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1.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(2): 133-136, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685081

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the risk factors of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: A retrospective study was designed. Patients with liver cirrhosis combined with /without OHE who were hospitalized to our hospital during the same period were selected as the case/control group. Clinical and laboratory data of both groups of patients were compared to analyze the risk factors affecting the occurrence of OHE. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. A t-test or rank-sum test was used to compare the measurement data. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability method was used to compare the count data. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 500 patients with liver cirrhosis diagnosed in our hospital from August 2017 to December 2018 were selected as the case group, and 40 cases with cirrhosis without OHE who were hospitalized during the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The gender composition and age of the case and control group were comparable. Viral hepatitis (mainly hepatitis B) was the main etiology of liver cirrhosis in both groups. There were 52.5% patients in the case group and 57.5% patients in the control group, respectively. Alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease and so on were the other included causes. With regard to blood biochemical indicators, the serum creatinine levels of both groups were comparable, but in the case group, the serum total bilirubin level was higher (34.30 µmol / L vs. 18.65 µ mol/L, Z = -3.185, P < 0.05), while the serum sodium level was lower (137.00 mmol/L vs. 140.08 mmol/L, Z = -2.348, P < 0.05), and the prothrombin time was longer (14.60 s vs. 12.20 s) s. 078, P < 0.05), and international normalized ratio (1.33 vs. 1.07, Z = - 5.632, P < 0.05), and serum albumin level (30.6 g/L vs. 35.6 g/L, t = 3.386, P < 0.05) was lower. In terms of complications, patients in the case group had a higher proportion of combined gastrointestinal bleeding (30.0% vs. 10.0%, χ(2) = 5.000, P < 0.05), ascites (87.5% vs. 30.0%, χ(2) = 27.286, P < 0.05) and secondary infection (32.5% vs. 10.0%, χ(2) = 7.813, P < 0.05). In terms of severity classification, the proportion of Child-Pugh C in the case group was higher (62.5% vs. 10.0%, χ(2) =26.593, P < 0.05). In terms of outcome, there were 3 deaths in the case group and no deaths in the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that Child-Pugh class C (OR = 12.696), and combined ascites (OR = 10.655) were an independent risk factor for OHE in patients with liver cirrhosis. Conclusion: Our single-center retrospective clinical study shows that patients with cirrhosis combined with OHE are more critical and have more complications. In order to promptly diagnose and treat OHE, more attention should be paid to patients with combined ascites and Child-Pugh class C.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 29(1): 72-74, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548970

RESUMO

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can effectively reduce the portal venous pressure and relieve the clinical complications related to portal hypertension. However, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is still the main complication post TIPS. Studies have shown that patients over 65 years old with liver function reserve in Child-Pugh grade C are the high-HE-risk group post TIPS, and early TIPS treatment can benefit the survival of these high-risk patients. In this study, TIPS was used to treat 60 cases aged > 65 years old and liver function reserve in Child-Pugh grade C (decompensated liver cirrhosis) with esophagogastric variceal bleeding. The clinical results of 1-year was observed and the porto systemic gradient (PSG) was evaluated. The relationship between the incidence of HE and the PSG of patients with and without HE were compared to evaluate the effect of PSG on the incidence of HE.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Encefalopatia Hepática , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Idoso , Criança , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Pressão na Veia Porta , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 800-806, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116080

