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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(10): 2629-2642, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710156

RESUMO

Here we analyze the microbial community of healthy and diseased tomato plants to evaluate its impact on plant health. The organisms found in all samples mainly belonged to 4 phyla: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The Proteobacteria were the highest relative abundant within the endophytic communities of different plant organs of diseased tomato. Among endophytic bacteria of tomato, only a few taxa could be cultured. Here we showed that only a few taxa of bacteria inhabiting tomato plants could be cultured and that all plant organs have a highly diverse endophytic bacterial, whose activity might affect plant growth and development as well as health. The roots seem to be an important barrier for microbes and leaves appear to be the organs with the higher diversity which is incidentally related to plant health. Fruits also contain a complex bacterial community that appeared to be unaffected by foliar diseases such as gray leaf spot at least under the conditions studied.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Firmicutes/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574172

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedback studies attempt to understand the interplay between composition of plant and soil microbial communities. A growing body of literature suggests that plant species can coexist when they interact with a subset of the soil microbial community that impacts plant performance. Most studies focus on the microbial community in the soil rhizosphere; therefore, the degree to which the bacterial community within plant roots (root-endophytic compartment) influences plant-microbe interactions remains relatively unknown. To determine if there is an interaction between conspecific vs heterospecific soil microbes and plant performance, we sequenced root-endophytic bacterial communities of five tallgrass-prairie plant species, each reciprocally grown with soil microbes from each hosts' soil rhizosphere. We found evidence of plant-soil feedbacks for some pairs of plant hosts; however, the strength and direction of feedbacks varied substantially across plant species pairs-from positive to negative feedbacks. Additionally, each plant species harbored a unique subset of root-endophytic bacteria. Conspecifics that hosted similar bacterial communities were more similar in biomass than individuals that hosted different bacterial communities, suggesting an important functional link between root-endophytic bacterial community composition and plant fitness. Our findings suggest a connection between an understudied component of the root-endophytic microbiome and plant performance, which may have important implications in understanding plant community composition and coexistence.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Pradaria , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera
3.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1899-1906, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448960

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria have been reported to have symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic or trophobiotic relationships with various plant parts. As part of its adaptation, many endophytic organisms are known to exhibit properties with multiple beneficial effects to the plant system. Even though many bacterial genera have been identified to have endophytic association, isolation of those which were previously demonstrated well for human association is quite interesting. In the study, endophytic bacteria Ceb1 isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Staphylococcus sp. Further, Ceb1 was observed to have the ability to tolerate drought stress. While screening for the plant growth-promoting traits, Ceb1 was found to be positive for IAA production both under drought-stressed and normal conditions as confirmed by HPLC. The Ceb1 priming with Vigna unguiculata was observed to enhance the growth parameters of the plant. Analysis of Ceb1-treated plants by ICP-MS further showed modulation of both macro- and micronutrients. Upon drought stress induction in Vigna unguiculata, Ceb1 was found to provide synergistic plant growth-promoting effect to the plant along with the supplemented silicate sources. Under the changing agroclimatic conditions, exploring the plant stress-alleviating effects of endophytes is highly significant.


Assuntos
Secas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/microbiologia , Silicatos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Curcuma/microbiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizoma/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Simbiose , Vigna/fisiologia
4.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(7): 1717-1728, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313992

RESUMO

Paeonia ludlowii is indigenous to Tibet and has an important ecological and economic value in China. In Tibet, P. ludlowii has been used in folk medicine with relative success. Plant microbial endophytes play an important role in plant growth, health and ecological function. The diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with P. ludlowii remains poorly understood. In this study, the structure of the endophytic bacterial communities associated with different tissues, including fruits, flowers, leaves, stems, and roots, and rhizosphere soils was analyzed with Illumina MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA. A total of 426,240 sequences and 4847 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. The OTUs abundance of roots was higher than that of other tissues; however, the OTUs abundance was similar among different deep soil samples. In the plant tissues, Cyanobacteria was the most abundant bacterial phylum, followed by Proteobacteria; however, the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria in soil samples from three different layers. In addition, the diversity and richness of the microorganisms in the soil were very similar to those in roots but higher than those in other tissues of P. ludlowii. Predictive metagenome analysis revealed that endophytic bacteria play critical functional roles in P. ludlowii. This conclusion could facilitate the study of the ecological functions of endophytic bacteria and their interactions with P. ludlowii to analyze the reasons why this important medicinal plant is becoming endangered.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Paeonia/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Endófitos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tibet
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(5): 3162-3166, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250241

