varied developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. Uncovering genetic causes requires improved granularity in how we operationalize presentation and developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. If we want to integrate the study of genetic, environmental, and neurocognitive factors within a longitudinal framework, we need to improve measurement. Furthermore, brain changes associated with disruptive behavior disorders should not simply be understood as outcomes of genetic and environmental influences, but also as factors that reciprocally influence future social environments over time in ways that are important in contributing to risk and resilience. Advancing the field with regard to these challenges will result in more truly integrated investigation of disruptive behavior disorders, which holds the promise of improving our ability to develop more effective preventive and intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Encéfalo , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/tendências , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008186, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941425

RESUMO

Identifying heterogeneous cognitive impairment markers at an early stage is vital for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. However, due to complex and uncertain brain connectivity features in the cognitive domains, it remains challenging to quantify functional brain connectomic changes during non-pharmacological interventions for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients. We present a quantitative method for functional brain network analysis of fMRI data based on the multi-graph unsupervised Gaussian embedding method (MG2G). This neural network-based model can effectively learn low-dimensional Gaussian distributions from the original high-dimensional sparse functional brain networks, quantify uncertainties in link prediction, and discover the intrinsic dimensionality of brain networks. Using the Wasserstein distance to measure probabilistic changes, we discovered that brain regions in the default mode network and somatosensory/somatomotor hand, fronto-parietal task control, memory retrieval, and visual and dorsal attention systems had relatively large variations during non-pharmacological training, which might provide distinct biomarkers for fine-grained monitoring of aMCI cognitive alteration. An important finding of our study is the ability of the new method to capture subtle changes for individual patients before and after short-term intervention. More broadly, the MG2G method can be used in studying multiple brain disorders and injuries, e.g., in Parkinson's disease or traumatic brain injury (TBI), and hence it will be useful to the wider neuroscience community.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Distribuição Normal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Conectoma , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória/fisiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966291

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to neurodegeneration in the injured circuitry, either through primary structural damage to the neuron or secondary effects that disrupt key cellular processes. Moreover, traumatic injuries can preferentially impact subpopulations of neurons, but the functional network effects of these targeted degeneration profiles remain unclear. Although isolating the consequences of complex injury dynamics and long-term recovery of the circuit can be difficult to control experimentally, computational networks can be a powerful tool to analyze the consequences of injury. Here, we use the Izhikevich spiking neuron model to create networks representative of cortical tissue. After an initial settling period with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), networks developed rhythmic oscillations similar to those seen in vivo. As neurons were sequentially removed from the network, population activity rate and oscillation dynamics were significantly reduced. In a successive period of network restructuring with STDP, network activity levels returned to baseline for some injury levels and oscillation dynamics significantly improved. We next explored the role that specific neurons have in the creation and termination of oscillation dynamics. We determined that oscillations initiate from activation of low firing rate neurons with limited structural inputs. To terminate oscillations, high activity excitatory neurons with strong input connectivity activate downstream inhibitory circuitry. Finally, we confirm the excitatory neuron population role through targeted neurodegeneration. These results suggest targeted neurodegeneration can play a key role in the oscillation dynamics after injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4413, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887883

RESUMO

The molecular signatures of cells in the brain have been revealed in unprecedented detail, yet the ageing-associated genome-wide expression changes that may contribute to neurovascular dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases remain elusive. Here, we report zonation-dependent transcriptomic changes in aged mouse brain endothelial cells (ECs), which prominently implicate altered immune/cytokine signaling in ECs of all vascular segments, and functional changes impacting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glucose/energy metabolism especially in capillary ECs (capECs). An overrepresentation of Alzheimer disease (AD) GWAS genes is evident among the human orthologs of the differentially expressed genes of aged capECs, while comparative analysis revealed a subset of concordantly downregulated, functionally important genes in human AD brains. Treatment with exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, strongly reverses aged mouse brain EC transcriptomic changes and BBB leakage, with associated attenuation of microglial priming. We thus revealed transcriptomic alterations underlying brain EC ageing that are complex yet pharmacologically reversible.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Exenatida/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Capilares/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4340, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895386