RESUMO

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuro-psychiatric manifestation of chronic liver disease causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though the exact mechanism is unknown but it is well accepted that various precipitating factors are involved in hepatic encephalopathy. Aim of the study was explore the precipitating factors of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Department of Hepatology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during the period from April 2016 to October 2016. One hundred patients with hepatic encephalopathy fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were designed for all diagnosed cases of hepatic encephalopathy associated with cirrhosis of liver aged 18 years or above irrespective of sex. Patients with acute fulminant hepatitis and non-cirrhotic hepatic encephalopathy were excluded. The result of the study was mean age of hepatic encephalopathy was 52.81±8.15 years and 94.0% patients were above 40 years. Male (66.0%) were predominant over female (34.0%). HBsAg and Anti HCV were positive in 49.0% and 11.0% patients respectively. Stage of hepatic encephalopathy was stage-I in 8.0%, stage-II in 37.0%, stage-III in 39.0% and stage-IV in 16.0% patients. Changes of biochemical parameters were low haemoglobin level (70.0%), raised total count of leukocyte (25.0%), low platelet count (68.0%), low serum albumin (98.0%) raised prothrombin time (60.0%), low serum sodium (34.0%) and low serum potassium (63.0%). The recoded precipitating factors were gastrointestinal bleeding (14.0%), constipation (37.0%), hyponatremia (34.0%), hypokalemia (28.0%) infections (20.0%), use of diruretics (8.0%), use of sedatives (4.0%) and excess intake of protein (6.0%). While precipitating factor was absent in 11.0% of cases. In conclusion there are different factors which play a key role in precipitating hepatic encephalopathy but electrolytes imbalance, constipation, infections, Upper GI bleed, diuretics are the most common precipitating factors.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Desencadeantes
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD000553, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with liver cirrhosis who have had one episode of variceal bleeding are at risk for repeated episodes of bleeding. Endoscopic intervention and portosystemic shunts are used to prevent further bleeding, but there is no consensus as to which approach is preferable. OBJECTIVES: To compare the benefits and harms of shunts (surgical shunts (total shunt (TS), distal splenorenal shunt (DSRS), or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)) versus endoscopic intervention (endoscopic sclerotherapy or banding, or both) with or without medical treatment (non-selective beta blockers or nitrates, or both) for prevention of variceal rebleeding in people with liver cirrhosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the CHBG Controlled Trials Register; CENTRAL, in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid; Embase Ovid; LILACS (Bireme); Science Citation Index - Expanded (Web of Science); and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (Web of Science); as well as conference proceedings and the references of trials identified until 22 June 2020. We contacted study investigators and industry researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised clinical trials comparing shunts versus endoscopic interventions with or without medical treatment in people with cirrhosis who had recovered from a variceal haemorrhage. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. When possible, we collected data to allow intention-to-treat analysis. For each outcome, we estimated a meta-analysed estimate of treatment effect across trials (risk ratio for binary outcomes). We used random-effects model meta-analysis as our main analysis and as a means of presenting results. We reported differences in means for continuous outcomes without a meta-analytic estimate due to high variability in their assessment among all trials. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 27 randomised trials with 1828 participants. Three trials assessed TSs, five assessed DSRSs, and 19 trials assessed TIPSs. The endoscopic intervention was sclerotherapy in 16 trials, band ligation in eight trials, and a combination of band ligation and either sclerotherapy or glue injection in three trials. In eight trials, endoscopy was combined with beta blockers (in one trial plus isosorbide mononitrate). We judged all trials to be at high risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence for all the outcome review results as very low (i.e. the true effects of the results are likely to be substantially different from the results of estimated effects). The very low evidence grading is due to the overall high risk of bias for all trials, and to imprecision and publication bias for some outcomes. Therefore, we are very uncertain whether portosystemic shunts versus endoscopy interventions with or without medical treatment have effects on all-cause mortality (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.13; 1828 participants; 27 trials), on rebleeding (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50; 1769 participants; 26 trials), on mortality due to rebleeding (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76; 1779 participants; 26 trials), and on occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy, both acute (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.92; 1649 participants; 24 trials) and chronic (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.38 to 4.55; 956 participants; 13 trials). No data were available regarding health-related quality of life. Analysing each modality of portosystemic shunts individually (i.e. TS, DSRS, and TIPS) versus endoscopic interventions with or without medical treatment, we are very uncertain if each type of shunt has effect on all-cause mortality: TS, RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.13; 164 participants; 3 trials; DSRS, RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.33; 352 