RESUMO

An endophytic member of the genus Trichoderma was isolated from the root of a healthy 3-year-old Panax notoginseng in Yunnan province, PR China. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on a combined of ITS, tef1 and rpb2 indicated that this isolate was distinct from other species of the genus Trichoderma and closely related to Trichoderma songyi. It can be distinguished from T. songyi by its slower growth rates on PDA and colony morphology. The novel isolate formed conidia in thick white pustules scattered mostly at the margin. Its conidiophores tended to be regularly verticillium-like, little branched, sometimes substituted by phialides singly or in whorls. Conidia are smooth, mostly broadly subglobose to ellipsoidal. In combination with the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, all data demonstrated that the fungus studied represented a unique and distinguishable novel species of the genus Trichoderma, for which the name Trichoderma panacis sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Panax notoginseng/microbiologia , Filogenia , Trichoderma/classificação , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichoderma/isolamento & purificação
6.
Pol J Microbiol ; 69(1): 91-97, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189484

RESUMO

The root of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a famous and endangered traditional Chinese herb, has a significant medicinal value. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and functional characteristics of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and functional prediction of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were conducted. The Chao and Shannon indices of the bacteria in roots were significantly higher than those in stems and leaves. The dominant endophyte phyla were Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The main genera detected in roots were unclassified Cyanobacteria, Rhizobium, Flavobacterium, and Sphingobium; the main genera in stems were norank_c__Cyanobacteria, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas; the main genera in leaves were norank_c__Cyanobacteria and Rhizobium. The microbiota in roots was particularly enriched in functional categories "extracellular structures" and "cytoskeleton" compared with stems and leaves (p < 0.05). Our study reveals the structural and functional characteristics of the endophytic bacteria in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which aids in the scientific understanding of this plant.The root of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a famous and endangered traditional Chinese herb, has a significant medicinal value. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and functional characteristics of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and functional prediction of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were conducted. The Chao and Shannon indices of the bacteria in roots were significantly higher than those in stems and leaves. The dominant endophyte phyla were Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The main genera detected in roots were unclassified Cyanobacteria, Rhizobium, Flavobacterium, and Sphingobium; the main genera in stems were norank_c__Cyanobacteria, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas; the main genera in leaves were norank_c__Cyanobacteria and Rhizobium. The microbiota in roots was particularly enriched in functional categories "extracellular structures" and "cytoskeleton" compared with stems and leaves (p < 0.05). Our study reveals the structural and functional characteristics of the endophytic bacteria in roots, stems, and leaves of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which aids in the scientific understanding of this plant.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Liliaceae/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 192: 110304, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066006

RESUMO

The environmental release of graphene oxide (GO) will certainly induce the GO exposure to plants. To date, the influence of GO on the intracellular structures and the endophytic bacterial ecology of plants have been rarely reported. In the present study, the rice seedlings were exposed to GO (5 mg/L) under hydroponic condition for fifteen days with periodic stir. The cellular structures damage, GO deposition and oxidative stress were found in rice root after GO exposure. A Illumina analysis based on the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene showed that the richness, evenness and diversity of endophytic bacterial communities of rice root decreased due to GO exposure. The relative abundance of beneficial endophytic bacterial populations decreased after GO exposure. Out of potential phenotypes predicted by BugBase, the relative abundance of Gram negative, stress-tolerant and biofilm-forming phenotypes, presented an increase trend after GO exposure.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Grafite/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(6): 1735-1753, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981438

