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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155163

RESUMO

Securinega suffruticosa (Pall.) Rehd is an excellent natural secondary shrub in the Shell Islands of Yellow River Delta. The roots of S. suffruticosa have high medicinal value and are used to treat diseases, such as neurasthenia and infant malnutrition. Any organism that is isolated from this species is of immense interest due to its potential novel bioactive compounds. In this research, the distribution and diversity of culturable endophytic fungi in S. suffruticosa were studied, and the endophytic fungi with antimicrobial activity were screened. A total of 420 endophytic fungi isolates were obtained from the S. suffruticosa grown in Shell Islands, from which 20 genera and 35 species were identified through morphological and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analyses. Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Ceratobasidium were the dominant genera. The high species richness S (42), Margalef index D' (5.6289), Shannon-Wiener index H' (3.1000), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9459), PIE index (0.8670), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8719) and a low dominant index λ (0.0541) indicated the high diversity of endophytic fungi in S. suffruticosa, the various species of endophytic fungi with obvious tissue specificity. The inhibition percentages of the 12 species of such endophytic fungi against Colletotrichum siamense were 3.6%-26.3%. C. globosum, Fusarium sp.3, and C. ramotenellum had a high antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were between 0.5 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. Alkaloid content detection indicated that endophytic fungi had a high alkaloid content, whereas the alkaloid contents of C. globosum and Fusarium sp.3 reached 0.231% and 0.170%, respectively. Members belonging to the endophytic fungal community in the S. suffruticosa of Shell Islands that may be used as antagonists and antibacterial agents for future biotechnology applications were identified for the first time.


Assuntos
Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Securinega/microbiologia , Alcaloides/análise , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Biodiversidade , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Rios
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(3): 47, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144505

RESUMO

Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin (B. bassiana) is an entomopathogenic fungus that establishes endophytic symbiosis with plants. In the present study, the effects of B. bassiana strains colonization in growing Zea mays L. (Z. mays), crop production, and drought tolerance were evaluated. Z. mays seeds were inoculated with B. bassiana strains (GHA, PTG4, and PTG6), using 1 × 106 blastospores/mL and methyl cellulose (MC) or cornstarch (CS) as adherents. Colonization was determined by B. bassiana recovery from plant tissues plated on PDA medium. Plant height, fresh and dry weight, and flowering time were analyzed to assess plant performance. Drought tolerance was evaluated by stopping watering for 10 days, watering again, and determining vigor recovery after 24 h. Results showed 100% endophytic roots colonization, regardless of adherent type or strain tested. Colonization was variable in shoots and leaves, but GHA strain achieved the highest inoculation rates, including 88% in stems and 50% in leaves, which did not depend on adherent type used; for PTG4 strain, adherent type had an important effect (MC = 100% stems and leaves; CS = 63% stems and 25% leaves). For PTG6 strain, the best adherent type was CS (71% stems and 75% leaves), whereas MC showed variable inoculation percentage (25% stems and 75% leaves). Interestingly, only MCPTG4 treatment showed consistent positive effects on germination percentage (day 5 = 46 ± 2%; day 14 = 87 ± 7%) compared with controls (CC = 63 ± 4%, CMC = 50 ± 3%, CCS = 47 ± 0%). In addition, the other treatments showed low germination percentages at day 5 (7 ± 7% to 46 ± 2%), which recovered at day 14 (53 ± 0% to 73 ± 8%), except for MCPTG6 treatment with 23 ± 10% germination. About plant performance, not significant effects on plant height and fresh/dry weight in all the treatments were observed. However, B. bassiana-treated plants, using either GHA, PTG4 or PTG6 strains, and MC as adherent, showed tolerance to drought and flowered one to two weeks earlier, providing evidence supporting further applications of these seed treatments in agricultural systems, for abiotic stress sustainable management practices.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Secas , Endófitos/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia , Simbiose , Zea mays/microbiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040957

