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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10685-10693, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479251

RESUMO

Theanine is the most abundant non-protein amino acid in Camellia sinensis, but it is not known how a tea plant accumulates such high levels of theanine. The endophyte isolated from in vitro grown plantlets of C. sinensis cultivars was identified as Luteibacter spp., showing strong biocatalytic activity for converting both glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Theanine was secreted outside of the bacteria. The endophyte isolated from in vitro plantlets of Camellia oleifera cultivar was identified as Bacillus safensis and did not convert glutamine and ethylamine to theanine. Enzymatic assays in vitro indicated that γ-glutamyltranspeptidases rCsEGGTs from the endophyte Luteibacter strains converted glutamine and ethylamine to theanine at higher rates than rCsGGTs from C. sinensis. This is the first report on theanine biosynthesis by an endophyte from C. sinensis, which provides a new pathway to explore the mechanism of theanine biosynthesis in C. sinensis and the interactions between an endophyte and tea plants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/classificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Etilaminas/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10646-10652, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479255

RESUMO

A new monosesquiterpene diacetylgliocladic acid (1), a new dimeric sesquiterpene divirensol H (9), and two exceptionally novel trimeric sesquiterpene trivirensols A and B (11 and 12), together with another eight known congeners, were purified from an endophytic fungus Trichoderma virens FY06, derived from Litchi chinensis Sonn. whose fruit is a delicious and popular food. All of them were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, combined with biosynthetic considerations. Trivirensols A and B are unprecedented trimers of which three subunits are connected by two ester bonds of the sesquiterpene class. Relative to the positive control triadimefon, all the tested metabolites showed strong inhibitory activities against at least one phytopathogenic fungus among Penicillium italicum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum, Colletotrichum musae, and Colletotrictum gloeosporioides. Notably, as metabolites of the endophytic fungus from L. chinensis, they all presented strong antifungal activities against C. gloeosporioides which causes anthracnose in L. chinensis.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Litchi/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Trichoderma/química , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/química , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10660-10666, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479263

RESUMO

Two new indolyl diketopiperazines, gartryprostatins A and B (1 and 2), with an unusual 2,3-furan-fused pyrano[2,3-g]pyrrolo[1″,2″:4',5']pyrazino[1',2':1,5]pyrrolo[2,3-b]indole nucleus, along with a new naturally occurring compound (gartryprostatin C, 3) were isolated from the solid culture of Aspergillus sp. GZWMJZ-258, an endophyte from Garcinia multiflora (Guttiferae). The structures of compounds 1-3 were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, Marfey's analysis of amino acids, and chemical calculation. Compounds 1-3 displayed selective inhibition on human FLT3-ITD mutant AML cell line, MV4-11, with IC50 values of 7.2, 10.0, and 0.22 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/química , Dicetopiperazinas/farmacologia , Endófitos/química , Garcinia/microbiologia , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicetopiperazinas/química , Dicetopiperazinas/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular
4.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126299, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422231

RESUMO

Wastewaters from textile dyeing industries represent an ecological concern, notably due to the known toxicity of azo dyes to the local microbiome and human health. Although physicochemical approaches are the rule for the treatment of industrial effluents, biological strategies such as enzyme-mediated dye destaining is a promising alternative. Notwithstanding a broad range of microorganisms, including fungi, algae, yeast, and bacteria, display dye-destaining properties, most of the literature has focused in ligninolytic fungi, leaving other classes of organisms somehow ignored. In this study, six endophytic strains isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia were studied for their destaining activity. The phylogenetic and morphological analysis allowed the identification of strain LGMF1504 as Neopestalotiopsis sp. LGMF1504 that decolorized several commercial dyes as the result of a mycelium-associated laccase. The enzyme expression was modulated by carbon and nitrogen content in the culture medium, it was weakly affected by the presence of aromatic compounds and metal ions while some common laccase mediators improved the destaining activity onto dye substrates. The best culture condition observed for laccase activity was a basic culture medium containing 5 g L-1 starch and 15 g L-1 ammonium tartrate. The laccase activity showed low substrate specificity and almost unaltered performance in a wide range of pH values and NaCl concentrations, suggesting the potential of Neopestalotiopsis sp. LGMF1504 for biodegradation approaches.


