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3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18156, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770258

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Streptococcus anginosus mostly colonizes the digestive and genitourinary system, including the oropharyngeal region. It commonly causes invasive pyogenic infection, but less likely causes infective endocarditis (IE). PATIENT CONCERNS: An 18-year-old woman who had an underlying mitral valve prolapse without mitral regurgitation presented to our hospital with low-grade fever, left leg weakness, and left abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with brain infarction and microabscess as well as IE. The patient totally recovered after the 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics. DIAGNOSIS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain infarction and microabscess. Abdominal computed tomography revealed splenic and left renal infarction. Three sets of blood culture were positive for S anginosus. Transthoracic echocardiogram identified mitral valve prolapse with moderate eccentric mitral valve regurgitation, and a 0.3 × 0.6-cm vegetation was found on the left mitral valve. All of these results meet the modified Duke criteria. INTERVENTIONS: The abdominal pain and left leg weakness were improving after 2 weeks of intravenous antibiotics treatment. No neurological sequelae were noted after completing the 6-week course of medical treatment. OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully treated and discharged after completing the 6-week intravenous antibiotics treatment. LESSONS: IE should be considered in young patients with native valve disease who have prolonged fever. Though S anginosus commonly causes invasive pyogenic infection, patients with native valve disease should be checked for IE.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Abscesso Encefálico , Infarto Encefálico , Endocardite , Prolapso da Valva Mitral , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus anginosus/isolamento & purificação , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Infecções Estreptocócicas/complicações , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490396

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A single atrium is a rare congenital heart disease (CHD) involving zero atrial septal traces and preserved intact ventricular septum and atrioventricular valves, requiring careful surgical intervention. However, developing to Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) makes the surgery complicated. Based on bidirectional cardiac shunting, vegetation easily develops in case of bacterial infection. PATIENT CONCERN AND DIAGNOSES: We reported a 35-year-old woman with a single atrium, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hypertension, and ES who developed infective endocarditis on her left ventricular outflow tract and complicated cerebral abscess and who underwent challenged medical treatment. INTERVENTION: Infection was successfully controlled after 4-time change in antibiotics over 4 months. However, surgery is complicated for her. OUTCOMES: The patient presented a relatively good outcome during follow-up for >6 months. LESSONS: This case report suggests that patients with complex CHD should accept surgery therapy earlier before developing ES. It is imperative to avoid invasive interventions to prevent infectious endocarditis.


Assuntos
Abscesso Encefálico/complicações , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Complexo de Eisenmenger/complicações , Endocardite/complicações , Átrios do Coração/anormalidades , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Abscesso Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos
6.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 86(8): 559-567, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385793

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis remains a diagnostic challenge. Although echocardiography is still the mainstay imaging test, it misses up to 30% of cases. Newer imaging tests--4-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and leukocyte scintigraphy--are increasingly used as alternative or adjunct tests for select patients. They improve the sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of infective endocarditis when appropriately used, especially in the setting of a prosthetic valve.


Assuntos
Endocardite/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 178, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312292

RESUMO

Mitral valve aneurysm is a rare abnormality whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is defined as a bulge of the mitral valve leaflet toward the left atrium. Aneurysm in the posterior leaflet is exceptional. We report the case of a 26-year old man, who had been followed up for rheumatic aortic regurgitation for 4-years, hospitalized for febrile syndrome associated with episodes of left heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiographic examination (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed aortic valve vegetations with wide aneurysm of the small mitral valve associated with severe mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement with simple postoperative outcome. Clinical suspicion associated with suitable preoperative imaging and early surgical treatment are essential to recognize and treat this rare complication of infectious endocard.


Assuntos
Endocardite/complicações , Aneurisma Cardíaco/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Aneurisma Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Cardíaco/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia
12.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 16(10): 623-635, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175343

RESUMO

The annual incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) is estimated to be between 15 and 80 cases per million persons in population-based studies. The incidence of IE is markedly increased in patients with valve prostheses (>4 per 1,000) or with prior IE (>10 per 1,000). The interaction between platelets, microorganisms and diseased valvular endothelium is the cause of vegetations and valvular or perivalvular tissue destruction. Owing to its complexity, the diagnosis of IE is facilitated by the use of the standardized Duke-Li classification, which combines two major criteria (microbiology and imaging) with five minor criteria. However, the sensitivity of the Duke-Li classification is suboptimal, particularly in prosthetic IE, and can be improved by the use of PET or radiolabelled leukocyte scintigraphy. Prolonged antibiotic therapy is mandatory. Indications for surgery during acute IE depend on the presence of haemodynamic, septic and embolic complications. The most urgent indications for surgery are related to heart failure. In the past decade, the prevention of IE has been reoriented, with indications for antibiotic prophylaxis now limited to patients at high risk of IE undergoing dental procedures. Guidelines now emphasize the importance of nonspecific oral and cutaneous hygiene in individual patients and during health-care procedures.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/terapia , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/microbiologia , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Fatores de Risco
13.
Trop Doct ; 49(4): 309-311, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180802