RESUMO

Perennial ryegrass is an important feed base for the dairy and livestock industries around the world. It is often infected with mutualistic fungal endophytes that confer protection to the plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Bioassays that test their antibiotic effect on invertebrates are varied and range from excised leaves to whole plants. The aim of this study was to design and validate a "high-throughput" in-planta bioassay using 7-day-old seedlings confined in small cups, allowing for rapid assessments of aphid life history to be made while maintaining high replication and treatment numbers. Antibiosis was evaluated on the foliar and the root aphid species; Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) and Aploneura lentisci (Passerini) feeding on a range of perennial ryegrass-Epichloë festucae var. Lolii endophyte symbiota. As expected, both D. noxia and A. lentisci reared on endophyte-infected plants showed negatively affected life history traits by comparison to non-infected plants. Both species exhibited the highest mortality at the nymphal stage with an average total mortality across all endophyte treatments of 91% and 89% for D. noxia and A. lentisci respectively. Fecundity decreased significantly on all endophyte treatments with an average total reduction of 18% and 16% for D. noxia and A. lentisci respectively by comparison to non-infected plants. Overall, the bioassay proved to be a rapid method of evaluating the insecticidal activity of perennial ryegrass-endophyte symbiota on aphids (nymph mortality could be assessed in as little as 24 and 48 hours for D. noxia and A. lentisci respectively). This rapid and simple approach can be used to benchmark novel grass-endophyte symbiota on a range of aphid species that feed on leaves of plants, however we would caution that it may not be suitable for the assessment of root-feeding aphids, as this species exhibited relatively high mortality on the control as well.


Assuntos
Afídeos/microbiologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Endófitos/fisiologia , Epichloe/fisiologia , Animais , Lolium/microbiologia , Simbiose
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1169-1185, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922733

RESUMO

Epichloë endophytes in forage grasses have attracted widespread attention and interest of chemistry researchers as a result of the various unique chemical structures and interesting biological activities of their secondary metabolites. This review describes the diversity of unique chemical structures of taxa from Epichloë endophytes and grass infected with Epichloë endophytes and demonstrates their reported biological activities. Until now, nearly 160 secondary metabolites (alkaloids, peptides, indole derivatives, pyrimidines, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, phenol and phenolic acid derivatives, aliphatic metabolites, sterols, amines and amides, and others) have been reported from Epichloë endophytes and grass infected with Epichloë endophytes. Among these, non-alkaloids account for half of the population of total metabolites, indicating that they also play an important role in Epichloë endophytes and grass infected with Epichloë endophytes. Also, a diverse array of secondary metabolites isolated from Epichloë endophytes and symbionts is a rich source for developing new pesticides and drugs. Bioassays disclose that, in addition to toxic alkaloids, the other metabolites isolated from Epichloë endophytes and symbionts have notable biological activities, such as antifungal, anti-insect, and phytotoxic activities. Accordingly, the biological functions of non-alkaloids should not be neglected in the future investigation of Epichloë endophytes and symbionts.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Endófitos/química , Epichloe/química , Poaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Endófitos/fisiologia , Epichloe/metabolismo , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gado/metabolismo , Poaceae/fisiologia
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 26, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997078

RESUMO

Salinity stress is one of the key constraints for sustainable crop production. It has gained immense importance in the backdrop of climate change induced imbalanced terrestrial water budgets. The traditional agronomic approaches and breeding salt-tolerant genotypes have often proved insufficient to alleviate salinity stress. Newer approaches like the use of bacterial endophytes associated with agricultural crops have occupied center place recently, owing to their advantageous role in improving crop growth, health and yield. Research evidences have revealed that bacterial endophytes can promote plant growth by accelerating availability of mineral nutrients, helping in production of phytohormones, siderophores, and enzymes, and also by activating systemic resistance against insect pest and pathogens in plants. These research developments have opened an innovative boulevard in agriculture for capitalizing bacterial endophytes, single species or consortium, to enhance plant salt tolerance capabilities, and ultimately lead to translational refinement of crop-production business under salty environments. This article reviews the latest research progress on the identification and functional characterization of salt tolerant endophytic bacteria and illustrates various mechanisms triggered by them for plant growth promotion under saline environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Microbiota , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(3): 814-827, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710757