Assuntos
Corantes/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Micélio/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono , Corantes/toxicidade , DNA Fúngico , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metais , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Indústria Têxtil , Águas Residuárias
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8493-8499, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310523

RESUMO

The ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3 induce tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and restrain tumor invasion and metastasis. Despite Rh2 and Rg3 having versatile pharmacological activities, contents of them in natural ginseng are extremely low. To produce ginsenosides Rh2 and Rg3, the saponin-producing capacity of endophytic bacteria isolated from Panax ginseng was investigated. In this work, 81 endophytic bacteria isolates were taken from ginseng roots by tissue separation methods. Among them, strain PDA-2 showed the highest capacity to produce the rare ginsenosides; the concentrations of rare ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 reached 62.20 and 18.60 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, it was found that strain PDA-2 belongs to the genus Agrobacterium and was very close to Agrobacterium rhizogenes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/biossíntese , Panax/microbiologia , Agrobacterium/classificação , Agrobacterium/genética , Agrobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2046-2050, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355559

RESUMO

The endophytic fungi from root,main stem,branch and leaf of Scrophularia ningpoensis were isolated from Zhejiang,whether these strains could yield harpagide or harpagoside were tested by HPLC and LC-MS. According to the morphological characteristic and the similarity of the nucleotide sequence of internal transcribed spacer( ITS) between r DNAs,the strains producing harpagide or harpagoside were identified. The results showed that 210 strains were isolated from the samples,which were classified into 9 orders,13 families and 17 genera by morphological study. Harpagide was detected in endogenous fungi ZJ17 and harpagoside was detected in endogenous fungi ZJ25 by HPLC coupled with LC-MS. ZJ17 was identified as Alternaria alternate and ZJ25 was identified as A.gaisen by its morphology and authenticated by ITS( ITS4 and ITS5 regions and the intervening 5. 8 S rDNA region).


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Glicosídeos/biossíntese , Glicosídeos Iridoides/metabolismo , Piranos/metabolismo , Scrophularia/microbiologia , China , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo
7.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 872-881, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349196

RESUMO

Plant-endophyte synergism has been demonstrated to play a key role in the phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil. Phytoalexins, a type of chemical component in the plant apoplast, can be produced by plants in response to stimulation by endophytes. Phytoalexins may have distinct effects on the nutritional and metabolic functions of endophytes; however, direct evidence is not available to prove the effect of phytoalexins on the hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC)-degradation activity of endophytes. In this paper, three different types of phytoalexins, coumarin, resveratrol and rutin, were selected to study their effect on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by an endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens C1. The effects of the three phytoalexins on bacterial sorption and intracellular enzymatic activities were tested to further analyze the mechanism by which the phytoalexins affect the PAH degradation performance of M. extorquens C1. The results showed that the removal rate of PAHs by M. extorquens C1 increased in the presence of low levels of the three phytoalexins. The most effective concentrations of coumarin, resveratrol and rutin were 0.20, 0.15, and 0.25 mg/L, respectively, and the removal rate of PAHs was increased by approximately 18.3-35.0%. At the optimal concentrations, the three phytoalexins significantly promoted the sorption of PAHs by M. extorquens C1, and also enhanced the activities of catechol dioxygenases and dehydrogenase of M. extorquens C1. The positive effect of phytoalexins on both bacterial sorption and intracellular enzymatic activities promotes the overall removal of PAHs from endophytes. These results may deepen our understanding of plant-microbe cooperative mechanisms in the degradation of organic pollutants and provide a new approach for chemically enhanced bioremediation in the future.


