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1.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(7): 425-433, ago.-sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182862

RESUMO

Objetivos: Elaborar un registro de situación de los Servicios y Unidades de Endocrinología y Nutrición (S°EyN) del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y valorar sus recursos asistenciales para desarrollar, a partir de los resultados obtenidos, propuestas de políticas de mejora en los S°EyN. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal de los pacientes atendidos en los S°EyN en hospitales generales de agudos del SNS en 2016. Se utilizaron datos obtenidos mediante RECALSEEN 2017, una encuesta «ad hoc» diseñada específicamente para este fin y de las altas dadas por los S°EyN registradas en el CMBD del SNS (2015). Resultados: De un total de 125 hospitales generales de agudos de más de 200 camas instaladas del SNS español, se han obtenido 88 respuestas de los S°EyN, que representan el 70%. El 47% de los S°EyN que respondieron eran servicios y el 31% secciones. El promedio de endocrinólogos por S°EyN era de 7,4±4,4, siendo la tasa media de endocrinólogos por cada 100.000 habitantes de 2,3±1. Las actividades asistenciales más relevantes eran la consulta (promedio de 12,3 primeras consultas por mil habitantes y año), hospital de día (mediana de 2.000 sesiones/año) e interconsulta hospitalaria (mediana de 900 interconsultas/año). El 83% de los S°EyN incorporaban una Unidad de Nutrición Clínica. La dotación de dietistas, técnicos en nutrición y bromatólogos en las Unidades de Nutrición Clínica era baja. En relación con la gestión de la calidad se detectó un amplio margen de mejora; solamente un 35% de los S°EyN tenían responsable de calidad y el 38% había implantado una gestión por procesos para aquellos más frecuentemente atendidos por la unidad. Existen notables diferencias en estructura, recursos y actividad de los S°EyN entre Comunidades Autónomas. Conclusiones: La encuesta RECALSEEN 2017 es útil para el análisis de los S°EyN. La notable variabilidad hallada en los indicadores de estructura, actividad y gestión probablemente indica relevantes diferencias y, por tanto, un amplio margen de mejora


Objectives: To elaborate a diagnosis of the situation regarding the assistance in the Services and Units of Endocrinology and Nutrition (S°EyN) of the National Health System of Spain (SNHS) and to develop, based on the results obtained, proposals for improvement policies in the S°EyN. Material and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of the patients treated in the S°EyN departments of acute general hospitals of the SNHS in 2016. Data were obtained through RECALSEEN 2017, an "ad hoc" survey designed specifically for this purpose, and the Minimum Basic Data Set of discharges given by the S°EN of the SNHS (2015). Results: 88 responses of S°EyN have been obtained forma total of 125 acute general hospitals of more than 200 beds installed in the SNHS (70% answers). 47% of the S°EyN respondents were services and 31% sections. The average of endocrinologists by S°EyN was 7.4±4.4, and the average rate of endocrinologists per 100,000 inhabitants was 2.3±1. The most relevant care activities were the consultation (average of 12.3 first consultations per thousand inhabitants and year), day hospital (median of 2,000 sessions/year) and in-hospital consultations (median of 900 in-hospital consultations/year). 83% of S°EyNhad a Clinical Nutrition Unit. The number of dietitians, nutrition technicians and nutritionists in the Clinical Nutrition Unit was low. In relation to quality management, a large margin for improvement was detected; only 35% of S°EyN had a responsible of quality and 38% had implemented process management for those most frequent processes in the unit. There were notable differences in structure, resources and activity of S°EyN between Autonomous Communities. Conclusions: RECALSEEN 2017 survey is a useful tool for the analysis of S°EyN. The remarkable variability found in the structure, activity and management indicators probably indicates significant differences and, therefore, a wide margin for improvement


Assuntos
Humanos , Unidades Hospitalares , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Sistema de Registros/normas , Endocrinologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Gestão da Qualidade , Análise Estatística , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Nutrição/normas , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/provisão & distribução
2.
Endocr Pract ; 24(3): 302-308, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547046