RESUMO

AIMS: Plant tissues are the reservoirs of beneficial and harmful microbes that regulates plant growth. In the present study, we investigated the diversity, function and colonization of sugarcane roots associated with Bacillus spp. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 20 Bacillus strains were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and their genetic diversity was examined by BOX, ERIC, REP, (GTG)5 PCR techniques. Among all Bacillus isolates, 65% showed indole acetic acid-like compounds production, 50% solubilized phosphorus and 25% of the isolates were able to secrete siderophore. Moreover, all 20 Bacillus isolates showed antifungal activity against eight fungal pathogens and 11 of them (55%) antagonized tomato grey mold. Based on the plant growth-promoting traits and antifungal potential, isolate Y8 was selected for root and plant tissue colonization assays and a greenhouse-level sugarcane growth promotion study. Fluorescence microscopy results confirmed that isolate Y8 has a strong ability to colonize in the sugarcane root and leaves, and the root surface association of Y8 was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, greenhouse experimental results demonstrated that Y8 has a significant effect on enhancing sugarcane biomass and root length. CONCLUSIONS: Endophytic Bacillus strains have growth-promoting properties and anti-fungal ability that can enhance plant fitness in an eco-friendly manner. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Endophytic Bacillus strains would be a potential alternative to chemical fertilizer as well as a biocontrol agent in the future.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/fisiologia , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharum/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Variação Genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sideróforos/metabolismo
7.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(3): 803-813, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705716

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to obtain an antagonistic endophyte against Sclerotium rolfsii from peanut seeds, evaluate the biocontrol efficacy towards peanut stem rot and explore its antifungal mechanism against S. rolfsii. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-seven endophytic bacteria were isolated from peanut seeds, six of which exhibited stronger antagonistic activities against S. rolfsii (inhibition rate, IR of hyphae growth ≥70%). Strain LHSB1, the strongest antagonistic strain, was identified as Bacillus velezensis. LHSB1 showed 93·8% of radial growth inhibition of S. rolfsii hyphae and exhibited obvious antagonistic activity against another six pathogenic fungi of peanut. Pot experiments showed two different LHSB1 treatments both significantly reduced the disease incidence and severity of stem rot (P < 0·05) compared to the controls, and the biocontrol efficacy reached 62·6-70·8%, significantly higher than that of Carbendazim control (P < 0·05). Further analyses revealed LHSB1 culture filtrate significantly inhibited sclerotia formation and germination, caused the abnormalities and membrane integrity damage of S. rolfsii hyphae, which might be the possible mode of action of LHSB1 against S. rolfsii. Three antifungal lipopeptides bacillomycin A, surfactin A and fengycin A, were detected in LHSB1 culture extracts by UPLC-ESI-MS, which could be responsible for the biocontrol activity of LHSB1 against S. rolfsii. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the seed-borne endophytic B. velezensis LHSB1 would be a tremendous potential agent for the biocontrol of peanut stem rot caused by S. rolfsii. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This comprehensive study provides a candidate endophytic biocontrol strain and reveals its antifungal mechanism against S. rolfsi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that seed-borne endophytic B. velezensis was used as the biocontrol agent to control peanut stem rot.


Assuntos
Arachis/microbiologia , Bacillus/fisiologia , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bacillus/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/fisiologia , Germinação , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(2): 283-291, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650197

RESUMO

Metabolic changes occurring in white lupine grain were investigated in response to Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) root inoculation under field condition. We precisely targeted lipids and phenolics changes occurring in white lupine grain in response to Pseudomonas brenneri LJ215 and/or Paenibacillus glycanilyticus LJ121 inoculation. Lipids and phenolic composition were analyzed using an Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Methods. As compared to grain of un-inoculated control plant, Paenibacillus glycaniliticus inoculation highly increased the total lipids content (from 232.55 in seeds of un-inoculated control plant to 944.95 mg/kg) and the relative percentage of several fatty acid such as oleic acid (+20.95%) and linoleic acid (+14.28%) and decreased the relative percentage of glycerophospholipids (- 13.11%), sterol (- 0.2% and - 0.34% for stigmasterol and campesterol, respectively) and prenol (- 17.45%) class. Paenibacillus glycaniliticus inoculation did not affect total phenolic content, while it modulated content of individual phenolic compounds and induced the accumulation of "new" phenolics compounds such as kaempferol. Paenibacillus glycanilyticus LJ121 can be a useful bio-fertilizer to enhance nutritional quality of white lupine grain.