participants; 4 trials; and TIPS, RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.31; 1312 participants; 19 trial; on rebleeding: TS, RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.56; 127 participants; 2 trials; DSRS, RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.65; 330 participants; 5 trials; and TIPS, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.55; 1312 participants; 19 trials; on mortality due to rebleeding: TS, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.96; 164 participants; 3 trials; DSRS, RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.74; 352 participants; 5 trials; and TIPS, RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.04; 1263 participants; 18 trials; on acute hepatic encephalopathy: TS, RR 1.66, 95% CI 0.70 to 3.92; 115 participants; 2 trials; DSRS, RR 1.70, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.08; 287 participants; 4 trials, TIPS, RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.99; 1247 participants; 18 trials; and chronic hepatic encephalopathy: TS, Fisher's exact test P = 0.11; 69 participants; 1 trial; DSRS, RR 4.87, 95% CI 1.46 to 16.23; 170 participants; 2 trials; and TIPS, RR 1.88, 95% CI 0.93 to 3.80; 717 participants; 10 trials. The proportion of participants with shunt occlusion or dysfunction was overall 37% (95% CI 33% to 40%). It was 3% (95% CI 0.8% to 10%) following TS, 7% (95% CI 3% to 13%) following DSRS, and 47.1% (95% CI 43% to 51%) following TIPS. Shunt dysfunction in trials utilising polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents was 17% (95% CI 11% to 24%). Length of inpatient hospital stay and cost were not comparable across trials. Funding was unclear in 16 trials; 11 trials were funded by government, local hospitals, or universities. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on whether portosystemic shunts versus endoscopy interventions with or without medical treatment in people with cirrhosis and previous hypertensive portal bleeding have little or no effect on all-cause mortality is very uncertain. Evidence on whether portosystemic shunts may reduce bleeding and mortality due to bleeding while increasing hepatic encephalopathy is also very uncertain. We need properly conducted trials to assess effects of these interventions not only on assessed outcomes, but also on quality of life, costs, and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/métodos , Viés , Causas de Morte , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária , Derivação Esplenorrenal Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos
8.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5271-5276, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatic encephalopathy is an adverse event resulting from lenvatinib use in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed the influence of lenvatinib on portal venous flow velocity (PVV) and serum ammonia concentration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven patients with unresectable HCC were enrolled, including three with modified albumin-bilirubin (mALBI) grade 1, three with grade 2a, and five with grade 2b. PVV was measured by Doppler ultrasound sonography before and on day 2 of administration. RESULTS: Out of 11 patients, one developed hepatic encephalopathy. PVV was reduced in 10 patients, and the change from baseline was significantly correlated with lenvatinib dosage. The increase in serum ammonia concentration was affected by lenvatinib dose and baseline hepatic function as a threshold between mALBI grade 2a and 2b statistically. There was no correlation between changes in PVV and serum ammonia concentration. CONCLUSION: Lenvatinib might directly disturb hepatocyte metabolism to result in increased serum ammonia concentration.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperamonemia/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bilirrubina/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperamonemia/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Hepática , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Veia Porta/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
10.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(3): 527-536, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus may lead to increased serum ammonia and systemic inflammation thereby promoting hepatic encephalopathy (HE). AIM: To investigate the potential association between diabetes mellitus/glycaemic control and the presence of covert HE as well as the development of overt HE in a prospective setting. METHODS: A total of 240 patients with liver cirrhosis were included into this prospective cohort study and followed for a median of 17 months. Covert HE was diagnosed by pathological results in the Portosystemic Hepatic Encephalopathy Score. Predictors for the presence of covert HE or the development of overt HE were analysed using logistic regression or Cox-regression models. RESULTS: At study inclusion, 65 patients (27.1%) presented with diabetes mellitus and covert HE was detected in 33.3%. Patients with diabetes mellitus had a more preserved liver function as compared to patients without diabetes mellitus (MELD 9 vs 10; P = 0.043). In regression analyses after adjustment for confounders, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with the presence of covert HE at study inclusion and the development of overt HE during follow-up. These associations were confirmed in separate propensity-score-weighted regression models. In subgroup analyses, patients with worse glycaemic control (HbA1c >= 6.5%) had a pronounced risk for covert HE (OR 2.264, 95% CI 1.002-5.118) and overt HE (HR 4.116, 95% CI 1.791-9.459). CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus may associate with higher risk for the presence of covert HE and the development of overt HE in patients with liver cirrhosis. Adequate glycaemic control may be a potential target to attenuate this important complication.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/sangue , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(4): 647-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505258

