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1.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 27(1): 97-106, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825735

RESUMO

Surgical revascularization of the carotid basin in the acutest period of ischaemic stroke, i.e., within 72 hours, will make it possible to prevent the development of recurrent stroke by removing an embologenically dangerous atherosclerotic plaque of the symptomatic carotid artery and to improve cerebral blood supply, having eliminated haemodynamic stenosis of the carotid artery. However, the problem of safety of carotid endarterectomy in patients during the acutest period of ischaemic stroke still remains debatable. PURPOSE: To comparatively analyse safety of eversion carotid endarterectomy performed in the acutest (0-72 hours) and acute (4-14 days) periods of minor ischaemic stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2015 and December 2019, specialists of the Department of Vascular Surgery of Municipal Clinical Hospital # 7 of Kazan performed a total of 80 eversion carotid reconstructions in the period of minor ischaemic stroke within 14 days. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the terms of performing carotid endarterectomy. The first group comprised 32 (40.0%) patients operated on in the acutest period of ischaemic stroke, i.e., within 72 hours from the onset of first symptoms of neurological deficit. The second group included 48 (60.0%) patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy within 4 to 14 days from the onset of first signs of neurological deficit. RESULTS: According to the obtained findings, haemorrhagic transformation in the early postoperative period occured in 2 Group Two patients, with one lethal outcome on POD 3. Cerebral ischaemia increased in one patient of each group without enlargement of the ischaemic zone according to brain computed tomography, with residual neurological deficit in Group I in remote period (Rankin scale score 1) and complete restoration in Group II (Rankin scale score 0). Recurrent minor ischaemic stroke on POD 1 developed in Group II with formation of a new lacunar region of ischaemia of the brain in the operated carotid basin and was verified by the findings of cerebral MRI with persisting neurological deficit for 6 months (Rankin scale score 2). The comparative assessment of severity of stroke on the day of operation and at discharge, as well as that of neurological symptomatology during the 1st and 6th months of follow up in both groups proved positive. No events of acute coronary syndrome, recurrent strokes or lethal outcomes were observed during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: According to the findings of our study, patients with acute cerebral circulation impairment caused by embologenically dangerous lesions of internal carotid arteries should be operated on within the first 72 hours, if there are no accompanying changes requiring time for correction thereof.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037885, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616666

