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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1255: 231-247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949404

RESUMO

The single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a powerful tool for exploring the complexity, clusters, and specific functions of the brain cells. Using scRNA-seq, the heterogeneity and changes in transcriptomic profiles of a single neuron were defined during dynamic development and differentiation of cells in cerebral cortex regions, and in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. One of the great challenges is that the brain sample is susceptible to interference and confounding. More advanced methodologies of computational systems biology need to be developed to overcome the inherent interference and technical differences in the detection of single-cell signals. It is expected that scRNA-seq will be extended to metabolic profiles of the single neuron cell on basis of transcriptional profiles and regulatory networks. It is also expected if the transcriptional profiles can be integrated with molecular and functional phenomes in a single neuron and with disease-specific phenomes to understand molecular mechanisms of brain development and disease occurrence. scRNA-seq will provide the new emerging neurological disciple of the artificial intelligent single neuron for deep understanding of brain diseases.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/embriologia , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Humanos , Transcriptoma
2.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 631-641, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876900

RESUMO

A subset of patients with coronavirus 2 disease (COVID-19) experience neurological complications. These complications include loss of sense of taste and smell, stroke, delirium, and neuromuscular signs and symptoms. The etiological agent of COVID-19 is SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), an RNA virus with a glycoprotein-studded viral envelope that uses ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) as a functional receptor for infecting the host cells. Thus, the interaction of the envelope spike proteins with ACE2 on host cells determines the tropism and virulence of SARS-CoV-2. Loss of sense of taste and smell is an initial symptom of COVID-19 because the virus enters the nasal and oral cavities first and the epithelial cells are the receptors for these senses. Stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely a consequence of coagulopathy and injury to cerebral vascular endothelial cells that cause thrombo-embolism and stroke. Delirium and encephalopathy in acute and post COVID-19 patients are likely multifactorial and secondary to hypoxia, metabolic abnormalities, and immunological abnormalities. Thus far, there is no clear evidence that coronaviruses cause inflammatory neuromuscular diseases via direct invasion of peripheral nerves or muscles or via molecular mimicry. It appears that most of neurologic complications in COVID-19 patients are indirect and as a result of a bystander injury to neurons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encefalopatias/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Efeito Espectador , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/imunologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Embolia Pulmonar/imunologia , Embolia Pulmonar/patologia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
3.
Neurocirugía (Soc. Luso-Esp. Neurocir.) ; 31(4): 158-164, jul.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193896

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los tumores neuroepiteliales disembrioplásicos (DNET) son un tipo de neoplasia glioneuronal benigna de localización típicamente temporal que producen crisis epilépticas resistentes al tratamiento farmacológico en niños y adultos jóvenes. OBJETIVO: Se muestran 4 casos valorando la utilidad de la resonancia magnética funcional en el estudio prequirúrgico de pacientes con tumores neuroepiteliales disembrionarios. Para la obtención de imágenes se utilizó un equipo de resonancia magnética Philipps Intera de 3.0 Tesla y la técnica Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent, permitiendo localizar las áreas elocuentes de lenguaje y motora mediante la aplicación de paradigmas específicos. RESULTADOS: En un caso el tumor se encontraba adyacente al área de Broca, en 2 casos coincidía con Wernicke, en un paciente estaba menos de 1cm del área motora de la mano y en otro próximo a la memoria. Solo 2 de los pacientes fueron operados, no produciéndose déficit funcional postoperatorio. Se observó activación hemisférica contralateral al tumor sugestivo de neuroplasticidad en uno de los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES: La resonancia magnética funcional supone un método no invasivo que permite evaluar la proximidad de las lesiones a las áreas elocuentes, clave en la evaluación del riesgo quirúrgico. Además, ha permitido detectar probable neuroplasticidad en un caso, la cual ha garantizado el éxito de la cirugía