RESUMO

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (LSE) is one of the most characteristic cardiac lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients may remain asymptomatic, while symptomatic patients often suffer with systemic emboli. These commonly test positive for anti-phospholipid antibody (aPA). The association of LSE with an overlap of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lupus (also known as 'rhupus') is rare. We report such a patient, who had been diagnosed as having RA seven years before and had suffered an acute ischaemic stroke one year previously and had echocardiographic evidence of LSE found during routine evaluation. However, she tested negative for aPA.


Assuntos
Endocardite/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
14.
Med. infant ; 26(2): 85-91, Junio 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009024

RESUMO

Objetivos: Analizar las características demográficas, clínicas, microbiológicas, evolución y factores de riesgo de morbimortalidad asociados a la endocarditis de válvula nativa (EIN) en pacientes (p) pediátricos. Población y métodos: Se evaluaron 176 p con EIN, divididos en grupo I: <3meses (27p) y grupo II: >3meses (149p). Resultados: Grupo I: el 66% tenía corazón sano. El microorganismo más frecuente fue Staphylococcus aureus (44,4%). Afectación derecha (77,8%-p<0,0001). Evento principal: infección no controlada (INC) (52%, p=0,0009) y asociada a Candida (p<0,00001). Se indicó tratamiento quirúrgico a 10 p (37%). Mortalidad 29,6%(8p). Grupo II: el 57% presentaba cardiopatía previa. Microorganismos prevalentes: S.aureus (49,1%) y estreptococos del grupo viridans (22,5%). Hubo compromiso predominantemente izquierdo (p=0,001). Eventos: embolias sistémicas (36,2%-p=0,01), perforación valvular (51%-p=0,0005), insuficiencia cardíaca (26%-p=0,03) e INC (21,5%). La embolia sistémica se asoció a S.aureus (p=0,01). El 36,2% requirió cirugía. Mortalidad 6,7% (10p). En el análisis univariado la mortalidad se asoció a edad <3meses (p=0,0003), INC (p=0,002) y S.aureus (p=0,03). En el multivariado la mortalidad se relacionó a edad < 3meses (OR:7,50 ­IC95%:1,77­31,69) y a INC (OR:4,2-IC95%:1,16­15,29). Conclusiones: La EN se presentó en pacientes con corazón sano en el 50% de los casos. El microorganismo más frecuente fue S.aureus. En los <3 meses la infección no controlada fue la complicación más frecuente asociada a Candida, con afectación predominante de cavidades derechas. Los >3meses tuvieron mayor prevalencia de perforación valvular izquierda asociada a embolias sistémicas e insuficiencia cardíaca. El 35% de los p requirió cirugía. Los predictores de mortalidad fueron la edad <3meses y la INC.


Objectives: To analyze demographic, clinical, and microbiological, outcome, and morbidity and mortality risk factors associated with native valve endocarditis (NVE) in pediatric patients (p). Population and methods: 176 p with NVE were evaluated and divided into group I: <3 months (27p) and group II: >3 months (149p). Results: Group I: 66% had a healthy heart. The most common microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (44.4%). Right-sided involvement (77.8%-p<0.0001). Main event: Uncontrolled infection (UCI) (52%, p-0.0009) and association with Candida (p<0.00001). Surgical treatment was indicated in 10 p (37%). Mortality was 29.6% (8p). Group II: 57% had previous heart disease. Prevalent microorganisms: S. aureus (49.1%) and viridans group streptococci ( (22.5%). Left-sided involvement predominated (p-0.001). Events: systemic embolism (36.2%-p-0.01), valve perforation (51%-p-0.0005), heart failure (26%-p-0.03), and UCI (21.5%). Systemic embolism was associated with S. aureus infection (p-0.01). 36.2% required surgery. Mortality was 6.7% (10p). In univariate analysis, mortality was associated with age <3 months (p-0.0003), UCI (p-0.002), and S. aureus infection (p-0.03). In multivariate analysis, mortality was related to age <3 months (OR:7.50 ­ 95% CI:1.77­31.69) and UCI (OR:4.2 -95% CI:1.16­15.29). Conclusions: NVE was observed in patients with a healthy heart in 50% of cases. The most common microorganism found was S. aureus. In the <3 months group, uncontrolled infection was the most common complication associated with Candida, predominantly affecting the right side. The >3 months group had a higher prevalence of left-valve perforation associated with systemic embolism and heart failure. 35% of p required surgery. Predictors of mortality were age <3 months and UC (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Estreptococos Viridans/isolamento & purificação , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/mortalidade , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Coortes
15.
Presse Med ; 48(5): 532-538, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056233