RESUMO

Healthy cognitive ageing is a societal and public health priority. Cerebrovascular risk factors increase the likelihood of dementia in older people but their impact on cognitive ageing in younger, healthy brains is less clear. The UK Biobank provides cognition and brain imaging measures in the largest population cohort studied to date. Here we show that cognitive abilities of healthy individuals (N = 22,059) in this sample are detrimentally affected by cerebrovascular risk factors. Structural equation modelling revealed that cerebrovascular risk is associated with reduced cerebral grey matter and white matter integrity within a fronto-parietal brain network underlying executive function. Notably, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with worse executive cognitive function in mid-life (44-69 years), but not in late-life (>70 years). During mid-life this association did not occur in the systolic range of 110-140 mmHg. These findings suggest cerebrovascular risk factors impact on brain structure and cognitive function in healthy people.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22068, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of night shift nurses will cause shift work disorder (SWD) due to the disruption of sleep-wake cycle, which not only affects the daily work efficiency, but also brings a huge burden on physical and mental health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective intervention on SWD. This trial will combine with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the clinical effects and potential mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of SWD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomized controlled neuroimaging trial, with enrolled participants, outcome assessors, and data statisticians blinded. 60 patients with SWD and 30 healthy controls who sleep regularly will be recruited and divided into divided into a control group, a true acupoints treatment group (TATG) and a sham acupoints treatment group (SATG) by the ratio of 1:1:1. The TATG and SATG will receive 8 sessions of acupuncture treatment in 4 weeks. Cognitive function scales and MRI scanning will be performed before and after 4-week acupuncture treatment. The control group will receive no intervention. Functional connectivity of intra-network and inter-network will be the primary outcome and effect indicator. The secondary outcomes included Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Attentional Network Test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale and needle sensation assessment scale. Neuroimage indicators will be correlated with clinical data and scores of cognitive function assessment to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the changes of brain activity caused by acupuncture treatment. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will enable us to verify the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on SWD and explore the potential central mechanism of acupuncture on SWD from the change of brain activity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21950, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common clinical label for medically unexplained gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, recently described as a disturbance of the brain-gut-microbiota (BGM) axis. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the poorly understood etiology of IBS, we have designed a multifaceted study that aim to stratify the complex interaction and dysfunction between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota in patients with IBS. METHODS: Deep phenotyping data from patients with IBS (n = 100) and healthy age- (between 18 and 65) and gender-matched controls (n = 40) will be collected between May 2019 and December 2021. Psychometric tests, questionnaires, human biological tissue/samples (blood, faeces, saliva, and GI biopsies from antrum, duodenum, and sigmoid colon), assessment of gastric accommodation and emptying using transabdominal ultrasound, vagal activity, and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, are included in the investigation of each participant. A subgroup of 60 patients with IBS-D will be further included in a 12-week low FODMAP dietary intervention-study to determine short and long-term effects of diet on GI symptoms, microbiota composition and functions, molecular GI signatures, cognitive, emotional and social functions, and structural and functional brain signatures. Deep machine learning, prediction tools, and big data analyses will be used for multivariate analyses allowing disease stratification and diagnostic biomarker detection. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to employ unsupervised machine learning techniques and incorporate systems-based interactions between the central and the peripheral components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis at the levels of the multiomics, microbiota profiles, and brain connectome of a cohort of 100 patients with IBS and matched controls; study long-term safety and efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet on changes in nutritional status, gut microbiota composition, and metabolites; and to investigate changes in the brain and gut connectome after 12 weeks strict low-FODMAP-diet in patients with IBS. However, there are also limitations to the study. As a restrictive diet, the low-FODMAP diet carries risks of nutritional inadequacy and may foster disordered eating patterns. Strict FODMAP restriction induces a potentially unfavourable gut microbiota, although the health effects are unknown. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04296552 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 708-713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessing collateral status is important in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The purpose of this study was to establish an easy and rapid method for evaluating collateral flow. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with AIS were enrolled. The patients were aged 18 to 85 years with endovascular therapy treatment within 10 hours after the appearance of stroke symptoms, prestroke modified Rankin Scale ≤1, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score ≥6, and the occlusion of large vessels in anterior circulation. We reformed imaging strategies by conducting a small-dose group-injection test before normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) scanning and selected the visual collateral score and the regional leptomeningeal score scales as the single-phase CTA collateral flow assessment scales with the replacement of the parasagittal anterior cerebral artery territory by anterior cerebral artery regions adjacent to the longitudinal fissure and then verified, respectively, the consistencies between the 2 single-phase CTA-based collateral scales and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology scale and compared the prognosis of endovascular therapy between the AIS patients in the poor-collateral-flow group and the other patients' group assessed by 2 single-phase CTA-based collateral scales. RESULTS: There was a high consistency between the 2 single-phase CTA-based collateral flow scales with DSA-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology scale. The assessment by using CTA-based collateral flow assessment methods generated consistent results. CONCLUSION: The single-phase CTA-based visual collateral score scale and regional leptomeningeal score scale can be used as the imaging evidence for the evaluation of collateral flow in AIS patients in the majority of grassroots hospitals where DSA is difficult to carry out.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Colateral/fisiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Angiografia Digital/métodos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4026, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788604