INTRODUCTION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNET) are a type of benign glioneuronal neoplasia of typically temporal location that produce drug-resistant epileptic seizures in children and young adults. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to assess the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the preoperative study in four patients with DNET. A Philips Intera 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner and the Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) technique were used to obtain the images, making it possible to locate the eloquent areas for language and motor areas through the application of specific paradigms. RESULTS: In one case the tumour was adjacent to Broca's area, in two cases it coincided with Wernicke's area, in one patient it was < 1cm from the motor area for the hand and in another close to memory. Only two of the patients were operated on, without postoperative functional deficit. Hemispheric activation contralateral to the tumour suggestive of neuroplasticity was observed in one of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: fMRI is a non-invasive method that allows us to assess the proximity of lesions to eloquent areas, which is key in the evaluation of surgical risk. In addition, it allowed the detection of probable neuroplasticity in one case, which guaranteed the success of the surgery


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Neuroepiteliomatosas/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Área de Wernicke/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751841

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can also invade the central nervous system (CNS). However, findings available on its neurological manifestations and their pathogenic mechanisms have not yet been systematically addressed. A literature search on neurological complications reported in patients with COVID-19 until June 2020 produced a total of 23 studies. Overall, these papers report that patients may exhibit a wide range of neurological manifestations, including encephalopathy, encephalitis, seizures, cerebrovascular events, acute polyneuropathy, headache, hypogeusia, and hyposmia, as well as some non-specific symptoms. Whether these features can be an indirect and unspecific consequence of the pulmonary disease or a generalized inflammatory state on the CNS remains to be determined; also, they may rather reflect direct SARS-CoV-2-related neuronal damage. Hematogenous versus transsynaptic propagation, the role of the angiotensin II converting enzyme receptor-2, the spread across the blood-brain barrier, the impact of the hyperimmune response (the so-called "cytokine storm"), and the possibility of virus persistence within some CNS resident cells are still debated. The different levels and severity of neurotropism and neurovirulence in patients with COVID-19 might be explained by a combination of viral and host factors and by their interaction.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/virologia , Encefalopatias/complicações , Encefalopatias/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Encefalite/complicações , Encefalite/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4016, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782260

RESUMO

Brainstem regions support vital bodily functions, yet their genetic architectures and involvement in common brain disorders remain understudied. Here, using imaging-genetics data from a discovery sample of 27,034 individuals, we identify 45 brainstem-associated genetic loci, including the first linked to midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata volumes, and map them to 305 genes. In a replication sample of 7432 participants most of the loci show the same effect direction and are significant at a nominal threshold. We detect genetic overlap between brainstem volumes and eight psychiatric and neurological disorders. In additional clinical data from 5062 individuals with common brain disorders and 11,257 healthy controls, we observe differential volume alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Parkinson's disease, supporting the relevance of brainstem regions and their genetic architectures in common brain disorders.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encefalopatias/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/anatomia & histologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Homologia de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Herança Multifatorial , Tamanho do Órgão/genética
7.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 785-789, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666422

RESUMO

Over the course of the pandemic due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple new clinical manifestations, as the consequence of the tropism of the virus, have been recognized. That includes now the neurological manifestations and conditions, such as headache, encephalitis, as well as olfactory and taste disorders. We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries.


Assuntos
Ageusia/complicações , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encefalopatias/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cefaleia/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageusia/imunologia , Ageusia/patologia , Ageusia/virologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Cefaleia/imunologia , Cefaleia/patologia , Cefaleia/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Transtornos do Olfato/imunologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , América do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(9): 1206-1209, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101631

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which was identified after a recent outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, has kept the whole world in tenterhooks due to its severe life-threatening nature of the infection. The virus is unlike its previous counterparts, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, or anything the world has encountered before both in terms of virulence and severity of the infection. If scientific reports relevant to the SARS-CoV-2 virus are noted, it can be seen that the virus owes much of its killer properties to its unique structure that has a stronger binding affinity with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) protein, which the viruses utilize as an entry point to gain accesses to its hosts. Recent reports suggest that it is not just the lung that the virus may be targeting; the human brain may soon emerge as the new abode of the virus. Already instances of patients with COVID-19 have been reported with mild (anosmia and ageusia) to severe (encephalopathy) neurological manifestations, and if that is so, then it gives us more reasons to be frightened of this killer virus. Keeping in mind that the situation does not worsen from here, immediate awareness and more thorough research regarding the neuroinvasive nature of the virus is the immediate need of the hour. Scientists globally also need to up their game to design more specific therapeutic strategies with the available information to counteract the pandemic. In this Viewpoint, we provide a brief outline of the currently known neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and discuss some probable ways to design therapeutic strategies to overcome the present global crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Ageusia/virologia , Autopsia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/patologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Interferência de RNA , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo , Fumar/patologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 76: 236-237, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-98074