RESUMO

Importance: Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) may serve as a safer alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for certain patients with carotid artery stenosis. Objective: To determine the center-level association of TCAR adoption with overall perioperative outcomes for TCAR and CEA combined at centers performing both procedures. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative-effectiveness research was conducted with a difference-in-difference analysis using retrospective data from 2015 to 2019 from the Vascular Quality Initiative registry, a consortium of more than 400 centers in North America. Included patients underwent TCAR or CEA for carotid artery stenosis. Patients who underwent transfemoral carotid stenting were excluded. Data were analyzed from December 2019 through August 2020. Exposures: Center-level adoption of TCAR vs not. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rate of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of in-hospital stroke, myocardial infarction, or death at 30 days, was measured. Results: Among 86 027 patients who underwent revascularization for carotid artery stenosis, 7664 patients (8.9%) underwent TCAR (mean [SD] age, 73.1 [9.6] years; 2788 [36.4%] women; 6938 White patients [90.6%]; and 3741 patients with symptoms [48.8%]) and 78 363 patients (91.1%) underwent CEA (mean [SD] age, 70.6 [9.2] years; 30 928 [39.5%] women; 70 663 White patients [90.2%]; and 37 883 patients with symptoms [48.3%]). The number of centers performing both TCAR and CEA increased from 15 centers in 2015 to 247 centers in 2019, a more than 16-fold increase. The proportion of all carotid procedures that were TCARs increased from 90 of 12 276 (0.7%) in 2015 to 2718 of 15 956 (17.0%) in 2019, a 24-fold increase. Overall, the crude rate of MACE was similar for TCAR and CEA (178 patients [2.3%] after TCAR vs 1842 patients [2.4%] after CEA; P = .91). However, the rate of MACE over time decreased for CEA (406 of 16 404 patients [2.5%] in 2015 vs 189 of 10 097 patients [1.9%] in 2019; P for trend < .001). The rate of MACE over time decreased for TCAR as well, but the change was not statistically significant (4 of 128 patients [3.1%] in 2016 vs 59 of 2718 patients [2.2%] in 2019; P for trend = .07). Difference-in-difference analysis demonstrated that centers that adopted TCAR had a 10% decrease in the likelihood of MACE at 12 months after TCAR adoption vs if those centers had continued to perform CEA alone (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: This comparative-effectiveness study of a cohort of patients who underwent TCAR or CEA found that availability of TCAR at a hospital was associated with a decrease in the likelihood of perioperative MACE after carotid revascularization.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Punções , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD000071, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracranial carotid artery stenosis is the major cause of stroke, which can lead to disability and mortality. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with carotid patch angioplasty is the most popular technique for reducing the risk of stroke. Patch material may be made from an autologous vein, bovine pericardium, or synthetic material including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Dacron, polyurethane, and polyester. This is an update of a review that was first published in 1996 and was last updated in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of different types of patch materials used in carotid patch angioplasty. The primary hypothesis was that a synthetic material was associated with lower risk of patch rupture versus venous patches, but that venous patches were associated with lower risk of perioperative stroke and early or late infection, or both. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register (last searched 25 May 2020); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 4), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1966 to 25 May 2020); Embase (1980 to 25 May 2020); the Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings (1980 to 2019); the Web of Science Core Collection; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) portal. We handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, checked reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials (RCTs) comparing one type of carotid patch with another for CEA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias, and trial quality; extracted data; and determined the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Outcomes, for