Assuntos
Endófitos/metabolismo , Lolium/microbiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Lolium/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Sesquiterpenos , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109382, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255867

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have become a threat for the conservation of wetlands worldwide. The halophyte Spartina densiflora has shown to be potentially useful for soil phenanthrene phytoremediation, but no studies on bacteria-assisted hydrocarbon phytoremediation have been carried out with this halophyte. In this work, three phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacteria were isolated from S. densiflora tissues and used for plant inoculation. Bacterial bioaugmentation treatments slightly improved S. densiflora growth, photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters. But endophyte-inoculated S. densiflora showed lower soil phenanthrene dissipation rates than non-inoculated S. densiflora (30% below) or even bulk soil (23% less). Our work demonstrates that endophytic inoculation on S. densiflora under greenhouse conditions with the selected PAH-degrading strains did not significantly increase inherent phenanthrene soil dissipation capacity of the halophyte. It would therefore be advisable to provide effective follow-up of bacterial colonization, survival and metabolic activity during phenanthrene soil phytoremediation.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/análise , Poaceae/metabolismo , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Poaceae/microbiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Áreas Alagadas
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(8): 693-701, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271109

RESUMO

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the primary PAEs (phthalate acid esters) pollutants. DBP can be absorbed by plants and threaten human health via the food chain. Some DBP-degrading bacteria have been successfully isolated from the environment (water, soil, etc.). However, only a few DBP-degrading plant endophytes have been isolated. In this study, an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. strain JR20, which was found capable of degrading DBP, was isolated from garlic chive. We found that strain JR20 metabolized 89.74% of DBP at a 5 mg/L concentration within 4 d in liquid mineral salts medium (MSM). The optimized conditions for maximum removal of DBP were as follows: DBP concentration, 5 mg/L; pH, 7-8; temperature, 30-40 °C. The colonization of strain JR20 significantly improved the degradation rate of DBP in the roots, stems and leaves of leafy vegetables.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Cebolinha-Francesa/microbiologia , Dibutilftalato/metabolismo , Verduras/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/genética , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 316-334, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347943

RESUMO

In the development of medicinally important Orchidaceae, the extent of fungal endophytes specificity is not presently very clear. Limited study has been available on natural products formed and its role on plant growth, defence mechanism by endophytes, and to characterize the chief treasure of bioactive molecules. Therefore, this review article presents an evaluation of the endophytes associated with Orchidaceae for physiology, metabolism, and genomics which have prominently contributed to the resurgence of novel metabolite research increasing our considerate of multifaceted mechanisms regulatory appearance of biosynthetic gene groups encoding diverse metabolites. Additionally, we presented the comprehensive recent development of bio-strategies for the cultivation of endophytes from Orchidaceae and integration of bioengineered 'Genomics with metabolism' approaches with emphases collective omics as powerful approach to discover novel metabolite compounds. The Orchidaceae-fungal endophytes' biodynamics for sustainable development of bioproducts and its applications are supported in large-scale biosynthesis of industrially and pharmaceutical important biomolecules.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5899-5909, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most allelochemicals are secondary products released from root excretions or plant residues that accumulate in continuous cropping systems and cause severe decline in peanut yield. Resveratrol is a plant-derived stilbene that is released from peanut residues and accumulates in the soil; however, its allelopathic effects on peanut production are overlooked. Effective management solutions need to be developed to relieve allelopathy caused by soil resveratrol. Here, the biodegradation of resveratrol by the fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari was investigated in a mineral salt medium and a soil trial. Resveratrol and its metabolites (produced by degradation by P. liquidambari) were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). RESULTS: Resveratrol released from peanut residues reached a maximum concentration of 0.18 µg g-1 soil in litterbag experiments. Exogenous resveratrol inhibited peanut growth, nodule formation, and soil dehydrogenase activity, and reduced the soil microbial biomass carbon content and bacterial abundance, indicating an allelopathic role in peanut growth. More than 97% of the resveratrol was degraded within 72 and 168 h by P. liquidambari in pure culture and soil conditions, respectively. Resveratrol was first cleaved to 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, which were subsequently oxidized into 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively. Fungal resveratrol cleavage oxygenase and the related gene expression were enhanced when P. liquidambari was induced by the resveratrol during the incubation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the practical application of the fungal endophyte P. liquidambari has strong potential for biodegrading soil resveratrol, which can cause allelopathy in peanut continuous cropping systems. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Feromônios/metabolismo , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Arachis/metabolismo , Arachis/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Feromônios/análise , Feromônios/farmacologia , Resveratrol/análise , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(9): 1066-1072, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243536