RESUMO

The diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with cerebral involvement is challenging given the rarity of HLH and its resemblance to the much more common severe sepsis. Timely diagnosis and treatment may be lifesaving. We report two cases demonstrating different and rare forms of severe brain involvement in adult patients with HLH: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, and diffuse hemorrhagic disease due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Severe HLH with brain involvement in adults is rare. HLH with cerebral involvement should be considered in patients presenting with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) but negative cultures and unusual or unexpectedly severe clinical and/or radiologic signs of cerebral dysfunction. Similar brain injury may occur in patients with cytokine storm syndrome due to COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) presents with fevers, rash, organomegaly, cytopenia, and increased triglycerides and ferritin (Ramos-Casals et al., 2014) [1]. Neurologic abnormalities are reported in about one-third of patients (Cai et al., 2017), including a few cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) (Xiujuan et al., 2015). Coagulation abnormalities are frequent in HLH patients (Valade et al., 2015). OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness about the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of HLH with neurological involvement to prevent serious complications and demise.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
12.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(9): 1206-1209, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320211

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which was identified after a recent outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, has kept the whole world in tenterhooks due to its severe life-threatening nature of the infection. The virus is unlike its previous counterparts, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, or anything the world has encountered before both in terms of virulence and severity of the infection. If scientific reports relevant to the SARS-CoV-2 virus are noted, it can be seen that the virus owes much of its killer properties to its unique structure that has a stronger binding affinity with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) protein, which the viruses utilize as an entry point to gain accesses to its hosts. Recent reports suggest that it is not just the lung that the virus may be targeting; the human brain may soon emerge as the new abode of the virus. Already instances of patients with COVID-19 have been reported with mild (anosmia and ageusia) to severe (encephalopathy) neurological manifestations, and if that is so, then it gives us more reasons to be frightened of this killer virus. Keeping in mind that the situation does not worsen from here, immediate awareness and more thorough research regarding the neuroinvasive nature of the virus is the immediate need of the hour. Scientists globally also need to up their game to design more specific therapeutic strategies with the available information to counteract the pandemic. In this Viewpoint, we provide a brief outline of the currently known neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and discuss some probable ways to design therapeutic strategies to overcome the present global crisis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Ageusia/virologia , Autopsia , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Mucosa Olfatória/patologia , Mucosa Olfatória/fisiopatologia , Mucosa Olfatória/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Interferência de RNA , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fumar/metabolismo , Fumar/patologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1238: 73-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323181

RESUMO

The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication pathway connecting the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract via nerve transmission, hormone, immune system, and other molecular signals. The bacterial flora of the human gut contributes direct and indirect signals to the CNS along the brain-gut axis. Alterations in gut flora, a state known as dysbiosis, has been tied to systemic inflammation, increased bacterial translocation, and increased absorbance of microbial by-products. An increase in recent literature has highlighted the role of the gut-brain axis in CNS pathology. This chapter reviews the association between gut flora dysbiosis and disorders of the central nervous system including autoimmune disease, developmental disorders, physiologic response to traumatic injury, and neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Disbiose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/inervação , Humanos
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1376-1381, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274982