RESUMO

Hospitalists often care for patients with liver disease, including those with acute liver injury and failure and patients with complications of decompensated cirrhosis. Acute liver failure is a true emergency, requiring intensive care and oftentimes transfer of the patient to a liver transplant center. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis have complications of portal hypertension, including variceal hemorrhage, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatic encephalopathy. These complications increase the risk of mortality among patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Comanagement by the hospitalist with gastroenterology/hepatology can optimize care, especially for patients being considered for liver transplant evaluation.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Falência Hepática Aguda/etiologia , Ascite/epidemiologia , Ascite/etiologia , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Portal/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado , Peritonite/epidemiologia , Peritonite/etiologia
12.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e44, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) is one of the most common congenital disorders diagnosed in dogs. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication in dogs with a cPSS and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite HE been a major cause of morbidity in dogs with a cPSS, little is known about the cellular changes that occur in the central nervous system of dogs with a cPSS. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to characterise the histological changes in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of dogs with cPSS with particular emphasis on astrocyte morphology. METHODS: Eight dogs with a confirmed cPSS were included in the study. RESULTS: Six dogs had substantial numbers of Alzheimer type II astrocytes and all cases had increased immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cerebral cortex, even if there were minimal other morphological changes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that dogs with a cPSS have marked cellular changes in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The cellular changes that occur in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of dogs with spontaneously arising HE are similar to changes which occur in humans with HE, further validating dogs with a cPSS as a good model for human HE.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/congênito , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Masculino
13.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(12): 1397-1405, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a devastating complication of cirrhosis. AIM: To describe the outcomes after developing hepatic encephalopathy among contemporary, aging patients. METHODS: We examined data for a 20% random sample of United States Medicare enrolees with cirrhosis and Part D prescription coverage from 2008 to 2014. Among 49 164 persons with hepatic encephalopathy, we evaluated the associations with transplant-free survival using Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates (hazard ratios, HR) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for healthcare utilisation measured in hospital-days and 30-day readmissions per person-year. We validated our findings in an external cohort of 2184 privately insured patients with complete laboratory values. RESULTS: Hepatic encephalopathy was associated with median survivals of 0.95 and 2.5 years for those ≥65 or <65 years old and 1.1 versus 3.9 years for those with and without ascites. Non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease posed the highest adjusted risk of death among aetiologies, HR 1.07 95% CI (1.02, 1.12). Both gastroenterology consultation and rifaximin utilisation were associated with lower mortality, respective adjusted-HR 0.73 95% CI (0.67, 0.80) and 0.40 95% CI (0.39, 0.42). Thirty-day readmissions were fewer for patients seen by gastroenterologists (0.71 95% CI [0.57-0.88]) and taking rifaximin (0.18 95% CI [0.08-0.40]). Lactulose alone was associated with fewer hospital-days, IRR 0.31 95% CI (0.30-0.32), than rifaximin alone, 0.49 95% CI (0.45-0.53), but the optimal therapy combination was lactulose/rifaximin, IRR 0.28 95% CI (0.27-0.30). These findings were validated in the privately insured cohort adjusting for model for endstage liver disease-sodium score and serum albumin. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic encephalopathy remains morbid and associated with poor outcomes among contemporary patients. Gastroenterology consultation and combination lactulose-rifaximin are both associated with improved outcomes. These data inform the development of care coordination efforts for subjects with cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática/diagnóstico , Encefalopatia Hepática/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Terminal/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Transplant Proc ; 52(6): 1953-1956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Portosystemic collaterals (PsC) are a common finding in patients with cirrhosis who need liver transplantation (LT), and PsCs may cause several problems before and after LT. We report a case of successful surgical treatment of severe hepatic encephalopathy (HE) caused by PsC after living-donor LT (LDLT). CASE: A 71-year-old woman with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent LDLT for chronic hepatitis C virus infection at 64 years of age. The splenocaval collateral vein was ligated during LDLT to prevent portal flow steal. A recurrent episode of coma due to HE was triggered 7 years after LDLT and gradually became refractory to any drug treatments. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed the development of the right gastroepiploic vein (RGEV), which flowed to the inferior vena cava via the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV). Owing to the chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 11-31 mL/min), interventional radiology (IVR) was not indicated, so surgical treatment was selected to treat the symptom. PsC was resected at the point of the RGEV and IMV, just before flowing into the IVC with vascular staplers. Antegrade portal blood flow was obtained by ultrasonography 2 days after surgery, and the patient was discharged from the hospital 26 days after the operation. After discharge, she has had no recurrent episode of HE. CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of the PsC was effective for treatment of HE caused by shunt flow after LDLT.