Assuntos
Lupinus/microbiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Paenibacillus/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lupinus/química , Fenóis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/microbiologia
9.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 33(2): 349-363, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609645

RESUMO

Endophytes live inside plants and are often beneficial. Kosakonia is a novel bacterial genus that includes many diazotrophic plant-associated isolates. Plant-bacteria studies on two rice endophytic Kosakonia beneficial strains were performed, including comparative genomics, secretome profiling, in planta tests, and a field release trial. The strains are efficient rhizoplane and root endosphere colonizers and localized in the root cortex. Secretomics revealed 144 putative secreted proteins, including type VI secretory system (T6SS) proteins. A Kosakonia T6SS genomic knock-out mutant showed a significant decrease in rhizoplane and endosphere colonization ability. A field trial using rice seed inoculated with Kosakonia spp. showed no effect on plant growth promotion upon nitrogen stress and microbiome studies revealed that Kosakonia spp. were significantly more present in the inoculated rice. Comparative genomics indicated that several protein domains were enriched in plant-associated Kosakonia spp. This study highlights that Kosakonia is an important, recently classified genus involved in plant-bacteria interaction.


Assuntos
Endófitos , Enterobacteriaceae , Microbiota , Oryza , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI , Endófitos/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Genômica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas , Sementes/microbiologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo
10.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(1): 6, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832888

RESUMO

This study presents an anhydrobiotic engineering approach aiming at conferring a high degree of desiccation tolerance to the Gram-negative endophyte Kosakonia radicincitans. In particular, pre-conditioning of bacteria under high salinities provides a remarkable positive influence on drying survival. The endophytic bacteria accumulate exogenous hydroxyectoine > 500 µmol g-1 dry weight cells exerted by osmotic stress at 4% NaCl. Microfermentation research demonstrated that hydroxyectoine provides positive effects on reducing the lag phase duration and alleviates the dissolved oxygen consumption under high salinity conditions. Beyond the amassing of hydroxyectoine, this work provides evidence supporting the notion that hydroxyectoine can produce significant changes in the endogenous bacterial metabolome during the exponential growth phase at high-osmolarity. Metabolome changes include alterations on tricarboxylic acid cycle, novo-synthesis of specific intracellular metabolites such as mannitol, myo-inositol and trehalose, and fold changes on amino acids such as L-leucine, L-asparagine, L-serine, L-methionine and L-proline. The significant fold change of L-aspartate suggests a potential acidic proteome at high-osmolarity environments, extending the knowledge of salt-stressed bacterial endophytes. Thus, these findings place the metabolic salt stress response and the hydroxyectoine accumulation by K. radicincitans into a physiological context, paving the way into the interaction between cellular phenotype associated with salt stress tolerance and drying survival capacity of Gram-negative endophytes.


Assuntos
Diamino Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/fisiologia , Dessecação , Fermentação , Metaboloma , Concentração Osmolar , Pressão Osmótica , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Trealose/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 580, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dirty panicle disease (DPD) caused by several fungal phytopathogens results in damage and depreciation of rice seeds. Unhealthy rice seeds with DPD are potent reservoirs of pathogens and unable to be used as seed stock as they can spread the disease in the paddy fields leading to the severe loss of rice yield and quality. In this study, we aim to search for beneficial endophytes of commercially cultivated rice plants and utilize them as biostimulants in seed biopriming for fertility recovery and disease suppression of unhealthy rice seeds. RESULTS: Forty-three bacterial endophytes were isolated from rice plants grown in the herbicide-treated paddy fields. Five isolates of these endophytes belonging to the genus Bacillus show excellent antifungal activity against fungal pathogens of DPD. Based on germination tests, biopriming unhealthy rice seeds by soaking in bacterial suspensions for 9 or 12 h was optimal as evidenced by the lowest disease incidence and longer shoot and root lengths of seedlings germinated, compared with controls made of non-treated or hydroprimed healthy and unhealthy seeds. Pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of seed biopriming, in which the percentage of healthy rice yield produced by rice plants emerging from bioprimed seeds was not significantly different, compared to the controls originating respectively from non-treated healthy seeds and chemical fungicide-treated unhealthy seeds. CONCLUSION: Biopriming of unhealthy rice seeds with herbicide-tolerant endophytic bacteria could recover seed fertility and protect the full life cycle of emerging rice plants from fungal pests. With our findings, seed biopriming is a straightforward approach that farmers can apply to recover unhealthy rice seed stock, which enables them to reduce the cost and use of agrochemicals in the commercial production of rice and to promote green technology in sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Endófitos/fisiologia , Resistência a Herbicidas , Oryza/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Oryza/imunologia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reprodução
12.
Science ; 366(6465): 606-612, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672892