RESUMO

Seven endophytic yeast strains were isolated from tangerine peel (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and genotyped through clustering with D1/D2 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences from GenBank. Phenotypic characteristics were obtained through commercial kits and through assisted species identification. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by the yeast strains was assessed using Salkowski reagent and High-Performance Liquid chromatography (HPLC). The growth-promoting effects of the yeast were evaluated using the 'ragdoll' method. CRYb1, CRYb2 and CRYb7 isolates were identified as the closest species Hanseniaspora opuntiae. CRYb3 was identified as Pichia kluyveri. CRYb4, CRYb5 and CRYb6 were identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii. CRYb1, CRYb5, CRYb6 and CRYb7 were found to be capable of IAA production. The most promising yeast strains now require further evaluation for their ability to promote plant growth in vitro and in vivo. These data increase our knowledge of the distribution and biological properties of endophytic yeast. This is important information that will be required to fully harness the growth-promoting properties of yeast strains.


Assuntos
Citrus/microbiologia , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/microbiologia , Pichia/isolamento & purificação , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Pichia/classificação , Pichia/genética , Pichia/metabolismo
13.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 102, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of traditional Chinese medicine stimulates the prosperous development of herb medicines, but the annual generation of massive herb residues becomes big issues about environmental pollution and waste of resources. Microbes play important roles in the circulation of substances in nature, and endophytes represent an underexplored microbial resource possessing the unique symbiotic relationship with plants, not only for discovery of secondary metabolites, but also for potential green recycling of herb residues. RESULTS: The recycling capacities of several endophytic strains were respectively evaluated via solid state fermentation with herb residues of commercial Huazhenghuisheng oral-liquid (HOL). Among them, Aspergillus cristatus CB10002, a probiotic fungus isolated from Chinese Fu-brick tea, was competent to recycle HOL residues for the production of medicinal valuable anthraquinones, in which four of them, especially citreorosein with significant anti-obesity activity, were first discovered in A. cristatus. Subsequent quantitative analysis showed that about 2.0 mg/g citreorosein and 7.5 mg/g total anthraquinones could be obtained after 35-day fermentation, which was very competitive and economically beneficial. Further nutritional comparisons also revealed that the recycling process indeed ameliorated the nutrients of HOL residues, and thus proposed a possibility to directly dispose the final leftovers as a compost organic fertilizer. CONCLUSIONS: The endophytic and probiotic fungus A. cristatus CB10002 isolated from Chinese Fu-brick tea was screened out to effectively reutilize HOL residues for the production of nine medicinal valuable anthraquinones, whose biosynthesis may be regulated by the induction of HOL residues. The competitive yields of these anthraquinones, as well as the certain composting properties of final leftovers, have made the microbial recycling of HOL residues economically beneficial. Our work demonstrated a promising applied potential of A. cristatus in reutilization of herb residues, and provided a practical strategy for sustainable and value-added microbial recycling of herb residues.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fermentação
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(7): 904-908, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104137

RESUMO

In the present study, nine compounds (1-9) were isolated from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (an endophytic fungus from Uncaria rhynchophylla) which was cultured in wheat bran medium. Their structures were elucidated as 4-Epi-14-hydroxy-10, 23-dihydro-24, 25-dehydroaflavinine (1), 10, 23-Dihydro-24,25 -dehydro-21-oxoaflavinine (2), Ergosterol (3), Ergosterol peroxide (4), Mellein (5), 4, 5-dihydroblumenol A (6), Colletotrichine A (7), Cyclo(L-leucyl-L-leucyl) (8), and Brevianamide F (9) based on NMR spectral data, as well as comparing with previous literature data. This is the first report about the isolation of compounds 1-2, 6, and 8-9 from Colletotrichum genus. All compounds were tested for their phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kα) inhibitory activity. Compounds 8 and 9 showed potent PI3K α inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 38.1 and 4.8 µM, respectively, while the other compounds showed very weak activity at a concentration of 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Uncaria/enzimologia , Uncaria/microbiologia , Colletotrichum/química , Endófitos/química , Endófitos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Metabolismo Secundário
15.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 725-731, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124044