RESUMO

Physical fatigue crucially influences our decisions to partake in effortful action. However, there is a limited understanding of how fatigue impacts effort-based decision-making at the level of brain and behavior. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to record markers of brain activity while human participants engage in uncertain choices for prospective physical effort, before and after bouts of exertion. Using computational modeling of choice behavior we find that fatiguing exertions cause participants to increase their subjective cost of effort, compared to a baseline/rested state. We describe a mechanism by which signals related to motor cortical state in premotor cortex influence effort value computations, instantiated by insula, thereby increasing an individual's subjective valuation of prospective physical effort while fatigued. Our findings provide a neurobiological account of how information about bodily state modulates decisions to engage in physical activity.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853207

RESUMO

Eigenvector alignment, introduced herein to investigate human brain functional networks, is adapted from methods developed to detect influential nodes and communities in networked systems. It is used to identify differences in the brain networks of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls (HC). Well-established methods exist for analysing connectivity networks composed of brain regions, including the widespread use of centrality metrics such as eigenvector centrality. However, these metrics provide only limited information on the relationship between regions, with this understanding often sought by comparing the strength of pairwise functional connectivity. Our holistic approach, eigenvector alignment, considers the impact of all functional connectivity changes before assessing the strength of the functional relationship, i.e. alignment, between any two regions. This is achieved by comparing the placement of regions in a Euclidean space defined by the network's dominant eigenvectors. Eigenvector alignment recognises the strength of bilateral connectivity in cortical areas of healthy control subjects, but also reveals degradation of this commissural system in those with AD. Surprisingly little structural change is detected for key regions in the Default Mode Network, despite significant declines in the functional connectivity of these regions. In contrast, regions in the auditory cortex display significant alignment changes that begin in aMCI and are the most prominent structural changes for those with AD. Alignment differences between aMCI and AD subjects are detected, including notable changes to the hippocampal regions. These findings suggest eigenvector alignment can play a complementary role, alongside established network analytic approaches, to capture how the brain's functional networks develop and adapt when challenged by disease processes such as AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Amnésia/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia
16.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 818-826, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early adversity is correlated with increased risk for negative outcomes, including psychopathology and atypical neurodevelopment. The authors aimed to test the causal impact of an early parenting intervention (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up; ABC) on children's neural processing of parent cues and on psychosocial functioning in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. METHODS: Participants (N=68, mean age, 10.0 years [SD=0.8 years]) were 46 high-risk children whose parents were randomly assigned to receive either the ABC intervention (N=22) or a control intervention (N=24) while the children were infants, in addition to a comparison sample of low-risk children (N=22). During functional MRI scanning, children viewed pictures of their own mothers and of a stranger. RESULTS: Children in the ABC condition showed greater maternal cue-related activation than children in the control condition in clusters of brain regions, including the precuneus, the cingulate gyrus, and the hippocampus, regions commonly associated with social cognition. Additionally, greater activity in these regions was associated with fewer total behavior problems. There was an indirect effect of early intervention on middle childhood psychosocial functioning mediated through increased activity in brain regions in response to maternal cues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that early parenting intervention (in this case the ABC intervention) can enhance brain regions supporting children's social cognitive development. In addition, the findings highlight these brain effects as a possible neural pathway through which ABC may prevent future behavior problems among high-risk children, yielding psychosocial benefits that endure through at least middle childhood without the need to intervene with the child directly.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Apego ao Objeto , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Medição de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857763