RESUMO

AIMS: This research aimed to identify factors influencing endophyte community structure in apple shoots and the bioactivity of cultured representatives against the fungal pathogen Neonectria ditissima. METHODS AND RESULTS: The endophyte community in leaves and stems of the apple cultivars 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' were analysed by a cultivation-independent method (PCR-DGGE) which showed that tissue type, cultivar and site were determinant factors, with the endophyte taxa in 'Royal Gala' more variable than that in 'Braeburn', with leaf endophyte communities typically differing from stems in both cultivars. Seasonal (spring vs autumn) and regional (Nelson vs Hawke's Bay) variations were not obvious in woody stems. A collection of 783 bacterial and 87 fungal endophytes were recovered from leaves and stems of 'Royal Gala', 'Braeburn', 'Scilate' and/or 'Scifresh' from Nelson (nine sites) and Hawke's Bay (five sites) in spring and from Nelson (three sites) in autumn. A dual culture plating assay was used to test their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of N. ditissima. Thirteen bacterial (mean of percent inhibition ≥20%) and 17 fungal isolates were antagonistic towards N. ditissima. These isolates belonged to the bacterial genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and fungal genera Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Biscogniauxia, Penicillium, Diaporthe, Phlyctema and two unidentified fungal isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Endophyte communities in apple shoots were determined by tissue type, cultivar and site. Endophytic bacterial and fungal isolates inhibiting N. ditissima growth in vitro were found. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These results provided new evidence of factors influencing apple endophyte community in New Zealand. Endophytes with potential to reduce N. ditissima infection were identified, with the potential to be developed into a biocontrol strategy for European canker.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antibiose , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nova Zelândia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936472

RESUMO

Plant endophytes are microbial sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, which mimic the natural compounds chemistry of their respective host plants in a similar manner. This study explored the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes, and investigated the antibacterial and antimycobacterial activity of their crude extracts. Fungal endophytes were isolated from Solanum mauritianum, identified using morphological traits and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal-deoxyribonucleic acid (ITS-rDNA) sequence analysis. Eight fungal endophytes were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans, Paracamarosporium leucadendri, Cladosporium sp., Collectotrichum boninense, Fusarium sp., Hyalodendriella sp., and Talaromyces sp., while Penicillium chrysogenum was isolated from the leaves and unripe fruits. Good activity was observed for the crude extracts of Paracamarosporium leucadendri inhibiting Mycobacterium bovis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 6 µg/mL. Crude extracts of Fusarium sp., showed activity at 9 µg/mL against M. bovis, M. smegmatis and K. pneumonia. In general, the crude extracts showed great activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and novel results for two mycobacteria species M. bovis and M. smegmatis. The results provide evidence of diverse fungal endophytes isolated from Solanum mauritianum, and evidence that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential, particularly against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Endófitos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Solanum/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Endófitos/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
Microbiol Res ; 233: 126413, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981904

RESUMO

Microbial diversity in Peruvian mountain areas is poorly know, specially endophytic microorganisms of medicinal native plants from the Cordillera Blanca. So, nine bacterial and six fungal species were isolated from Gentianella weberbaueri and Valeriana pycnantha. According to 16S rDNA analysis, bacterial strains belong to genera Rahnella, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Rouxiella, and Bacillus; while ITS analysis showed that fungi belong to Pyrenochaeta, Scleroconidioma, Cryptococcus, and Plenodomus genera. Rahnella sp. GT24B and P. trivialis VT20B solubilized tricalcium phosphate and produced siderophores at 10 and 24 °C. Five bacteria strains produced indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) at 10 and 24 °C, where Rahnella sp. VT19B showed more production at 10 °C than 24 °C. Rahnella sp. GT24B, Serratia sp. VT28B, and Rahnella sp. GT25B inhibited Fusarium oxysporum growth up to 100, 78 and 74 %, respectively. R. inusitata VT25B and B. licheniformis GT10B showed high cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. On the other hand, only a few fungi moderately inhibited growth of F. oxysporum, and produced siderophores and cellulases. Most of bacteria inoculated on Medicago sativa "alfalfa" and Triticum aestivum "wheat" seeds got better root development, especially Rahnella sp. GT24B, Rouxiella sp.VT24B, Serratia sp. VT28B, and Rahnella sp. VT34B. Finally, this study is the first report of endophytic microorganisms associated to wild medicinal high-mountain Peruvian plants and it show a valuable microbial diversity and its possible role in promoting growth of crops and wild medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Endófitos/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Gentianella/microbiologia , Valeriana/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Gentianella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Peru , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Valeriana/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1940-1946, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967956

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-positive, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated py1325T, was isolated from the root of Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis collected from Yunnan Province, PR China, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. It grew optimally with 0-1 % NaCl (w/v), at pH 7 and at 30 °C. The major respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminophospholipids, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the highest levels of sequence similarity with respect to Paenibacillus luteus R-3T (99.0 %), Paenibacillus sinopodophylli CCTCC AB 2016047T (97.9 %), Paenibacillus castaneae DSM 19417T (97.5 %) and Paenibacillus endophyticus LMG 27297T (97.2 %). The digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between py1325T and these species ranged 20.6-53.3 % and 79.9-93.6 %. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 47.7 mol%. According to the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic evidence, strain py1325T clearly represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus paridis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is py1325T (=CCTCC AB 2015220T=LMG 29068T).