RESUMO

This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician. AACE/ACE Task Force on Integration of Insulin Pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Chair George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE Task Force Members Yehuda Handelsman, MD, FACP, FNLA, MACE Zachary T. Bloomgarden, MD, MACE Vivian A. Fonseca, MD, FACE Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE Richard A. Haas, MD, FACE Victor L. Roberts, MD, MBA, FACP, FACE Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD, CDE, FACP, FACE Abbreviations: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology A1C = glycated hemoglobin BGM = blood glucose monitoring CGM = continuous glucose monitoring CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion DM = diabetes mellitus FDA = Food & Drug Administration MDI = multiple daily injections T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR 3 = Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction phase 3 trial.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Consenso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Automonitorização da Glicemia/normas , Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/normas , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Endocrinologia/normas , Humanos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/normas , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Integração de Sistemas , Estados Unidos
3.
Endocr Pract ; 24(2): 220-229, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care. METHODS: The DXA Writing Committee developed a consensus based on discussion and evaluation of available literature related to osteoporosis and osteodensitometry. RESULTS: Technical errors may include errors in scan acquisition and/or analysis, leading to incorrect diagnosis and reporting of change over time. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry advocates training for technologists and medical interpreters to help eliminate these problems, many lack skill in this technology. Suspicion that reports are wrong arises when clinical history is not compatible with scan interpretation (e.g., dramatic increase/decrease in a short period of time; declines in previously stable bone density after years of treatment), when different scanners are used, or when inconsistent anatomic sites are used for monitoring the response to therapy. Understanding the concept of least significant change will minimize erroneous conclusions about changes in bone density. CONCLUSION: Clinicians must develop the skills to differentiate technical problems, which confound reports, from real biological changes. We recommend that clinicians review actual scan images and data, instead of relying solely on the impression of the report, to pinpoint errors and accurately interpret DXA scan images. ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; ISCD = International Society for Clinical Densitometry; LSC = least significant change; TBS = trabecular bone score; WHO = World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/normas , Consenso , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Endocrinologia/normas , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Densidade Óssea , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/normas , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos , Filme para Raios X/normas
5.
Endocr Pract ; 23(4): 479-497, 2017 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Each Recommendation is based on a diligent review of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. RESULTS: The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 Recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 202 (29.1 %) are evidence level (EL) 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 237 (34.1%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). CONCLUSION: This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other healthcare professionals, regulatory bodies and health-related organizations can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of patients with various lipid disorders. These recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously recommended and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to patients with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and pediatric patients with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. ABBREVIATIONS: A1C = hemoglobin A1C ACE = American College of Endocrinology ACS = acute coronary syndrome AHA = American Heart Association ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ATP = Adult Treatment Panel apo = apolipoprotein BEL = best evidence level CKD = chronic kidney disease CPG = clinical practice guidelines CVA = cerebrovascular accident EL = evidence level FH = familial hypercholesterolemia HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HeFH = heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia HIV = human immunodeficiency virus HoFH = homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia hsCRP = high-sensitivity C-reactive protein LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol Lp-PLA2 = lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 MESA = Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis MetS = metabolic syndrome MI = myocardial infarction NCEP = National Cholesterol Education Program PCOS = polycystic ovary syndrome PCSK9 = proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus TG = triglycerides VLDL-C = very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/terapia , Endocrinologia/normas , Prevenção Primária/normas , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/economia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/economia , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/normas , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Prevenção Primária/economia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
6.
Endocr Pract ; 23(12): 1472-1478, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320641

RESUMO

This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Endocrinologia/normas , Distúrbios Somatossensoriais/diagnóstico , Consenso , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/normas , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos
7.
Endocr Pract ; 23(12): 1430-1436, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased numbers of transgender and gender-nonconforming people are presenting to physicians in the United States and abroad due to increased public recognition and acceptance and increased access to healthcare facilities. However, there are still gaps in medical knowledge among endocrinologists and other health care professionals. The purpose of these cases is to present several common clinical vignettes of transgender people presenting in an office setting that illustrate some of the key recommendations of the Endocrine Society's revised Endocrine Treatment of Gender Dysphoria/Gender Incongruent Persons guidelines, cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. METHODS: Cases were developed based on these recently revised guidelines for gender-dysphoric and gender-nonconforming persons. RESULTS: Six cases are presented that illustrate the diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of trans-gender children and adults based on the revised guidelines for the endocrine care of gender-dysphoric and gender-nonconforming persons. Several key teaching points are presented from the presentation of these cases. CONCLUSION: Endocrinologists should be familiar with the revised guidelines for gender-dysphoric and gender-nonconforming persons. Important aspects of care are the diagnosis of gender dysphoria, the timing of treatment with gender-affirming hormones, and the long-term monitoring for potential adverse outcomes. Long-term health outcome studies are needed to further help guide care in this unique population. ABBREVIATIONS: BMI = body mass index GnRH = gonadotropin-releasing hormone HDL = high-density lipoprotein LDL = low-density lipoprotein.