RESUMO

Most schistosomiasis japonica cerebral granulomas reported in the literature have been single and located in the cerebellum, and multiple lesions located in the cerebral hemisphere are uncommon and often misdiagnosed as metastases or gliomas. We describe two rare cases of multiple schistosomiasis japonica cerebral granulomas. Laboratory examinations and cerebrospinal fluid were normal. Parasite eggs were not detected in the stool. No positive findings were detected in the abdominal ultrasonography or chest radiography. Magnetic resonance revealed two intensive patchy lesions in the cerebral hemisphere and surrounded by a large area of edema in both of our patients. Both were misdiagnosed as glioma or metastatic carcinoma before operation. Pathological examination confirmed that the diagnosis was schistosomiasis japonica cerebral granuloma. Praziquantel and dexamethasone were administered. Both patients are alive, symptom-free, and without evidence of recurrence. Combining our date with other literature reports, we summarize the possible mechanism, reasons for misdiagnosis, radiological characteristics, surgical treatment, and postoperative management of schistosomiasis japonica cerebral granuloma, which can be used for clinical reference and to improve our knowledge of schistosomiasis japonica cerebral granuloma.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/parasitologia , Granuloma/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/patologia , Idoso , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/terapia , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquistossomose Japônica/diagnóstico
15.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 20-25, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314720

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the role of CXCR2 in the cerebral endothelial activation and migration of neutrophils into the brain in septic encephalopathy (SE) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods C57BL/6J mice and CXCR2-knockout mice were randomly divided into a normal control group, a wildtype mice group with LPS treatment and CXCR2-knockout mice group with LPS treatment. Mouse SE models were induced by intraperitoneal LPS injection. Naphthol AS-D chloroacetate histochemical staining of the brain section was performed to quantitate the neutrophils infiltrating into the cerebral cortex. TNF-α and CXCL1 concentrations in the brain and plasma were determined by ELISA. After the stimulation of LPS (1 µg/mL) and TNF-α (200 ng/mL), the levels of CXCR2 protein in the primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the cerebral cortex were detected by Western blotting. The levels of F-actin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) protein in the primary mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by CXCL1 (100 ng/mL) were detected by Western blotting. Results After intraperitoneal LPS injection, there was a significant increase in the level of TNF-α in the brain and plasma and there was also an evident increase in the level of CXCL1 in the brain of wild type mice (C57BL/6J mice). And intraperitoneal LPS injection caused increased neutrophil infiltration into the cerebral cortex in the wild type mice (C57BL/6J mice). But CXCR2-knockout mice displayed evidently reduced neutrophil infiltration into the cerebral cortex compared with the wildtype mice. In vitro LPS and TNF-α upregulated the expression of CXCR2 in the primary brain microvascular endothelial cells. CXCL1 increased remarkably the expression of endothelial F-actin and VCAM-1. Conclusion In the SE model, CXCR2 participates in the cerebral endothelial activation and neutrophil migration into the brain.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Encefalopatias/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Distribuição Aleatória , Sepse/patologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 76: 236-237, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307298