example, perioperative ipsilateral stroke and long-term ipsilateral stroke (at least one year), were collected and analysed. MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 trials involving a total of 2278 CEAs with patch closure operations: seven trials compared vein closure with PTFE closure, five compared Dacron grafts with other synthetic materials, and two compared bovine pericardium with other synthetic materials. In most trials, a patient could be randomised twice and could have each carotid artery randomised to different treatment groups. Synthetic patch compared with vein patch angioplasty Vein patch may have little to no difference in effect on perioperative ipsilateral stroke between synthetic versus vein materials, but the evidence is very uncertain (odds ratio (OR) 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 6.38; 5 studies, 797 participants; very low-quality evidence). Vein patch may have little to no difference in effect on long-term ipsilateral stroke between synthetic versus vein materials, but the evidence is very uncertain (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.69 to 3.07; P = 0.33; 4 studies, 776 participants; very low-quality evidence). Vein patch may increase pseudoaneurysm formation when compared with synthetic patch, but the evidence is very uncertain (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.49; 4 studies, 776 participants; very low-quality evidence). However, the numbers involved were small. Dacron patch compared with other synthetic patch angioplasty Dacron versus PTFE patch materials  PTFE patch may reduce the risk of perioperative ipsilateral stroke (OR 3.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 59.06; 2 studies, 400 participants; very low-quality evidence). PTFE patch may reduce the risk of long-term ipsilateral stroke (OR 1.52, 95% CI 0.25 to 9.27; 1 study, 200 participants; very low-quality evidence). Dacron may result in an increase in perioperative combined stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) (OR 4.41 95% CI 1.20 to 16.14; 1 study, 200 participants; low-quality evidence) when compared with PTFE. Early arterial re-stenosis or occlusion (within 30 days) was also higher for Dacron patches. During follow-up for longer than one year, more 'any strokes' (OR 10.58, 95% CI 1.34 to 83.43; 2 studies, 304 participants; low-quality evidence) and stroke/death (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.31 to 28.07; 1 study, 200 participants; low-quality evidence) were reported with Dacron patch closure, although numbers of outcome events were small. Dacron patch may increase the risk of re-stenosis when compared with other synthetic materials (especially with PTFE), but the evidence is very uncertain (OR 3.73, 95% CI 0.71 to 19.65; 3 studies, 490 participants; low-quality evidence). Bovine pericardium patch compared with other synthetic patch angioplasty Bovine pericardium versus PTFE patch materials  Evidence suggests that bovine pericardium patch results in a reduction in long-term ipsilateral stroke (OR 4.17, 95% CI 0.46 to 38.02; 1 study, 195 participants; low-quality evidence). Bovine pericardial patch may reduce the risk of perioperative fatal stroke, death, and infection compared to synthetic material (OR 5.16, 95% CI 0.24 to 108.83; 2 studies, 290 participants; low-quality evidence for PTFE, and low-quality evidence for Dacron; OR 4.39, 95% CI 0.48 to 39.95; 2 studies, 290 participants; low-quality evidence for PTFE, and low-quality evidence for Dacron; OR 7.30, 95% CI 0.37 to 143.16; 1 study, 195 participants; low-quality evidence, respectively), but the numbers of outcomes were small. The evidence is very uncertain about effects of the patch on infection outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The number of outcome events is too small to allow conclusions, and more trial data are required to establish whether any differences do exist. Nevertheless, there is little to no difference in effect on perioperative and long-term ipsilateral stroke between vein and any synthetic patch material. Some evidence indicates that other synthetic patches (e.g. PTFE) may be superior to Dacron grafts in terms of perioperative stroke and TIA rates, and both early and late arterial re-stenosis and occlusion. Pseudoaneurysm formation may be more common after use of a vein patch than after use of a synthetic patch. Bovine pericardial patch, which is an acellular xenograft material, may reduce the risk of perioperative fatal stroke, death, and infection compared to other synthetic patches. Further large RCTs are required before definitive conclusions can be reached.