RESUMO

Microorganisms living inside plants can promote plant growth and health, but their genomic and functional diversity remain largely elusive. Here, metagenomics and network inference show that fungal infection of plant roots enriched for Chitinophagaceae and Flavobacteriaceae in the root endosphere and for chitinase genes and various unknown biosynthetic gene clusters encoding the production of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs). After strain-level genome reconstruction, a consortium of Chitinophaga and Flavobacterium was designed that consistently suppressed fungal root disease. Site-directed mutagenesis then revealed that a previously unidentified NRPS-PKS gene cluster from Flavobacterium was essential for disease suppression by the endophytic consortium. Our results highlight that endophytic root microbiomes harbor a wealth of as yet unknown functional traits that, in concert, can protect the plant inside out.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Microbiota , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/patogenicidade , Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Bacteroidetes/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Quitinases/genética , Resistência à Doença , Flavobacterium/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenoma , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0223847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703074

RESUMO

Plants harbor diverse bacterial communities, which play crucial roles in plant health and growth, in their rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere. Tomato is an important model for studying plant-microbe interactions, but comparison of its associated bacterial community is still lacking. In this study, using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, we characterized and compared the bacterial size and community from rootzone soil as well as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere of roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds of tomato plants that were grown in greenhouse conditions. Habitat (soil, phyllospheric, and endophytic) structured the community. The bacterial communities from the soil-type samples (rootzone soil and rhizosphere) showed the highest richness and diversity. The lowest bacterial diversity occurred in the phyllospheric samples, while the lowest richness occurred in the endosphere. Among the endophytic samples, both bacterial diversity and richness varied in different tissues, with the highest values in roots. The most abundant phyla in the tomato-associated community was Proteobacteria, with the exception of the seeds and jelly, where both Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant. At the genus level, the sequences of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were prevalent in the rhizosphere, and in the phyllosphere, more than 97% of the sequences were assigned to Acinetobacter. For the endophytes, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pseudomonas were the abundant genera in the roots, stems and leaves. In the fruits, the bacterial endophytes varied in different compartments, with Enterobacter being enriched in the pericarp and seeds, Acinetobacter in the placenta, and Weissella in the jelly. The present data provide a comprehensive description of the tomato-associated bacterial community and will be useful for better understanding plant-microbe interactions and selecting suitable bacterial taxa for tomato production.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 188, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741120

RESUMO

Soil contamination due to cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental problem for which inexpensive remediation alternatives are required. Phytoaccumulation, the use of plants to extract and accumulate heavy metals from the contaminated environment, is such an alternative. In this study, we aimed at establishing effective plant-bacteria interplay between Brachiaria mutica and Cd-resistant endophytic bacteria eventually leading to improved phytoremediation. B. mutica was grown in a Cd-contaminated soil and inoculated with three Cd-tolerant endophytic bacteria individually as well as in combination. Plant physiological parameters, biomass production, bacterial colonization, and Cd-accumulation were observed at four different Cd exposures, i.e., 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg kg-1 of soil. The combined application of endophytic bacteria was more effective as compared to their individual applications at all concentrations. Nevertheless, highest performance of consortium was seen at 100 mg Cd kg-1 of soil, i.e., root length was enhanced by 46%, shoot length by 62%, chlorophyll content by 40%, and dry biomass by 64%; which was reduced with the increase in Cd concentration. The bacterial population was highest in the root interior followed by rhizosphere and shoot interior. Concomitantly, plants inoculated with bacterial consortium displayed more Cd-accumulation in the roots (95%), shoots (55%), and leaves (44%). Higher values of BCFroot (> 1), and lower values for BCFshoot and TF (< 1) indicates capability of B. mutica to accumulate high amounts of Cd in the roots as compared to the aerial parts. The present study concludes that plant-endophyte interplay could be a sustainable and effective strategy for Cd removal from the contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Brachiaria/metabolismo , Brachiaria/microbiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Endófitos/fisiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Brachiaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Brachiaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Metais Pesados , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo
15.
J Plant Res ; 132(6): 777-788, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617040