RESUMO

The diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with cerebral involvement is challenging given the rarity of HLH and its resemblance to the much more common severe sepsis. Timely diagnosis and treatment may be lifesaving. We report two cases demonstrating different and rare forms of severe brain involvement in adult patients with HLH: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, and diffuse hemorrhagic disease due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Severe HLH with brain involvement in adults is rare. HLH with cerebral involvement should be considered in patients presenting with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) but negative cultures and unusual or unexpectedly severe clinical and/or radiologic signs of cerebral dysfunction. Similar brain injury may occur in patients with cytokine storm syndrome due to COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) presents with fevers, rash, organomegaly, cytopenia, and increased triglycerides and ferritin (Ramos-Casals et al., 2014) [1]. Neurologic abnormalities are reported in about one-third of patients (Cai et al., 2017), including a few cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) (Xiujuan et al., 2015). Coagulation abnormalities are frequent in HLH patients (Valade et al., 2015). OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness about the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of HLH with neurological involvement to prevent serious complications and demise.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
17.
World Neurosurg ; 139: 223-225, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor that occurs in children or adolescents but rarely in the skull. Epidermoid cysts, also known as cholesteatomas, represent approximately 0.2%-1.8% of all intracranial tumors. The occurrence of osteosarcoma with an epidermoid cyst is extremely rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 41-year-old woman had both osteosarcoma and cholesteatoma in the left cerebellopontine angle. We resected the 2 tumors using the suboccipital retrosigmoid approach, and she received radiotherapy and chemotherapy after the surgery. One year after surgery, the patient is healthy and has recovered well. CONCLUSIONS: Osteosarcomas and epidermoid cysts should be completely resected to prevent tumor recurrence and aseptic meningitis. Postoperative osteosarcoma treatment should include radiotherapy and chemotherapy to improve the survival rate of patients. It is hoped that this report will help clinicians in diagnosis and treatment of patients with similar conditions.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Ângulo Cerebelopontino/patologia , Colesteatoma/patologia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Encefalopatias/complicações , Neoplasias Cerebelares/complicações , Colesteatoma/complicações , Cisto Epidérmico/complicações , Cisto Epidérmico/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Osteossarcoma/complicações
18.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 96, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cases of Wallerian degeneration of bilateral cerebral peduncles after acute carbon monoxide poisoning have not yet been reported. To date, most of the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) lesions captured in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been located in the subcortical white matter and basal ganglia. Here we report two cases of DEACMP with abnormalities in the bilateral cerebral peduncles. The etiology of abnormalities, which were strictly confined to the bilateral cerebral peduncles, was Wallerian degeneration secondary to upstream nerve axonal damage, making this the first report on such bilateral cerebral peduncle abnormalities after DEACMP. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present two cases of DEACMP with abnormal signals in the bilateral cerebral peduncles captured during brain MRIs. Case 1 was of a 68-year-old man who presented with paroxysmal disturbance of the consciousness, left limb weakness for 16 days, and lagging responses for 2 days. Case 2 was of a 55-year-old man who was unconscious for 6 h. In addition to the above mentioned characteristics on the brain MRIs, the electroencephalography of case 1 indicated that his forehead scans had a mixture of wide sharp, sharp, and three-phase waves. Brain diffusion tensor imaging of case 2 further proved that the bilateral cerebral anomalies represented Wallerian degeneration secondary to upstream axonal damage. After the definitive diagnosis, the patients returned to the local hospital for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Wallerian degeneration of the bilateral cerebral peduncles after acute carbon monoxide poisoning has never been reported before. The abnormal signals in the bilateral cerebral peduncles captured during brain MRIs indicated Wallerian degeneration secondary to upstream axonal damage; thus, these two cases may further our understanding of DEACMP imaging.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/complicações , Pedúnculo Cerebral/patologia , Degeneração Walleriana/etiologia , Idoso , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inconsciência , Substância Branca/patologia
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 395: 114963, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor. Following toxic signs, an extensive long-term brain damage is often reported. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel anticonvulsant drug retigabine, a modulator of neuronal voltage gated K+ channels, as a neuroprotective agent following sarin exposure. METHODS: Rats were exposed to 1 LD50 or 1.2 LD50 sarin and treated at onset of convulsions with retigabine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or in combination with 5 mg/kg atropine and 7.5 mg/kg TMB-4 (TA) respectively. Brain biochemical and immunohistopathological analyses were processed 24 h and 1 week following 1 LD50 sarin exposure and at 4 weeks following exposure to 1.2 LD50 sarin. EEG activity in freely moving rats was also monitored by telemetry during the first week following exposure to 1.2 LD50 and behavior in the Open Field was evaluated 3 weeks post exposure. RESULTS: Treatment with retigabine following 1 LD50 sarin exposure or in combination with TA following 1.2 LD50 exposure significantly reduced mortality rate compared to the non-treated groups. In both experiments, the retigabine treatment significantly reduced gliosis, astrocytosis and brain damage as measured by translocator protein (TSPO). Following sarin exposure the combined treatment (retigabine+ TA) significantly minimized epileptiform seizure activity. Finally, in the Open Field behavioral test the non-treated sarin group showed an increased mobility which was reversed by the combined treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The M current modulator retigabine has been shown to be an effective adjunct therapy following OP induced convulsion, minimizing epileptiform seizure activity and attenuating the ensuing brain damage.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/prevenção & controle , Carbamatos/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fenilenodiaminas/administração & dosagem , Sarina/toxicidade , Animais , Atropina/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Masculino , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Trimedoxima/administração & dosagem
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