Assuntos
Prótese Vascular , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/métodos , Polietilenotereftalatos , Politetrafluoretileno , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Falso Aneurisma/epidemiologia , Angioplastia/métodos , Viés , Bioprótese , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/classificação , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Humanos , Polietilenotereftalatos/efeitos adversos , Politetrafluoretileno/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Veia Safena , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
7.
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko ; 85(1): 113-117, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560627

RESUMO

The manuscript is devoted to world experience of carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting in advanced age patients. Some authors report the advantages of endovascular surgery in elderly patients while the others prefer carotid endarterectomy. Senile patients (75-80 years old) with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis is one of the most difficult group for the management. This is due to a more complex assessment of perioperative surgical risk, high incidence of complicated atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and dubious benefits of surgery considering short life expectancy and severe comorbidities. Accumulation of experience in the management of advanced age patients should be valuable for either optimizing or individualizing surgical strategy.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artérias Carótidas , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Humanos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(3): 193-202, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty around which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis should be offered surgical intervention. Although stroke rates were unrelated to the degree of stenosis in the medical-treatment-only groups in previous randomised trials, this could simply reflect recruitment bias and there has been no systematic analysis of a stenosis-risk association in cohort studies. We aimed to establish whether there is any association between the degree of asymptomatic stenosis and ipsilateral stroke risk in patients on contemporary medical treatment. METHODS: We did a prospective population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study; OxVasc), and a systematic review and meta-analysis. All patients in OxVasc with a recent suspected transient ischaemic attack or stroke, between April 1, 2002, and April 1, 2017, who had asymptomatic carotid stenosis were included in these analyses. We commenced contemporary medical treatment and determined ipsilateral stroke risk in this cohort by face-to-face follow-up (to Oct 1, 2020). We also did a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies (from Jan 1, 1980, to Oct 1, 2020) reporting ipsilateral stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and included both observational cohort studies and medical treatment groups of randomised controlled trials if the number of patients exceeded 30, ipsilateral stroke rates (or the raw data to calculate these) were provided, and were published in English. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2002, and April 1, 2017, 2354 patients were consecutively enrolled in OxVasc and 2178 patients underwent carotid imaging, of whom 207 had 50-99% asymptomatic stenosis of at least one carotid bifurcation (mean age at imaging: 77·5 years [SD 10·3]; 88 [43%] women). The 5-year ipsilateral stroke risk increased with the degree of stenosis; patients with 70-99% stenosis had a significantly greater 5-year ipsilateral stroke risk than did those with 50-69% stenosis (six [14·6%; 95% CI 3·5-25·7] of 53 patients vs none of 154; p<0·0001); and patients with 80-99% stenosis had a significantly greater 5-year ipsilateral stroke risk than did those with 50-79% stenosis (five [18·3%; 7·7-29·9] of 34 patients vs one [1·0%; 0·0-2·9] of 173; p<0·0001). Of the 56 studies identified in the systematic review (comprising 13 717 patients), 23 provided data on ipsilateral stroke risk fully stratified by degree of asymptomatic stenosis (in 8419 patients). Stroke risk was linearly associated with degree of ipsilateral stenosis (p<0·0001); there was a higher risk in patients with 70-99% stenosis than in those with 50-69% stenosis (386 of 3778 patients vs 181 of 3806 patients; odds ratio [OR] 2·1 [95% CI 1·7-2·5], p<0·0001; 15 cohort studies, three trials) and a higher risk in patients with 80-99% stenosis than in those with 50-79% stenosis (77 of 727 patients vs 167 of 3272 patients; OR 2·5 [1·8-3·5], p<0·0001; 11 cohort studies). Heterogeneity in stroke risk between studies for patients with severe versus moderate stenosis (phet<0·0001) was accounted for by highly discrepant results (pdiff<0·0001) in the randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy compared with cohort studies (trials: pooled OR 0·8 [95% CI 0·6-1·2], phet=0·89; cohorts: 2·9 [2·3-3·7], phet=0·54). INTERPRETATION: Contrary to the assumptions of current guidelines and the findings of subgroup analyses of previous randomised controlled trials, the stroke risk reported in cohort studies was highly dependent on the degree of asymptomatic carotid stenosis, suggesting that the benefit of endarterectomy might be underestimated in patients with severe stenosis. Conversely, the 5-year stroke risk was low for patients with moderate stenosis on contemporary medical treatment, calling into question any benefit from revascularisation. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust, Wolfson Foundation, and the British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
10.