Assuntos
Melanthiaceae/microbiologia , Paenibacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Paenibacillus/isolamento & purificação , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 17-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444513

RESUMO

The role and activity of bacterial endophytes remains largely unexplored and detail insight into Indian rice agro ecosystem is still little explored. In this study, we examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in aerobic rice (variety ARB6) under aerobic and flooded field conditions. Based on 16S rRNA gene RFLP cloning sequencing, 900 clones with 144 representatives (72 aerobic and 72 flooded) revealed majority of clones affiliated to Gammaproteobacteria (64.58%), Betaproteobacteria (9.72%), Alphaproteobacteria (17.36), Firmicutes (6.26%) and Bacteroidetes (2.08). The study suggests that the aerobic rice variety harbours plant growth promoting (PGP) genera (viz. Pantoea, Enterobacter, Paenibacillus, etc). Investigations on aerobic rice under aerobic and flooded conditions revealed high richness and diversity of endophytic bacteria under aerobic condition inferring that the endophytic bacteria are beneficial for rice growth and productivity, and hence, would be helpful in designing better strategies for rice cultivation under drought or water scarce conditions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Endófitos/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/classificação , Ecossistema , Endófitos/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Clima Tropical
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 481-486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613744

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain M5HDSG1-1T, was originally isolated from a surface-sterilized root of Taxus chinensis (Pilger) Rehd. in Guizhou, PR China. This bacterium was tested by a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. A 16S rRNA gene-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that M5HDSG1-1T had the greatest similarity to the type strain of Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T (99.1 %). The average nucleotide identity values between M5HDSG1-1T and Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T and Bacillus circulans NBRC 13626T were 73.3 and 72.8 %, respectively. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between M5HDSG1-1T and Bacillus nealsonii DSM 15077T and Bacillus circulans NBRC 13626T were 20.1 and 20.6 %, respectively, which were below the recommended thresholds. M5HDSG1-1T grew at a pH range of 6.0-12.0 (optimum, 7.0-8.0), at temperatures between 10 and 45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1 %). Neither substrate nor aerial mycelia was formed, and no diffusible pigments were observed on the media tested. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, and iso-C15 : 0. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 37.5 mol%. According to the phylogeneic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, M5HDSG1-1T was clearly distinguishable from other species with validly published names in the genus Bacillus and should therefore be classified as representing a novel species, and we suggest the name Bacillus taxi sp. nov. The type strain is M5HDSG1-1T (=JCM 33117T=CGMCC 1.13668T).


Assuntos
Bacillus/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Taxus/microbiologia , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Syst Appl Microbiol ; 43(1): 126025, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704194

RESUMO

The main goal of the study was to determine the structure of endophytic bacteria inhabiting different parts (endosperm, germ, roots, coleoptiles, and leaves) of two wheat species, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. 'Hondia') and Triticum spelta L. (cv. 'Rokosz'), in order to provide new knowledge about the stability and/or changeability of the core microbiome in different plant organs. The endophytic core microbiome is associated with plants throughout their whole life cycle; however, plant organs can determine the actual endophytic community. Therefore, next generation sequencing with MiSeq Illumina technology was applied to identify the endophytic microbiome of T. aestivum and T. spelta. Bioinformatic analyses were performed with the use of the DADA2(1.8) package and R software (3.5.1). It was demonstrated that wheat, which is an important crop plant, was associated with beneficial endophytic bacteria inside the endosperms, germs, roots, leaves, and coleoptiles. Importantly, for the first time, biodiversity was recognized in the coleoptiles of the investigated wheat species. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Janthinobacterium were shown to be common genera for both tested wheat cultivars. Among them, Pseudomonas was found to be the only endophytic genus accompanying both wheat species from the endosperm stage to the development of the leaf. Paenibacillus was recognized as a core genus for the 'Hondia' cv., whereas Pedobacter and Duganella constituted the core microbiome in the 'Rokosz' cv. In addition, the first insight into the unique and yet unrecognized endophytic microbiome of T. spelta is presented.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Triticum/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estruturas Vegetais/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Triticum/genética
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 220-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535966