RESUMO

Clinical manifestations of infective endocarditis may involve almost all body organs. They are usually classified as either cardiac or extra-cardiac complications. The first stage of infection is the development of intra-cardiac vegetation, which may further spread with an increase in size and number of vegetations, destructive valve lesions, and perivalvular extension of the infection. These anatomical lesions are responsible for hemodynamic disorders, mostly valvular regurgitation, and often lead to heart failure, which is the most frequent complication of IE. Embolic events may affect various vascular territories, the most frequent sites being brain, spleen and kidney for left-sided IE, and lung for right-sided IE. Cerebral complications may be of ischemic, hemorrhagic and/or infectious origin, are often the revealing symptoms of IE, and are well-recognized factors of poor prognosis. IE remains a dreadful disease with an in hospital mortality of 20%, a 5 year mortality of 40% and a significant morbidity.


Assuntos
Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2207-2212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) therapy in patients with infective endocarditis (IE) with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or endovascular therapy (EVT) such as mechanical thrombectomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who underwent AIS therapy with IVT or EVT at a tertiary referral center from 2013 to 2017, that were later diagnosed with acute IE as the causative mechanism. We then performed a systematic review of reports of acute ischemic reperfusion therapy in IE since 1995 for their success rates in terms of neurological outcome, and mortality, and their risk of hemorrhagic complication. RESULTS: In the retrospective portion, 8 participants met criteria, of whom 4 received IVT and 4 received EVT. Through systematic review, 24 publications of 32 participants met criteria. Combined, a total of 40 participants were analyzed: 18 received IVT alone, 1 received combined IVT plus EVT, and 21 received EVT alone. IVT compared to EVT were similar in rates of good neurologic outcomes (58% versus 76%, P= .22) and mortality (21% versus 19%, P= .87), but had higher post-therapy intracranial hemorrhage (63% versus 18% [P= .006]). CONCLUSION: IV thrombolysis has a higher rate of post-therapy intracranial hemorrhage compared to EVT. EVT should be considered as first-line AIS therapy for patients with known, or suspected, IE who present with a large vessel occlusion.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Endocardite/complicações , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Echocardiography ; 36(6): 1219-1221, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087390

RESUMO

We report a patient admitted with acute pulmonary edema 3 months after mitral valve repair, with no history of inter-current febrile illness. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and an abnormally positioned annuloplasty ring, suggestive of dehiscence. The extreme extent of ring dehiscence was visualized on 3-dimensional TEE (3D), with near-complete separation of the ring. Strept.Mitis and Cristatus were isolated from the ring following redo mitral valve surgery, confirming endocarditis as the mechanism for dehiscence. This report highlights the additive role and superior ability of 3D TEE in the identification and anatomic delineation of mitral ring dehiscence.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Endocardite/complicações , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/complicações , Idoso , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Endocardite/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/diagnóstico por imagem , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/cirurgia
20.
Am Heart J ; 212: 144-151, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the associated risk of stroke after discharge of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with stroke during IE admission compared with patients without stroke during IE admission. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified nonsurgically treated patients with IE discharged alive in the period from 1996 to 2016. The study population was grouped into (1) patients with stroke during IE admission and (2) patients without stroke during IE admission. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional-hazard analysis was used to compare the associated risk of stroke between groups. RESULTS: We identified 4,284 patients with IE, of whom 239 (5.6%) had a stroke during IE admission. We identified differentials in the associated risk of stroke during follow-up between groups (P = .006 for interaction with time). The associated risk of stroke was higher in patients with stroke during IE admission with a 1-year follow-up, HR = 3.21 (95% CI 1.66-6.20), compared with patients without stroke during IE admission. From 1 to 5 years of follow-up, we identified no difference in the associated risk of stroke between groups, HR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.33-2.50). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with nonsurgically treated IE with a stroke during IE admission were at significant higher associated risk of subsequent stroke within the first year of follow-up as compared with patients without a stroke during IE admission. This risk difference was not evident beyond 1 year of discharge. These findings underline the need for identification of causes and mechanisms of recurrent strokes after IE to develop preventive means.


Assuntos
Endocardite/complicações , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
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