RESUMO

Exercise exerts a beneficial effect on the major pathological and clinical symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease in humans and mouse models of the disease. While numerous mechanisms for such benefits from exercise have been proposed, a clear understanding of the causal links remains elusive. Recent studies also suggest that cerebral blood flow in the brain of both Alzheimer's patients and mouse models of the disease is decreased and that the cognitive symptoms can be improved when blood flow is restored. We therefore hypothesized that the mitigating effect of exercise on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease may be mediated through an increase in the otherwise reduced brain blood flow. To test this idea, we performed a pilot study to examine the impact of three months of voluntary wheel running in a small cohort of ~1-year-old APP/PS1 mice on short-term memory function, brain inflammation, amyloid deposition, and baseline cerebral blood flow. Our findings that exercise led to a trend toward improved spatial short-term memory, reduced brain inflammation, markedly increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and a reduction in hippocampal amyloid-beta deposits are consistent with other reports on the impact of exercise on the progression of Alzheimer's related symptoms in mouse models. Notably, we did not observe any impact of wheel running on overall baseline blood flow nor on the incidence of non-flowing capillaries, a mechanism we recently identified as one contributing factor to cerebral blood flow deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Overall, our findings add to the emerging picture of differential effects of exercise on cognition and blood flow in Alzheimer's disease pathology by showing that capillary stalling is not decreased following exercise.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Terapia por Exercício , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Neurogênese , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Projetos Piloto , Presenilina-1/genética , Transgenes
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at determining the EEG correlates of concentration on either low or high-distressed tinnitus. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (36 women, mean age = 50.34 ± 12.94 years) with chronic tinnitus were assigned to either a high (HD) or low (LD) tinnitus-related distress group based on THI results. All participants took part in the EEG study comprising two 3-4 min blocks of focusing on either tinnitus (Tinnitus Focus Condition, TFC) or the sensations from one's own body (Body Focus Condition, BFC). The absolute power and current density of 8 frequency bands in 7 clusters were compared between conditions and groups. RESULTS: The most pronounced differences were found in the HD patients in the TFC, relative to the BFC, i.e. reduced power of frontally distributed low alpha (8-10 Hz) and posterior high alpha (10-12 Hz) as well as lower current density of 8-10 Hz rhythm over the right frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and higher middle beta (15-18 Hz) density in the precuneus. The HD, relative to LD patients, in both conditions, exhibited increased low beta (12-15 Hz) power over the left middle area and greater higher beta (15-25 Hz) power in the left posterior region. CONCLUSIONS: The present study contrasted bioelectrical activity, acquired when concentrating on tinnitus with EEG data collected whilst patients focused on their body. Decreased alpha power and current density in the frontal/cingulate cortex when listening to bothersome tinnitus might reflect greater cortical arousal whereas increased beta power and density in the precuneus/posterior cingulate activity in this condition could be indicative for elevated tension or augmented cognitive/emotional processing of tinnitus sound. Enhanced beta rhythm in patients with high versus low tinnitus distress, observed independently of the study condition, may be due to greater self-focused attention or more active processing of sensations derived from the own body.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zumbido/complicações , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21082, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791681