RESUMO

Strain EAR18T was isolated as an endophyte from the roots of a halophyte plant, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, growing in the Odiel marshes (Huelva, Spain). Cells of strain EAR18T were Gram- stain-negative, motile, non-spore-forming aerobic rods. It grew optimally on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 2.5 % NaCl (w/v), at pH 7 and 30 °C for 48 h. It tolerated NaCl from 0 to 25 % (w/v). It presented Q9 as the major quinone and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 as the predominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and four unidentified phospholipids. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain EAR18T formed a well-supported clade with species Halomonas zincidurans B6T and Halomonas xinjiangensis TRM 0175T (similarities of 98.3 and 96.1 % respectively). Furthermore, digital DNA-DNA hybridization analysis resulted in values of 20.4 % with H. xinjiangensis TRM 0175T and 35.50 % with H. zincidurans B6T, and ANIb/ANIm results in values of 73.8 %/84.2 % with H. xinjiangensis TRM 0175T and 86.8 %/89.4 % with H. zincidurans B6T. Based on phylogeny and differential phenotypic properties in comparison with its closest related species, strain EAR18T is suggested to represent a new species in the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas radicis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EAR18T (=CECT 9077T=LMG 29859T). The whole genome was sequenced, and it had a total length of 4.6 Mbp and a G+C content of 64.9 mol%.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Halomonas/classificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Áreas Alagadas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Halomonas/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 835-840, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710581

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, coccus-shaped, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, designated strain N5BH11T, was isolated from a surface-sterilized sample of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. collected from Guizhou, PR China and tested by a polyphasic approach to determine its taxonomic position. Strain N5BH11T grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 6.0-7.0. Substrate mycelia and aerial mycelia were not formed, and no diffusible pigments were observed on the media tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that strain N5BH11T belonged to the genus Nakamurella and had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Nakamurella flavida DS-52T (98.1 %). The DNA G+C content of strain N5BH11T was 71.6 mol%. The average nucleotide identity values between strain N5BH11T and the type strains of Nakamurella panacisegetis, Nakamurella multipartita and Nakamurella lactea were 74.0, 76.5 and 73.6 %, respectively. The estimated DDH values between strain N5BH11T and the type strains of N. panacisegetis, N. multipartita and N. lactea were 20.3%, 21.4 and 20.2 %, respectively. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and MK-8(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7c. On the basis of the results of phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain N5BH11T represents a novel species of the genus Nakamurella, for which the name Nakamurella flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N5BH11T (=KCTC 49196T=CGMCC 4.7524T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Mentha/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Parede Celular/química , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/química , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(5): 1366-1377, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883416

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Juglomycins isolated from Streptomyces achromogenes E91CS4, an endophyte of Crocus sativus Linn. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extract from E91CS4 displayed significant antimicrobial activity against several pathogens. The endophyte was identified as S. achromogenes on by 16S ribosomal gene analysis. Chemical investigation of the extract led to the isolation of two naphthoquinone antibiotics, Juglomycin A and B. Juglomycin A inhibited several pathogens, with an MIC value of 13·7µg ml-1 , whereas it was most potent against Escherichia coli, Bacillus thuringiensis and Xanthobacter flavus with MIC values of 6·8, 3·4 and 6·8 µg ml-1 respectively. It was found to reduce the biofilm formation in E. coli through inhibition of swimming and swarming motilities and downregulation of fimH gene. The α-haemolysin-related gene (hlyA) was also downregulated indicating that the compound is also reducing the virulence in E. coli. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of this compound. Furthermore, Juglomycin A inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, while also inducing postantibiotic effect in E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: Juglomycin A is a potential antimicrobial compound against several bacterial pathogens, particularly, E. coli. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study showed the promising potential of Juglomycin A as an antimicrobial agent. Efforts should be made to scale up the production of this compound and conduct further studies to explore its efficacy as an antibiotic, using in vivo models.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Crocus/microbiologia , Streptomyces/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/química , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Naftoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Streptomyces/classificação , Streptomyces/genética , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 182, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728757