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-positive, motile and short-rod-shaped actinobacterium designated 9W16Y-2T was isolated from surface-sterilized leaves of reed (Phragmites australis) collected from Taklamakan Desert in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Colonies were pale greenish yellow, circular, smooth, and convex. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 9W16Y-2T exhibited highest sequence similarities with Aeromicrobium camelliae CGMCC 1.12942T (99.0%) and Aeromicrobium erythreum NRRL B-3381T (97.2%). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and single-copy phylogenetic marker genes (pMGs) showed that strain 9W16Y-2T belonged to the genus Aeromicrobium and formed a monophyletic clade with Aeromicrobium camelliae CGMCC 1.12942T. Furthermore, average nucleotide identity (ANI) and DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) clearly separated strain 9W16Y-2T from the other species of the genus Aeromicrobium with values below the thresholds for species delineation. The G+C content of the genomic DNA is 68.9 mol%. The diagnostic diamino acid of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H4). The major fatty acids (> 10% of the total fatty acids) were C18:0 10-methyl (TBSA) (28.2%), C16:0 (21.0%), C16:0 2-OH (20.8%) and C18:1ω9c (12.8%). The polar lipid profile comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, an unidentified aminophospholipid and an unidentified lipid. Based on the phylogenic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic features, strain 9W16Y-2T represents a novel species of the genus Aeromicrobium, for which the name Aeromicrobium endophyticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9W16Y-2T (= CGMCC 1.13876T = JCM 33141T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Poaceae/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/química , Peptidoglicano/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21109-21126, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134537

RESUMO

Post-industrial era has witnessed significant advancements at unprecedented rates in the field of medicine and cosmetics, which has led to affluent use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, this has exacerbated the influx of various pollutants in the environment affecting living organisms through multiple routes. Thousands of PPCPs of various classes-prescription and non-prescription drugs-are discharged directly into the environment. In this review, we have surveyed literature investigating plant-based remediation practices to remove PPCPs from the environment. Our specific aim is to highlight the importance of plant-bacteria interplay for sustainable remediation of PPCPs. The green technologies not only are successfully curbing organic pollutants but also have displayed certain limitations. For example, the presence of biologically active compounds within plant rhizosphere may affect plant growth and hence compromise the phytoremediation potential of constructed wetlands. To overcome these hindrances, combined use of plants and beneficial bacteria has been employed. The microbes (both rhizo- and endophytes) in this type of system not only degrade PPCPs directly but also accelerate plant growth by producing growth-promoting enzymes and hence remediation potential of constructed wetlands.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cosméticos/análise , Endófitos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Microbiologia da Água
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 74, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053977

RESUMO

In the present study, an endophytic fungal strain was isolated from its non-Taxus host plant Terminalia arjuna and identified as Alternaria brassicicola based on its morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. This fungus was grown in potato dextrose broth and analyzed for the presence of taxol by using chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. The ethyl acetate extract of A.brassicicola was subjected to column chromatography. Among the different fractions, the fraction 7 showed positive to taxol, which was further confirmed by UV absorption, HPLC, FTIR spectra and LC-ESI-MS by comparing with the authentic taxol (Paclitaxel). The peaks of fraction 7 obtained by UV spectroscopy, FTIR and HPLC analysis were quite similar to that of standard taxol confirming the presence of taxol. A parent ion peak of m/z 854.95 was observed in the LC-ESI-MS spectrum which was similar to paclitaxel with reported m/z of 854 [M+H]+ ion. A. brassicicola produced about 140.8 µg/l taxol as quantified through HPLC. Present study results suggest that the endophytic fungus A.brassicicola serves as a potential source for the production of taxol isolated from non-Taxus plant.