RESUMO

In general, Glomeromycotina was thought to be the earliest fungi forming mycorrhiza-like structure (MLS) in land plant evolution. In contrast, because the earliest divergent lineage of extant land plants, i.e. Haplomitriopsida liverworts, associates only with Mucoromycotina mycobionts, recent studies suggested that those fungi are novel candidates for the earliest mycobionts. Therefore, Mucoromycotina-Haplomitriopsida association currently attracts attention as an ancient mycorrhiza-like association. However, mycobionts were identified in only 7 of 16 Haplomitriopsida species and the mycobionts diversity of this lineage is largely unclarified. To clarify the taxonomic composition of mycobionts in Haplomitriopsida, we observed MLSs in the rhizome of Haplomitrium mnioides (Haplomitriopsida), the Asian representative Haplomitriopsida species, and conducted molecular identification of mycobionts. It was recorded for the first time that Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina co-occur in Haplomitriopsida as mycobionts. Significantly, the arbuscule-like branching (ALB) of Glomeromycotina was newly described. As the Mucoromycotina fungi forming MLSs in H. mnioides, Endogonaceae and Densosporaceae were detected, in which size differences of hyphal swelling (HS) were found between the fungal families. This study provides a novel evidence in the MLS of Haplomitriopsida, i.e. the existence of Glomeromycotina association as well as the dominant Mucoromycotina association. In addition, since hyphal characteristics of the HS-type MLS were quite similar to those of fine endophytes (FE) of Endogonales in other bryophytes and vascular plants previously described, this MLS is suggested to be included in FE. These results suggest that Glomeromycotina and Mucoromycotina were acquired concurrently as the mycobionts by the earliest land plants evolved into arbuscular mycorrhizae and FE. Therefore, dual association of Haplomitriopsida, with Endogonales and Glomeromycotina will provide us novel insight on how the earliest land plants adapted to terrestrial habitats with fungi.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Hepatófitas/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Simbiose , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Hepatófitas/microbiologia
16.
Plant Dis ; 103(12): 3150-3153, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596689

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that Verticillium isaacii causes diseases of sunflower and potato plants. Two sunflower genotypes and one potato cultivar were inoculated with five V. isaacii isolates and three pathogenic V. dahliae isolates. Biomass, disease expression, and stem colonization were quantified. Overt wilt symptoms were observed on both sunflower genotypes and potato plants inoculated with a subset of the V. isaacii isolates. Biomass of both sunflower genotypes was not affected by V. isaacii infection. Tuber yields either decreased in response to infection by one V. isaacii isolate or were not affected by infection. Stems of sunflower and potato plants were infected by at least four of the five V. isaacii isolates. A new disease of sunflower and potato is documented. Evidence that V. isaacii exhibits different lifestyles including pathogenicity and endophytism is presented. Finally, this research documents variation in fungal lifestyles that can exist in samples from a single field.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Solanum tuberosum , Verticillium , Endófitos/fisiologia , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genótipo , Helianthus/microbiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Verticillium/genética , Verticillium/fisiologia , Washington
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 441, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-endophyte symbioses often revolve around nitrogen metabolism, and involve varying degrees of intimacy. Although evidence for vertical inheritance of nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria is increasing, it is confined mostly to crop plants, and to date no such system has been reported for geophytes. METHODS: Bacterial endophytes associated with Oxalis, the most species-rich geophytic genus form the Cape Flora in southern Africa was studied. Culturable endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized vegetative and reproductive plant organs for six host species at three locations. Colonies of microbes on various artificial media were morphotyped, enumerated and identified using sequence data. Filter exclusion experiments were conducted to determine if endophytes were vertically transmitted to seeds, determine if mucilage plays a role to actively attract microbes from the soil and to assess microbial richness isolated from the mucilage of Oxalis seedlings. Fluorescent microscopy was implemented in order to visualize endophytic bacteria in cryo-sectioned seeds. RESULTS: Evidence for a novel, vertically transmitted symbiosis was reported. Communities of nitrogen-fixing and plant growth-promoting Bacillus endophytes were found to associate with selected Oxalis hosts from nitrogen-deficient environments of the Cape. Bacillus endophytes were ubiquitous and diverse across species and plant bodies, and were prominent in seeds. Three common nitrogen-fixing Bacillus have known oxalotrophic properties and appear to be housed inside specialised cavities (containing oxalates) within the plant body and seeds. CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of vertical transmission and potential benefits to both host and endophyte suggest a particularly tight mutualism in the Oxalis-endophyte system. This discovery suggests unexpected ways in which geophytes might avoid nitrogen deficiency, and suggest that such symbioses are more common than previously expected.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Bactérias Fixadoras de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Oxalidaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose , Fixação de Nitrogênio
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 58-69, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519258

