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1.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(12): 1445-1448, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) with S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) plus UDCA in handling of cholestasis in neonates, and their influences on serum endotoxin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin 18 (IL-18). STUDY DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:  Luzhou People's Hospital, China, from April 2019 to December 2020. METHODOLOGY: A total of 102 neonates with cholestasis were evenly divided into control group and observation group with random double-blind. The former treated with UDCA tablets, and the latter was treated with SAMe plus UDCA. Serum endotoxin, MMP-9 and IL-18 were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Total effective rate of treatment in observation group was 92.16% (47 cases), which was higher than that in control group 70.59% (36 cases) (p=0.005). Levels of serum endotoxin, MMP-9 and IL-18 in observation group were respectively 11.12 ± 1.07 pg/mL, 646.72 ± 42.56 ng/mL and 2.51 ± 0.19 pg/mL, which was lower than those in control group (p<0.001, p =0.007 and p<0.001, respectively) after 10 days of treatment. CONCLUSION: Compared with UDCA alone, SAMe plus UDCA can more effectively improve the curative effect of neonatal cholestasis, and reduce serum endotoxin, MMP-9 and IL-18 levels. Key Words: Ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA), Neonates, Cholestasis, Endotoxin, Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), Interleukin 18 (IL-18).


Assuntos
Colestase Intra-Hepática , Colestase , Complicações na Gravidez , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Endotoxinas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Interleucina-18 , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Metionina , Gravidez , S-Adenosilmetionina , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico
2.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(5): 538-542, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816669

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in myocardial injury induced by endotoxin. Methods: The endotoxic model of neonatal rats was made by intraperitoneal injection of LPS(5 mg/kg). Neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: ①control group (saline group), ②endotoxin (LPS) group, ③LPS + CaSR agonist group, ④LPS + CaSR inhibitor group, ⑤LPS + JNK inhibitor group, ⑥LPS + CaSR inhibitor + JNK inhibitor group. The morphology of myocardium was observed by HE staining. The content of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in serum was determined. And the expression of IL-6 mRNA was detected by PCR. The protein expressions of CaSR and JNK were analyzed by Western blot. Results: Compared with the control group, the myocardial injury was aggravated in the LPS group. The content of LDH and the expressions of IL-6 mRNA, CaSR and JNK were increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with the LPS group,myocardial injury was aggravated in the CaSR agonist group. The content of LDH and the expressions of IL-6 mRNA,CaSR and JNK were increased (P<0.05). In the CaSR inhibitor group,myocardial injury was reduced. The content of LDH and the expressions of CaSR and JNK were decreased (P<0.05). In the JNK inhibitor group,myocardial injury was further alleviated. The content of LDH and the expressions of IL-6 mRNA, CaSR and JNK were decreased (P<0.05). Myocardial injury was significantly reduced in the CaSR inhibitor + JNK inhibitor group. The content of LDH and the expressions of IL-6 mRNA, CaSR and JNK were further reduced (P<0.05). Conclusion: CaSR is involved in myocardial injury induced by LPS in neonatal rats perhaps through the JNK pathway.


Assuntos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio , Animais , Apoptose , Endotoxinas , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(3): e21845, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605064

RESUMO

With the wide cultivation of transgenic plants throughout the world and the rising risk of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal (Cry) toxins, it is essential to design an adaptive resistance management strategy for continued use. Neuropeptide F (NPF) of insects has proven to be valuable for the production of novel-type transgenic plants via its important role in the control of feeding behavior. In this study, the gene encoding NPF was cloned from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, an important agricultural pest. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization showed a relatively high expression of P. xylostella-npf (P. x-npf) in endocrine cells of the midgut of fourth instar larvae, and it was found to participate in P. xylostella feeding behavior and Cry1Ac-induced feeding inhibition. Prokaryotic expression and purification provided structure unfolded P. x-npf from inclusion bodies for diet surface overlay bioassays and the results demonstrated a significant synergistic effect of P. x-npf on Cry1Ac toxicity by increasing intake of noxious food which contains Cry toxins, especially quick death at an early stage of feeding. Our findings provided a potential new way to efficiently control pests by increasing intake of lower dose Cry toxins and a novel hint for the complex Cry toxin mechanism.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Mariposas/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639632