Assuntos
Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Alternaria/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/química , Paclitaxel/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia , Terminalia/microbiologia , Alternaria/classificação , Cromatografia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 69, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011888

RESUMO

The filamentous Bipolaris and Curvularia genera consist of species known to cause severe diseases in plants and animals amounting to an estimated annual loss of USD $10 billion worldwide. Despite the harmful effect of Bipolaris and Curvularia species, scarce attention is paid on beneficial areas where the fungi are used in industrial processes to generate biotechnological products. Catalytic potential of Bipolaris and Curvularia species in the production of biodiesel, bioflucculant, biosorbent, and mycoherbicide are promising for the bioeconomy. It is herein demonstrated that knowledge-based application of some endophytic Bipolaris and Curvularia species are indispensable vectors of sustainable economic development. In the twenty-first century, India, China, and the USA have taken progress in the biotechnological application of these fungi to generate wealth. As such, some Bipolaris and Curvularia species significantly impact on global crop improvement, act as catalyst in batch-reactors for biosynthesis of industrial enzymes and medicines, bioengineer of green-nanoparticle, agent of biofertilizer, bioremediation and bio-hydrometallurgy. For the first time, this study discusses the current advances in biotechnological application of Bipolaris and Curvularia species and provide new insights into the prospects of optimizing their bioengineering potential for developing bioeconomy.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Bioengenharia , Biotecnologia , Endófitos , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/enzimologia , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biocombustíveis , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Biotransformação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/enzimologia , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Floculação , Micovírus , Herbicidas , Metalurgia , Nanopartículas , Solo/química , Simbiose , Termotolerância , Urânio
19.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(2): 481-494, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877665

RESUMO

Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR), caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), is a soilborne tomato disease of increased importance worldwide. In this study, Withania somnifera was used as a potential source of biological control and growth-promoting agents. Seven fungal isolates naturally associated with W. somnifera were able to colonize tomato seedlings. They were applied as conidial suspensions or a cell-free culture filtrate. All isolates enhanced treated tomato growth parameters by 21.5-90.3% over FORL-free control and by 27.6-93.5% over pathogen-inoculated control. All tested isolates significantly decreased by 28.5-86.4% disease severity over FORL-inoculated control. The highest disease suppression, by 86.4-92.8% over control and by 81.3-88.8% over hymexazol-treated control, was achieved by the I6 isolate. FORL radial growth was suppressed by 58.5-82.3% versus control when dual cultured with tested isolates and by 61.8-83.2% using their cell-free culture filtrates. The most active agent was identified as Fusarium sp. I6 (MG835371), which displayed chitinolytic, proteolytic, and amylase activities. This has been the first report on the potential use of fungi naturally associated with W. somnifera for FCRR suppression and for tomato growth promotion. Further investigations are required in regard to mechanisms of action involved in disease suppression and plant growth promotion.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Withania/microbiologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Proteólise
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213016, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865683

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate role of zeolite and Enterobacter sp. MN17 on Cd uptake, growth, physiological and biochemical responses of Brassica napus on Cd-contaminated soil. A sandy clay loam soil in plastic pots was spiked with Cd (0 and 80 mg kg-1) and amended with zeolite (0 and 10 g kg-1). Seeds of B. napus were inoculated with Enterobacter sp. MN17. Both inoculated and non-inoculated seeds of B. napus were sown and plants were harvested after 60 days of growth and data were collected. Although sole application of zeolite and seed inoculation reverted adverse effects of Cd in B. napus plants, the combined use resulted in even higher growth and physiological responses compared to control plants. The combined use under Cd stress increased plant height, root length, dry biomass of shoot and root up to 32%, 57%, 42% and 64%, respectively compared to control. The different physiological attributes (photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance) of B. napus were improved from 6% to 137%. Moreover, combined use of zeolite and seed inoculation on Cd-contaminated soil reduced the stress to plants as antioxidant activities decreased up to 25-64%, however enzyme activities were still higher than plants grown on normal soil. Root and shoot analysis of B. napus for Cd content depicted that zeolite and bacterium decreased Cd uptake from soil. It is concluded that combined use of zeolite and strain MN17 reduces Cd uptake from soil and improves physiological and biochemical responses of B. napus which is helpful to alleviate Cd toxicity to plants.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Zeolitas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Cádmio/metabolismo , Endófitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endófitos/metabolismo , Enterobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
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