RESUMO

Microbial antagonists and their bioactive metabolites provide one of the best alternatives to chemical pesticides to control crop disease for sustainable agriculture and global food security. The rice endophyte Streptomyces hygroscopicus OsiSh-2, with remarkable antagonistic activity towards the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, was reported in our previous study. The present study deciphered the possible direct interaction mode of OsiSh-2 against M. oryzae. An in vitro antibiotic assay for OsiSh-2 culture filtrate revealed strong suppression of mycelial growth, conidial germination and appressorial formation of M. oryzae. Meanwhile, severe morphological and internal abnormalities in M. oryzae hyphae were observed under a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Foliar treatment of rice seedlings by OsiSh-2 culture filtrate in the greenhouse and in the field showed 23.5% and 28.3% disease reduction, respectively. Correspondingly, OsiSh-2 culture filtrate could induce disorganized chitin deposition in the cell wall and lowered ergosterol content in the cell membrane of M. oryzae. Additionally, cell wall integrity pathway activation, large cell electrolytes release, reactive oxygen species accumulation and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related enzyme activity changes were found in M. oryzae. All these results suggested that the direct antagonistic activity of OsiSh-2 against M. oryzae may be attributed to damaging the integrity of the cell wall and membrane and disrupting mitochondrial function in the pathogen.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Endófitos/fisiologia , Magnaporthe/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Streptomyces/química
19.
Microbiol Res ; 229: 126328, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521946

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria-based biocontrol is regarded as a potential plant disease management strategy. Present study analyzed the diversity of mulberry endophytic bacteria basing on a culture-dependent approach and further evaluated their antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting (PGP) activities. A total of 608 cultivable endophytic bacteria, belonging to 4 phyla and 36 genera, were isolated from four mulberry cultivars having different resistance to sclerotiniosis in three seasons. Taxonomic compositional analysis results showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the three dominant bacterial phyla in all communities, with the representative genera Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Curtobacterium, and Sphingomonas. Diversity analysis results indicated that the diversity of winter community was higher than that of spring or autumn, and higher diversities were detected in the resistant cultivar communities compared with the susceptible cultivar. Antagonism assays results showed that 33 isolates exhibited strong and stable activity against three phytopathogens which are Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioide. Eight endophytic bacteria were selected out from 33 antagonists based on the evaluation of antagonistic and PGP activities. Furthermore, pot experiment results revealed that all the 8 tested endophytes stimulated the growth of mulberry seedlings at different levels, and Bacillus sp. CW16-5 exhibited the highest promotion capacity, which the shoot length and the root fresh weight were increased by 83.37% and 217.70%, respectively. Altogether, present study revealed that mulberry harbors a large amount of diverse cultivable endophytic bacteria and they also serve as novel sources of beneficial bacteria and bioactive metabolites.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Morus/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Botrytis/fisiologia , Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/fisiologia , Morus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(11): 1777-1789, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546292

RESUMO

Drought is more concerned to be a huge problem for agriculture as it affects plant growth and yield. Endophytic bacteria act as plant growth promoting bacteria that have roles for improving plant growth under stress conditions. The properties of four strains of endophytic bacteria were determined under water deficit medium with 20% polyethylene glycol. Bacillus aquimaris strain 3.13 showed high 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production; Micrococcus luteus strain 4.43 produced indole acetic acid (IAA). Exopolysaccharide production was high in Bacillus methylotrophicus strain 5.18 while Bacillus sp. strain 5.2 did not show major properties for drought response. Inoculation of endophytic bacteria into plants, strain 3.13 and 4.43 increased height, shoot and root weight, root length, root diameter, root volume, root area and root surface of Jerusalem artichoke grown under water limitation, clearly shown in water supply at 1/3 of available water. These increases were caused by bacteria ACC deaminase and IAA production; moreover, strain 4.43 boosted leaf area and chlorophyll levels, leading to increased photosynthesis under drought at 60 days of planting. The harvest index was high in the treatment with strain 4.43 and 3.13 under 1/3 of available water, promoting tuber numbers and tuber weight. Inulin content was unchanged in the control between well-watered and drought conditions. In comparison, inulin levels were higher in the endophytic bacteria treatment under both conditions, although yields dipped under drought. Thus, the endophytic bacteria promoted in plant growth and yield under drought; they had outstanding function in the enhancement of inulin content under wellwatered condition.


Assuntos
Secas , Endófitos/fisiologia , Helianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Helianthus/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus/fisiologia , Biomassa , Carbono-Carbono Liases/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Micrococcus luteus/metabolismo , Micrococcus luteus/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo
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