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability of childhood. Spastic cerebral palsy accounts for 60% to 70% of cases. Research has shown that acupuncture can improve the quality of life of children with cerebral palsy, but the mechanism of action remains unclear. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of children with spastic cerebral palsy and to assess the value of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG) for evaluation of treatment effect. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This randomized controlled trial will enroll a total of 72 children with CP from 2 hospitals-Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine and Nanjing State Hospital of Pediatric-with 36 participants from each hospital. Patients will be randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive "Tonifying Kidney and Invigorating Brain" acupuncture treatment plus standardized physical rehabilitation treatment (treatment group) or only standardized physical rehabilitation (control group). All participants will receive 3 treatment sessions per week for 3 consecutive months; they will then be followed up for another 3 months. The primary outcome measures will include multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ambulatory electroencephalogram (EEG), and Gesell Developmental Diagnostic Schedules. The secondary outcome measures will include Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Functional Independence Measure (WeeFIM), and Modified Ashworth Scale score. Outcome measures (including primary and secondary outcome measures) were collected at the baseline, 3 months and 6 months prior to the intervention.Ethics and dissemination PATIENTS CONSENT:: Obtained. ETHICS APPROVAL: The central independent ethics committee of Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine approved the protocol (2017NL-115-02). SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS: Routine blood tests and liver and kidney function tests will be conducted to exclude patients with severe heart, liver, or kidney diseases. The same examinations will be performed again at the end of the study to detect any possible side effects. Possible acupuncture-related adverse events (e.g., fainting, needle stick injury, local infection, subcutaneous hematoma, and low-grade fever) will be documented. Serious adverse events will be reported to the principal investigator immediately. All unexpected and unintended responses, even those not necessarily related to the acupuncture intervention, will be documented as adverse events. CASE DROPOUT MANAGEMENT: Participants have a right to withdraw from the study at any time if they feel uncomfortable upon receiving the treatments or being diagnosed with serious complications or diseases. They will then be referred to the preferred department for further treatment and management. If cases of dropout, the researcher need to contact the participant to reason the problem out, collect and record all the necessary assessments on the last visit as well as the date of last visit. All data available until the date of withdrawal will be stored for further statistical analysis. DISCUSSION: This research is being conducted to assess the value of acupuncture as an intervention for rehabilitation of children with spastic cerebral palsy and also to evaluate the usefulness of multimodal MRI and ambulatory EEG for identifying changes in brain function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered with Chinese Clinical Trials Register, ChiCTR 1900024546 (registered 15 July 2019; retrospective registration, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=35763).


Assuntos
Acupuntura , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Rim , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Destreza Motora , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785278

RESUMO

Eating disorder is highly associated with obesity and it is related to brain dysfunction as well. Still, the functional substrates of the brain associated with behavioral traits of eating disorder are underexplored. Existing neuroimaging studies have explored the association between eating disorder and brain function without using all the information provided by the eating disorder related questionnaire but by adopting summary factors. Here, we aimed to investigate the multivariate association between brain function and eating disorder at fine-grained question-level information. Our study is a retrospective secondary analysis that re-analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of 284 participants from the enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample database. Leveraging sparse canonical correlation analysis, we associated the functional connectivity of all brain regions and all questions in the eating disorder questionnaires. We found that executive- and inhibitory control-related frontoparietal networks showed positive associations with questions of restraint eating, while brain regions involved in the reward system showed negative associations. Notably, inhibitory control-related brain regions showed a positive association with the degree of obesity. Findings were well replicated in the independent validation dataset (n = 34). The results of this study might contribute to a better understanding of brain function with respect to eating disorder.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Função Executiva , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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