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/normas , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Transexualismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologistas/normas , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Pessoas Transgênero , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Endocr Pract ; 22(10): 1145-1150, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of an eConsult service on access to endocrinologists along with its influence on changing primary care provider (PCP) course of action and referral behaviors. METHODS: Established in 2011, the Champlain BASE (Building Access to Specialist Care via eConsult) service allows PCPs to access specialist care in lieu of traditional face-to-face referrals. We conducted a cross-sectional study of eConsult cases submitted to endocrinologists by PCPs between April 15, 2011 and January 31, 2015. Usage data and PCP responses to a mandatory closeout survey were analyzed to determine eConsult response times, PCP practice behavior, referral outcomes, and provider satisfaction. Each eConsult was coded according to clinical topic and question type based on established taxonomies. RESULTS: A total of 180 PCPs submitted 464 eConsults to endocrinology during the study period. Specialist median response time was 7 hours, with 90% of responses occurring within 3 days. PCPs received a new or additional course of action in 62% of submitted cases. An unnecessary face-to-face referral was avoided in 44% of all eConsults and in 67% of cases where the PCP initially contemplated requesting a referral. Over 95% of cases were rated at least 4 out of 5 in value for PCPs and their patients. CONCLUSION: The use of eConsult improves access to endocrinologists by providing timely, highly rated practice-changing clinical advice while reducing the need for patients to attend face-to-face office visits. ABBREVIATIONS: BASE = Building Access to Specialist Advice through eConsult PCP = primary care physician UCSF = University of California San Francisco.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Endocrinologistas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telemedicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Endocrinologia/normas , Endocrinologia/tendências , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos de Atenção Primária/organização & administração , Médicos de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Melhoria de Qualidade
9.
Endocr Pract ; 22(10): 1235-1244, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical features of adult GH deficiency (GHD) are nonspecific, and GH stimulation testing is often required to confirm the diagnosis. However, diagnosing adult GHD can be challenging due to the episodic and pulsatile GH secretion, concurrently modified by age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). METHODS: PubMed searches were conducted to identify published data since 2009 on GH stimulation tests used to diagnose adult GHD. Relevant articles in English language were identified and considered for inclusion in the present document. RESULTS: Testing for confirmation of adult GHD should only be considered if there is a high pretest probability, and the intent to treat if the diagnosis is confirmed. The insulin tolerance test (ITT) and glucagon stimulation test (GST) are the two main tests used in the United States. While the ITT has been accepted as the gold-standard test, its safety concerns hamper wider use. Previously, the GH-releasing hormone-arginine test, and more recently the GST, are accepted alternatives to the ITT. However, several recent studies have questioned the diagnostic accuracy of the GST when the GH cut-point of 3 µg/L is used and have suggested that a lower GH cut-point of 1 µg/L improved the sensitivity and specificity of this test in overweight/obese patients and in those with glucose intolerance. CONCLUSION: Until a potent, safe, and reliable test becomes available, the GST should remain as the alternative to the ITT in the United States. In order to reduce over-diagnosing adult GHD in overweight/obese patients with the GST, we propose utilizing a lower GH cut-point of 1 µg/L in these subjects. However, this lower GH cut-point still needs further evaluation for diagnostic accuracy in larger patient populations with varying BMIs and degrees of glucose tolerance. ABBREVIATIONS: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists BMI = body mass index GH = growth hormone GHD = GH deficiency GHRH = GH-releasing hormone GHS = GH secretagogue GST = glucagon stimulation test IGF = insulin-like growth factor IGFBP-3 = IGF-binding protein 3 ITT = insulin tolerance test ROC = receiver operating characteristic WB-GST = weight-based GST.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/normas , Glucagon/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idade de Início , Endocrinologistas/organização & administração , Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/epidemiologia , Valores de Referência , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
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