RESUMO

Sensing microbial tryptophan catabolites by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays a pivotal role in host-microbiome homeostasis by modulating the host immune response. Nevertheless, the involved cellular processes triggered by the metabolites are mainly unknown. Here, we analyzed proteomic changes in macrophages after treatment with the tryptophan metabolites indole-3-acetic acid (I3AA) or indole-3-aldehyde (IAld), as well as the prototypic exogenous AhR-ligand benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to identify affected cellular processes and pathways. The AhR-ligands regulated metabolic and immunologic processes in dependency of LPS co-stimulation. All investigated ligands time-dependently enhanced fatty acid ß-oxidation. Differences due to the combination with LPS were observed for all three ligands. Additionally, oxidative phosphorylation was significantly increased by IAld and I3AA in a time and LPS-dependent manner. Immunoregulatory processes were affected in distinct ways. While BaP and I3AA up-regulated IL-8 signaling, IL-6 signaling was decreased by IAld. BaP decreased the inflammasome pathway. Thus, AhR-ligand-dependent regulations were identified, which may modulate the response of macrophages to bacterial infections, but also the commensal microbiota through changes in immune cell signaling and metabolic pathways that may also alter functionality. These findings highlight the relevance of AhR for maintaining microbial homeostasis and, consequently, host health.


Assuntos
Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Triptofano , Endotoxinas , Humanos , Macrófagos , Proteômica
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11816-11824, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596393

RESUMO

The continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in transgenic plants was threatened by the evolution of resistance. Previous studies suggested that polycalin from Plutella xylostella could bind to Cry1Ac toxin as a potential receptor. In this study, a fragment of P. xylostella polycalin (Pxpolycalinf, G2209-A2942) containing a carboxyl-terminal GPI-anchored signal peptide was cloned and expressed. Purified Pxpolycalinf retained the binding ability to Cry1Ac and synergized Cry1Ac toxicity to the third larvae of P. xylostella in bioassays. Moreover, the polyclonal antibody of Pxpolycalinf decreased the Cry1Ac activity after being fed together with normal food. Further, the ELISA results showed the concentration-dependent binding of Pxpolycalinf to P. xylostella brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) cells expressing Pxpolycalinf were not susceptive to Cry1Ac, whereas Pxpolycalinf increased Cry1Ac cytotoxicity to Sf9 cells expressing P. xylostella ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter C2 (PxABCC2). Immunolocalization presented the binding of Pxpolycalinf to the Sf9 cell membrane, and ELISA showed the concentration-dependent binding of Pxpolycalinf to Sf9 cell extraction. These results here provide the first evidence that a fragment of P. xylostella polycalin, a potential receptor of Cry1Ac, synergizes Cry1Ac toxicity to P. xylostella larvae and Sf9 cells expressing PxABCC2.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Mariposas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Mariposas/genética
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705937

RESUMO

The present work evaluated the efficiency of applied biological control and chemical control of Chrysodeixis includens, and the management of this looper caterpillar in the field soybean crop. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design, consisting of six treatments applied only once: two different doses of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), 0.2 and 0.35 L ha-1; Metarhizium rileyi strain UFMS 02 (Mr), 2.0 and 5.0 kg ha-1; insecticide Flubendiamide (Fd) 20 mL ha-1; and the control. The reduction of the pest and the percentage of efficiency of the products along the development of the soybean, besides some phytotechnical parameters, were evaluated thirteen days after the application. In general, there was a decrease in the number of caterpillars after thirteen days of spraying, with the Bt treatment being 350 mL ha-1, which provided the greatest reduction in the population (96.2%) when compared to the control (6.7 %). Regarding efficiency, treatments containing biological products Bt (two doses) and Mr 5.0 kg ha-1 provided the best results: 95.88, 84.69 and 92.35%, respectively. Among the phytotechnical parameters evaluated, the biological treatments were superior to the chemical treatments in relation to the productivity and the number of pods per plant, not differing statistically among them.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endotoxinas , Larva , Metarhizium , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Soja
7.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 88: 103755, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662732

