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1.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 80(9): 1681-92, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27151561

RESUMO

This paper describes the modern enzymology in Japanese bioindustries. The invention of Takadiastase by Jokiti Takamine in 1894 has revolutionized the world of industrial enzyme production by fermentation. In 1949, a new γ-amylase (glucan 1,4-α-glucosidase, EC 3.2.1.3) from A. luchuensis (formerly designated as A. awamori), was found by Kitahara. RNase T1 (guanyloribonuclease, EC 3.1.27.3) was discovered by Sato and Egami. Ando discovered Aspergillus nuclease S1 (single-stranded nucleate endonuclease, EC 3.1.30.1). Aspergillopepsin I (EC 3.4.23.18) from A. tubingensis (formerly designated as A. saitoi) activates trypsinogen to trypsin. Shintani et al. demonstrated Asp76 of aspergillopepsin I as the binding site for the basic substrate, trypsinogen. The new oligosaccharide moieties Man10GlcNAc2 and Man11GlcNAc2 were identified with α-1,2-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.113) from A. tubingensis. A yeast mutant compatible of producing Man5GlcNAc2 human compatible sugar chains on glycoproteins was constructed. The acid activation of protyrosinase from A. oryzae at pH 3.0 was resolved. The hyper-protein production system of glucoamylase was established in a submerged culture.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Biotecnologia , Fermentação , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/isolamento & purificação , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Ribonuclease T1/isolamento & purificação , Ribonuclease T1/metabolismo , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Tripsinogênio/metabolismo
2.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 170(6): 1533-45, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23700147

RESUMO

Genome shuffling is a powerful approach for efficiently engineering industrial microbial strains with interested phenotypes. Here we reported a high producer of nuclease P1, Penicillium citrinum G-16, that was bred by the classical physics-mutagenesis and genome shuffling process. The starting populations were generated by (60)Co γ-irradiation mutagenesis. The derived two protoplast fractions were inactivated by heat-treatment and ultraviolet radiation respectively, then mixed together and subjected to recursive protoplast fusion. Three recombinants, E-16, F-71, and G-16, were roughly obtained from six cycles of genome shuffling. The activity of nuclease P1 by recombinant G-16 was improved up to 1,980.22 U4/ml in a 5-l fermentor, which was 4.7-fold higher than that of the starting strain. The sporulation of recombinant G-16 was distinguished from the starting strain. Random amplified polymorphic DNA assay revealed genotypic differences between the shuffled strains and the wild type strain. The close similarity among the high producers suggested that the genetic basis of high-yield strains was achieved by genome shuffling.


Assuntos
Embaralhamento de DNA/métodos , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Melhoramento Genético/métodos , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Mutagênese/genética , Penicillium/fisiologia , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/biossíntese , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação
3.
Extremophiles ; 15(5): 619-24, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21667093

RESUMO

The hyperthermophilic Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) encodes a 25-kDa protein (SIRV2gp19) annotated as a hypothetical protein with sequence homology to the RecB nuclease superfamily. Even though SIRV2gp19 homologs are conserved throughout the rudivirus family and presumably play a role in the viral life cycle, SIRV2gp19 has not been functionally characterized. To define the minimal requirements for activity, SIRV2gp19 was purified and tested under varying conditions. SIRV2gp19 is a single-strand specific endonuclease that requires Mg(2+) for activity and is inactive on double-stranded DNA. A conserved aspartic acid in RecB nuclease superfamily Motif II (D89) is also essential for SIRV2gp19 activity and mutation to alanine (D89A) abolishes activity. Therefore, the SIRV2gp19 cleavage mechanism is similar to previously described RecB nucleases. Finally, SIRV2gp19 single-stranded DNA endonuclease activity could play a role in host chromosome degradation during SIRV2 lytic infection.


Assuntos
Rudiviridae/enzimologia , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , DNA Arqueal/genética , DNA Arqueal/metabolismo , Rudiviridae/genética , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , Sulfolobus/enzimologia , Sulfolobus/genética , Sulfolobus/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/isolamento & purificação
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 44(3-4): 425-31, 1995 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8597544

RESUMO

The nuclease S1 gene (nucS) from Aspergillus oryzae was isolated using a polymerase-chain-reaction-amplified DNA fragment as a probe, and a 2.6-kb SalI-EcoRI fragment containing the nucS gene was sequenced. It was deduced that the nucS gene had two short introns, 49 and 50 nucleotides in length. The nucS gene had an open-reading frame of 963 base pairs and coded for a protein of 287 amino acid residues, comprising the signal peptide of 20 amino acids and a mature protein of 267 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence agreed well with the published amino acid sequence except for one substitution. Southern hybridization analysis showed that the nucS gene existed as a single copy in the A. oryzae chromosome. When the structural gene of nucS was fused with the promoter of the glaA gene and introduced into A. oryzae, the yield of secreted nuclease S1 increased about 100-fold compared with the recipient strain.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/biossíntese , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação
5.
J Mol Recognit ; 8(5): 281-9, 1995 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8619949