BMJ ; 372: n49, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the previously derived Canadian TIA Score to stratify subsequent stroke risk in a new cohort of emergency department patients with transient ischaemic attack. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 13 Canadian emergency departments over five years. PARTICIPANTS: 7607 consecutively enrolled adult patients attending the emergency department with transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was subsequent stroke or carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days. The secondary outcome was subsequent stroke within seven days (with or without carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting). Telephone follow-up used the validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status at seven and 90 days. All outcomes were adjudicated by panels of three stroke experts, blinded to the index emergency department visit. RESULTS: Of the 7607 patients, 108 (1.4%) had a subsequent stroke within seven days, 83 (1.1%) had carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days, and nine had both. The Canadian TIA Score stratified the risk of stroke, carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting, or both within seven days as low (risk ≤0.5%; interval likelihood ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.44), medium (risk 2.3%; interval likelihood ratio 0.94, 0.85 to 1.04), and high (risk 5.9% interval likelihood ratio 2.56, 2.02 to 3.25) more accurately (area under the curve 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.73) than did the ABCD2 (0.60, 0.55 to 0.64) or ABCD2i (0.64, 0.59 to 0.68). Results were similar for subsequent stroke regardless of carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days. CONCLUSION: The Canadian TIA Score stratifies patients' seven day risk for stroke, with or without carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting, and is now ready for clinical use. Incorporating this validated risk estimate into management plans should improve early decision making at the index emergency visit regarding benefits of hospital admission, timing of investigations, and prioritisation of specialist referral.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Comorbidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(4): 105608, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been a growing interest in whether carotid revascularization may reverse cognitive decline. In this study the aim was to assess cognitive changes after carotid artery endarterectomy and stenting, using neuropsychological assessment with MoCA and CANTAB test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, qualified for CEA (study group A) and CAS (study group B) have been prospectively assessed. 20 patients with lower extremity artery disease (control group C) and 15 patients qualified for inguinal hernia surgery (control group D) have served as a control group. Patients have been evaluated 1 day before surgery and 6 months after, using MoCA and CANTAB test. Logistic regression models were built to determine variables affecting cognitive performance. RESULTS: After the procedure in the study group A the cognitive evaluation showed improvement in 5 cognitive domains tested in MoCA: visuospatial/executive (p=.0496), naming (p=.0831), language (p=.0009), abstraction (p=.0126) and delayed recall (p=.0016). In CANTAB there were improvement in PAL (p=.0290) and SWM (p=.0105). In study group B positive cognitive changes were seen in visuospatial/executive (p=.0827) and delayed recall (p=.0041) tested with MoCA and in PAL (PALFAMS28 p=.0315, PALNPR28 p=.0090, PALTEA28 p=.0058) and SWM (p=.0882) tested with CANTAB. Using a regression model, the only strong predictors of cognitive improvement on the follow-up visit were younger age and lower MoCA score on the first visit. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid revascularization, both open and endovascular, lead to cognitive improvement in patients with severe carotid stenosis and cognitive decline. This effect seems to be stronger in younger patients with worst cognitive performance before surgery.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105594, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The ongoing literature recommends carotid endarterectomy (CEA) primarily for patients with neurological symptoms, however CEA can be precluded by the onset of a severe stroke or a total carotid occlusion. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of unheralded strokes in patients with a previously asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) possibly considered for CEA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2009 to 2019, patients with an unheralded stroke from an ACS were considered. By neurological examination, patients were divided in unfit-for-CEA (uCEA) - either for the severity of the stroke (according to modified Rankin-Scale - mRS) or the onset of a total carotid occlusion - and patients submitted to CEA. Predictors for uCEA and stroke severity were evaluated. RESULTS: Over a total of 532 patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis, 277 (52%) with unheralded stroke were included in the study. One hundred and one (36%) were considered uCEA: 64(23%) due to their neurological conditions (mRS:5) and 37 (13%) because of the onset of carotid occlusion. One hundred seventy-six (64%) patients underwent CEA. The preoperative medical therapy was similar in uCEA vs CEA patients. Age≥80 years and female sex were independently associated with uCEA (OR:5.9, 95%CI:3.1-11.4, P<.01; OR:3.9, 95%CI:2.0-7.6, P<.01. respectively). Patients submitted to CEA had mRS: 0-2 in 102(37%) cases and mRS:3-4 in 74 (27%). The contralateral carotid occlusion (CCO) was independently associated with mRS:3-4 (OR:8.4, 95%CI 1.8-79, P=.01). Postoperative stroke rate after CEA was 2.9% (4/167); patients with preoperative mRS:3-4 had a higher risk for postoperative stroke compared to those with mRS:0-2 (5.9% vs. 0%. P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: An unheralded stroke in patients with ACS leads to a severe neurological damage in more than half of cases, either precluding CEA (36%) or increasing the risk of postoperative complications (27%). Female sex, age≥80 and CCO are independent predictors of these occurrences and should be considered in ACS patients.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 55(1): 64-68, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862800