RESUMO

Endophytes improve the host performance in areas of high plant endemicity. Paullinia cupana is an Amazonia plant species of economic and social importance due to the high caffeine concentration in its seeds. An interesting strategy to identify endophytic microorganisms with potential biotechnological application is to understand the factors that influence the endophytic community to rationalize the host management programs. We used the next-generation sequencing for bacterial 16S rRNA gene to examine how the P. cupana organ, genotype, and geographic location influenced its endophytic bacterial community. We obtained 1520 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distributed in 19 phyla, 32 classes, 79 orders, 114 families and 174 genera. The P. cupana roots and leaves were specifically colonized by the bacterial genera Acidothermus and Porphyromonas, respectively, with high relative frequency. The plant organ type influenced the endophytic community's richness, diversity, OTUs composition, relative abundance of phyla and genera, and genera interaction network. However, the host plant genotype and geographic location influenced the composition and interaction among genera in the network analysis. Prevotella is a super-generalist genus in the interaction network of endophytic bacteria of P. cupana. This study revealed endophytic bacterial groups of importance to P. cupana and stressed that the host plant organ modulates the structure and interactions within this community. Our results indicated that the microbial community adapted to colonize P. cupana by adjusting to its composition and interaction network. The isolation of abundant and super-generalist bacterial genera shall help to examine their functionality to the composition and fitness of the endophytic community of P. cupana.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ecologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Paullinia/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sementes/microbiologia
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 176, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673867

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to clarify effects of soil and climatic conditions on community structure of sweet potato bacterial endophytes by applying locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide-PCR clamping technique and metagenomic analysis. For this purpose, the soil samples in three locations were transferred each other and sweet potato nursery plants from the same farm were cultivated for ca. 3 months. After removal of plastid, mitochondria and undefined sequences, the averaged numbers of retained sequences and operational taxonomic units per sample were 20,891 and 846, respectively. Proteobacteria (85.0%), Bacteroidetes (6.6%) and Actinobacteria (6.3%) were the three most dominant phyla, accounting for 97.9% of the reads, and γ-Proteobacteria (66.3%) being the most abundant. Top 10 genera represented 81.2% of the overall reads in which Pseudomonas (31.9-45.0%) being the most predominant. The overall endophytic bacterial communities were similar among the samples which indicated that the soil and the climatic conditions did not considerably affect the entire endophytic community. The original endophytic bacterial community might be kept during the cultivation period.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Clima , Endófitos/classificação , Ipomoea batatas/microbiologia , Metagenoma , Microbiota , Solo/química , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Endófitos/genética , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3213-3220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602874

RESUMO

A total of 27 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from Huperzia serrata,which were richly distributed in the stems and leaves while less distributed in roots. The 27 strains were identified by Internal Transcribed Spacer( ITS) r DNA molecular method and one of the strains belongs to Basidiomycota phylum,and other 26 stains belong to 26 species,9 general,6 families,5 orders,3 classes of Ascomycota Phylum. The dominant strains were Colletotrichum genus,belonging to Glomerellaceae family,Glomerellales order,Sordariomycetes class,Ascomycota Phylum,with the percentage of 48. 15%. The inhibitory activities of the crude extracts of 27 endophytic fungal strains against acetylcholinesterase( ACh E) and nitric oxide( NO) production were evaluated by Ellman's method and Griess method,respectively. Crude extracts of four fungi exhibited inhibitory activities against ACh E with an IC50 value of 42. 5-62. 4 mg·L~(-1),and some fungi's crude extracts were found to inhibit nitric oxide( NO) production in lipopolysaccharide( LPS)-activated RAW264. 7 macrophage cells with an IC50 value of 2. 2-51. 3 mg·L~(-1),which indicated that these fungi had potential anti-inflammatory activities.The chemical composition of the Et OAc extract of endophytic fungus HS21 was also analyzed by LCMS-IT-TOF. Seventeen compounds including six polyketides,four diphenyl ether derivatives and seven meroterpenoids were putatively identified.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/classificação , Huperzia/microbiologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
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