RESUMO

A simple procedure, involving heat treatment, gel filtration on Sephadex-G 100 followed by chromatography on anti-S1 nuclease antibodies bound to Sepharose, was developed for purification of S1 nuclease to homogeneity with an overall yield of 72%. S1 nuclease was rapidly inactivated, at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C, in presence of o-phthalaldehyde. Kinetic analysis of o-phthalaldehyde medicated inactivation showed that the reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and the loss of enzyme activity was due to the formation of a single isoindole derivative per molecule of the enzyme. Absorbance and fluorescence spectrophotometric data also gave similar results. The isoindole derivative formation, as a result of o-phthalaldehyde treatment is known to occur through crosslinking of the thiol group of cysteine and the epsilon-amino group of lysine, situated in close proximity in the native enzyme. Since, modification of the only available cysteine residue (Cys25) did not affect the catalytic activity of the enzyme, the o-phthalaldehyde mediated inactivation of S1 nuclease is due to the modification of lysine. Substrates of S1 nuclease, namely ssDNA, RNA, 3'AMP, could protect the enzyme against o-phthalaldehyde mediated inactivation. Moreover, the modified enzyme (having very little catalytic activity) showed a significant decrease in its ability to bind 5'AMP, a competitive inhibitor of S1 nuclease, suggesting that the modification has occurred at the substrate binding site. The above results point towards the presence of cysteine 25 in close proximity to the substrate binding site.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos , Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Búfalos , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Cromatografia em Gel , DNA/metabolismo , Imunodifusão , Cinética , Fígado , RNA/metabolismo , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Especificidade por Substrato , Reagentes de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , o-Ftalaldeído/farmacologia
6.
Biochem J ; 285 ( Pt 2): 489-94, 1992 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1637340

RESUMO

A simple procedure, involving heat-treatment, DEAE-Sephadex, AMP-Sepharose and Bio-Gel P-60 chromatography, was developed for the purification of S1 nuclease to homogeneity from commercially available Takadiastase powder. Chemical modification of the amino groups of purified S1 nuclease revealed that lysine is essential for single-stranded DNAase, RNAase and phosphomonoesterase activities associated with the enzyme. The kinetics of inactivation suggested the involvement of a single lysine residue in the active site of the enzyme. Additionally, lysine modification was accompanied by a concomitant loss of all the activities of the enzyme, indicating the presence of a common catalytic site responsible for the hydrolysis of single-stranded DNA, RNA and 3'-AMP. Substrate-protection and inhibitor-binding studies on enzyme modified with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid showed that lysine may be involved in the substrate binding.


Assuntos
Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Búfalos , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Temperatura Alta , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Metilação , Peso Molecular , Oxirredução , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/antagonistas & inibidores , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade por Substrato
7.
Electrophoresis ; 11(11): 953-7, 1990 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2079042

RESUMO

We describe the purification of a single-strand nuclease from Aspergillus oryzae using the first commercial prototype of an instrument (RF3TM) designed by Milan Bier et al. for preparative-scale isoelectric focusing. Protein separation takes place entirely in solution, with shear-stabilized laminar flow counteracting convective disturbances generated by the electric field. Conditions for isoelectric focusing were determined by focusing fractions with nuclease activity, following chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose, in analytical gels containing carrier ampholytes. The separation was then scaled up to process larger quantities of protein in the RF3. When partially-purified protein (250 mg, 6700 U/mg) was focused in pH 3-4 carrier ampholytes. 67% of the activity was recovered in pooled peak fractions with a specific activity of 54,000 U/mg protein. Overall, 82% of the activity loaded on the RF3 was recovered. Eliminating two steps prior to isoelectric focusing, and increasing the protein load from 250 mg to 1.2 g, produced an enzyme with a nearly four-fold increase in specific activity (from 4000 U/mg protein to 15,000 U/mg protein) but with unacceptable color. Our results indicate that a high quality enzyme can be prepared in quantity when heat denaturation and ammonium sulfate precipitation are included prior to isoelectric focusing.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/enzimologia , Focalização Isoelétrica , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , Sulfato de Amônio , Misturas Anfolíticas , Cromatografia DEAE-Celulose , Deleção Cromossômica , Células Clonais , DNA Fúngico/análise , Plasmídeos , Endonucleases Específicas para DNA e RNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
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