RESUMO

First bite syndrome (FBS) is a sharp unilateral pain in the vicinity of the angle of the mandible after taking the first bite of a meal that presents typically after surgery in the area of the ipsilateral parapharyngeal space. It is not confirmed what the pathophysiology is that causes this pain, but the proposed mechanism is the iatrogenic damage of sympathetic fibers that extend from the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) to innervate the parotid gland. The presentation of this syndrome has been acknowledged in patients who have undergone head and neck tumor resections, but it has not been documented in the same thorough manner among vascular surgery cases in the parapharyngeal space, possibly because of a higher risk of development in other head and neck surgeries, or to under-reporting of cases. To date, only 5 cases of FBS status post carotid endarterectomy have been documented in the literature. Definitive treatment of FBS has not been established. Some studies have shown improvement with amitriptyline, and carbamazepine as well as botulinum toxin injections. We will present the case of a 75 year old male who developed first bite syndrome after a right carotid endarterectomy with efforts of raising awareness of a potential acute complication of carotid endarterectomy.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Dor Facial/etiologia , Mastigação , Glândula Parótida/inervação , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Gânglio Cervical Superior/lesões , Idoso , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Facial/diagnóstico , Dor Facial/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Facial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Vasc Med ; 26(1): 3-10, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350884

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL) 6 contributes to atherosclerotic plaque development through IL6 membrane-bound (IL6R and gp130) and soluble (sIL6R and sgp130) receptors. We investigated IL6 receptor expression in carotid plaques and its correlation with circulating IL6 and soluble receptor levels. Plasma samples and carotid plaques were obtained from 78 patients in the Biobank of Karolinska Endarterectomies study. IL6, sIL6R, and sgp130 were measured in plasma and IL6, IL6R, sIL6R, GP130, and sGP130-RAPS (sGP130) gene expression assessed in carotid plaques. Correlations between plaque IL6 signaling gene expression and plasma levels were determined by Spearman's correlation. Differences in plasma and gene expression levels between patients with (n = 53) and without (n = 25) a history of a cerebral event and statin-treated (n = 65) and non-treated (n = 11), were estimated by Kruskal-Wallis. IL6 and its receptors were all expressed in carotid plaques. There was a positive, borderline significant, moderate correlation between plasma IL6 and sIL6R and the respective gene expression levels (rho 0.23 and 0.22, both p = 0.05). IL6R expression was higher in patients with a history of a cerebrovascular event compared to those without (p = 0.007). Statin-treated had higher IL6R, sIL6R, and sGP130 expression levels and plasma sIL6R compared to non-treated patients (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, all components of the IL6 signaling pathways are expressed in carotid artery plaques and IL6 and sIL6R plasma levels correlate moderately with IL6 and sIL6R. Our data suggest that IL6 signaling in the circulation might mirror the system activity in the plaque, thus adding novel perspectives to the role of IL6 signaling in atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Estenose das Carótidas/metabolismo , Receptor gp130 de Citocina/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/sangue , Estenose das Carótidas/genética , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Receptor gp130 de Citocina/sangue , Receptor gp130 de Citocina/genética , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/genética , Masculino , Receptores de Interleucina-6/sangue , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 33(3-4): 47-53, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308595

RESUMO

Duplex ultrasound testing after open or endovascular extracranial carotid artery interventions is a clinical practice guideline with a strong recommendation from the Society for Vascular Surgery. Neurologic outcomes are improved by the recognition of repair site stenosis or atherosclerotic disease progression in the unoperated carotid artery. The benefit of surveillance outweighs its risk because duplex testing is free of complications and accurate in the detection of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion. Surveillance for >70% ICA stenosis is recommended within 30 days of the procedure, then every 6 months for 2 years, and annually thereafter. Repair site and contralateral ICA stenosis classification should be based on angle-corrected pulsed Doppler measurements of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), and the ratio of PSV at the stenosis to a proximal, nondiseased common carotid artery (CCA) segment (ICA/CCA ratio). Interpretation criteria of PSV >300 cm/s, EDV >125 cm/s, and ICA/CCA ratio >4 predicts >70% repair site stenosis. Endovascular intervention is recommended for a carotid repair site stenosis based on the occurrence of an ipsilateral neurologic event and appropriate anatomy for angioplasty. For asymptomatic restenosis, intervention is based on stenosis progression to elevated PSV and EDV >70% stenosis threshold values and the patient is deemed high risk for stroke due to contralateral ICA occlusion or incomplete functional patency of the circle of Willis.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Stents , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Resultado do Tratamento
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