Assuntos
Circulação Colateral , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Doadores Vivos
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8610, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451417

RESUMO

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome caused by cirrhosis, with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Its diagnosis is based on abnormal results of cognitive and neurophysiological tests, but there are no universally available criteria, especially in Brazil, where local testing standards are required. The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Rey's auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT), psychometric score of hepatic encephalopathy (PHES), topographic mapping of brain electrical activity (TMBEA) and long-latency auditory evoked potential (P300) in the detection of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in Brazil. From 224 patients with cirrhosis included in the global sample, 82.5% were excluded due to secondary causes responsible for cognitive or neurophysiological dysfunction. The final sample consisted of 29 cirrhotics, with predominance of A5 Child-Pugh classification, and 29 controls paired in critical variables such as age, educational level, gender, professional category, scores suggestive of mild depression, association with compensated type 2 diabetes mellitus and sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, performance on cognitive tests and TMBEA did not show a statistically significant difference. There was a marked difference in P300 latency adjusted for age, with patients with cirrhosis showing a mean of 385 ± 78 ms (median of 366.6 ms) and healthy volunteers exhibiting a mean of 346.2 ± 42.8 ms (median of 348.2 ms) (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that, in the earliest stages of cirrhosis, age-adjusted P300 latency was superior to cognitive assessment and TMBEA for detection of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(1): 98-106, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPSS) has been recommended in international guidelines for high-risk patients with oesophageal variceal bleeding. AIM: To validate the results of a previous randomised control trial which supports use of early-TIPSS. METHODS: In a two-centre open-label parallel-group randomised control trial, patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding were recruited following haemostasis with vaso-active drugs and endoscopic band ligation. Participants were randomised to standard of care or early-TIPSS. The primary outcome was 1-year survival, secondary outcomes included early and late rebleeding, and complications of portal hypertension. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients (58 ± 11.12 years; 32.7% female) were randomised. After one year, seven patients died in the standard of care group and six in the early-TIPSS group, a 1-year survival of 75.9% vs 79.3% respectively (P = 0.79). Variceal rebleeding occurred in eight patients in the standard of care group compared with three patients in the early-TIPSS group (P = 0.09). Not all participants randomised to early-TIPSS received the intervention in time. For those receiving TIPSS per-protocol, variceal rebleeding rates were reduced (0% vs 27.6%, P = 0.04) but this had no effect on survival (76.9% vs 75.9%, P = 0.91). Serious adverse events were similar in both treatment groups, except that rates of hepatic encephalopathy were higher in patients receiving TIPSS (46.1% vs 20.7%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early-TIPSS reduced variceal rebleeding, increased encephalopathy but had no effect on survival in high-risk patients with oesophageal variceal bleeding. Early-TIPSS may not be feasible in many centres however, larger studies are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT02377141.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/terapia , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Idoso , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/mortalidade , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Padrão de Cuidado
17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1624-1633, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) of ≥10 mm Hg predicts clinical decompensation (CD) in compensated cirrhosis. A proportion of cirrhotic patients at presentation have high HVPG (≥20 mm Hg) and are compensated. The natural history, spectrum of CD, and mortality in this group is largely unknown. METHODS: Consecutive compensated cirrhotic patients with HVPG ≥6 mm Hg (n = 741) were followed up for 3-6 months for the development of any CD. Patients were classified based on the baseline HVPG (6 to <12 mm Hg [low HVPG, Gr.A, n = 163], 12 to <20 mm Hg [intermediate HVPG, Gr.B, n = 437] and ≥20 mm Hg [high HVPG, Gr.C, n = 141]). We analyzed the predictors of first CD, HVPG response to carvedilol, and mortality in these groups. RESULTS: CD developed in 217 (29.3%) patients during a mean follow-up of 1.6 ± 0.4 years, and those who developed CD had higher baseline HVPG (17.02 ± 4.79 vs 14.28 ± 4.86; P < 0.001). First CD was seen earlier (1.3 ± 0.7 years vs 1.5 ± 0.6 years and 1.6 ± 0.5 years, P = 0.02) and more frequently (44.7% vs 11% and 31.1%, P < 0.01) in high HVPG groups compared with low and intermediate HVPG groups, with higher mortality rates. Patients in the high HVPG group compared with the low HVPG group more often had NASH-cirrhosis (35.5% vs 19.6%; P 0.001), higher liver stiffness values (45.06 ± 20.46 vs 20.09 ± 5.47 kPa, P < 0.001), and lower platelet counts (113.37 ± 72.57 vs 151.7 ± 87.30/cmm, P < 0.001). Patients with HVPG ≥12 mm Hg received carvedilol, and a repeat HVPG performed in a proportion after 9.3 ± 2.4 months showed response (≥20% reduction in HVPG or <12 mm Hg) in 31.6% patients (Gr. B, 44.9% > Gr. C, 22.2%, P < 0.05). Baseline HVPG (HVPG ≥12 to <20 mm Hg [Hazard ratio: 2.73] and HVPG ≥20 mm Hg [Hazard ratio: 4.48], P < 0.001) independently predicted CD. DISCUSSION: HVPG ≥20 mm Hg in patients with compensated cirrhosis independently predicts early and more frequent CD and poor outcomes. These patients should be labeled as "high-risk compensated cirrhosis," and early and effective interventions to reduce portal pressure should be initiated to improve long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/epidemiologia , Veias Hepáticas , Hipertensão Portal/fisiopatologia , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Pressão Venosa , Adulto , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Cateterismo Periférico , Doença Hepática Terminal , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Portal/complicações , Icterícia/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Soft Matter ; 16(11): 2725-2735, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115597

RESUMO

Transmembrane pH gradient poly(isoprene)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PI-b-PEG) polymersomes were investigated for their potential use in the detoxification of ammonia, a metabolite that is excessively present in patients suffering from urea cycle disorders and advanced liver diseases, and which causes neurotoxic effects (e.g., hepatic encephalopathy). Polymers varying in PI and PEG block length were synthesized via nitroxide-mediated polymerization and screened for their ability to self-assemble into polymersomes in aqueous media. Ammonia sequestration by the polymersomes was investigated in vitro. While most vesicular systems were able to capture ammonia in simulated intestinal fluids, uptake was lost in partially dehydrated medium mimicking conditions in the colon. Polymeric crosslinking of residual olefinic bonds in the PI block increased polymersome stability, partially preserving the ammonia capture capacity in the simulated colon environment. These more stable vesicular systems hold promise for the chronic oral treatment of hyperammonemia.


Assuntos
Amônia/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Amônia/metabolismo , Butadienos/química , Butadienos/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Hemiterpenos/química , Hemiterpenos/farmacologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Metacrilatos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Força Próton-Motriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/complicações , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios Congênitos do Ciclo da Ureia/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
19.
S D Med ; 73(2): 61-66, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135053

RESUMO

While portal-systemic encephalopathy is a common entity in cirrhotic patients, it is less frequent in non-cirrhotic patients. We are reporting a case of a 68-year-old female who presented with unresponsiveness for the second time in six months. She underwent extensive evaluation for liver disease with ultrasonography and computerized tomography of the abdomen, testing for causes of liver disease including testing for viral hepatitis was negative. A liver biopsy was done clearing any doubt about the presence of significant liver disease or clinically significant portal hypertension. With absence of liver disease hence lower likelihood of portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE) we evaluated for other causes of encephalopathy with unremarkable neuroimaging including brain MRI and head CT, unremarkable CSF analysis and EEG showing no seizure activity. Given the negative workup and the high ammonia level with the significant clinical response to ammonia lowering therapy we further evaluated the patient for other causes of PSE with Doppler ultrasonography of the liver and eventually angiography of the portal system with the high suspicion for a portosystemic shunt as a cause of her encephalopathy. A shunt from the inferior mesenteric vein to the left renal vein was diagnosed and successfully occluded utilizing coil embolization. The patient recovered normal mentation and was eventually discharged home. This case sheds light on the importance of diagnosing portosystemic shunts leading to encephalopathy, as occlusion of the shunt can correct the encephalopathy and help prevent further episodes.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Encefalopatia Hepática , Hipertensão Portal , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica , Idoso , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Derivação Portossistêmica Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos
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