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a most prevalent and infectious multifactorial inflammatory disease and is characterized by the progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram­negative oral anaerobe, mainly causes periodontitis and it is one of the most important risk factors responsible for aggravation of existing systemic diseases. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown the positive association between periodontitis and different forms of liver disease. Periodontal diseases increase the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases and cirrhosis. Infected periodontium and pathogens in the periodontal microenvironments release pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharides, gingipain, fimbria, bacterial DNA, etc, and damage-associated molecular patterns such as interleukins-1α, ß, - 8, and galectin-3, etc. These virulence factors and cytokines enter the bloodstream, disseminate into the whole body, and induce a variety of systemic pathological effects, including liver diseases (steatosis and fibrosis). Maintaining oral hygiene by scaling and root planning significantly improves liver damage in patients with periodontitis. Dentists and physicians should have more awareness in understanding the bidirectional nature of the relationship between oral and systemic diseases. Importantly, periodontitis condition aggravates simple fatty liver into fibrotic disease and therefore, the aim of this review is to understand the possible link between periodontitis and liver diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/complicações , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Periodontite/complicações , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Animais , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Higiene Bucal
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 45: 503-506, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Muscle atrophy is a public health issue and inflammation is a major cause of muscle atrophy. While docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which are typical ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are reported to have anti-inflammatory effects on endotoxin-induced inflammatory responses, their effects on inflammatory muscle atrophy have not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of DHA and EPA on inflammatory muscle atrophy. METHODS: DHA or EPA was added to C2C12 myotubes at a concentration of 25, 50, or 100 µM, and 1 h later, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. Two hours after the first LPS addition, mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and Murf-1 in C2C12 myotubes was measured. The second LPS addition was performed 24 h after the first LPS addition, and myotube diameter, myofibrillar protein, and cell viability were measured. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test were used for statistical processing of the results, and the significance level was set to less than 5 %. RESULTS: The LPS-added group significantly decreased the myotube diameter and the myofibrillar protein content compared to the control group. The myotube diameter was significantly higher in the 25 µM, 50 µM DHA and 25 µM EPA-added groups compared to the LPS group. In the 25 µM DHA and EPA-added groups, the myofibrillar protein content was significantly higher than that in the LPS group. The mRNA expression levels of atrogin-1 and murf-1 were significantly suppressed in the 25 µM DHA and EPA-added groups compared to the LPS group. The cell viability did not change by the addition of LPS, DHA, and EPA. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of DHA or EPA suppressed the decrease in myotube diameter and myofibrillar protein content and suppressed the increase in atrogin-1 and murf-1 induced by LPS. This study showed the preventive effect of DHA and EPA on endotoxin-induced muscle atrophy.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Endotoxinas , Humanos , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495159

RESUMO

Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(36): e27212, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516526

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to prospectively identify the risk factors of sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis.Patients (n = 193) included in a discovery cohort (January 2011 and December 2014) were categorized into alcoholic (A1; n = 55) and non-alcoholic cirrhosis (NA; n = 138) groups, and those (n = 235) in a validation cohort (January 2015 to December 2019) were categorized into alcoholic (n = 92), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related (n = 27), and hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis groups (n = 116). Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was determined using computed tomography (SMI-CT) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (SMI-BIA). Endotoxin activity (EA) was measured with an EA assay.SMI-CT correlated with grip strength in all the groups but significantly correlated with SMI-BIA of the men in group A1 (R = 0.64, P < .0001) and both sexes in group NA (male: R = 0.44, P = .0001; female: R = 0.35, P = .003). SMI-CT inversely correlated with the EA levels of the men in group A1 (R = -0.67, P < .0001) and myostatin levels in group NA (R = -0.53, P < .0001). Lower extremity SMI had a strong negative correlation with the EA levels of the men in group A1 (R = -0.58, P < .001), whereas upper extremity SMI showed an inverse trend with EA levels (R = -0.28, P = .08). SMI-CT also inversely correlated with the EA levels in groups A2 (R = -0.52, P = .003) and N (R = -0.67, P < .0001) and myostatin levels in group C (R = -0.65, P < .0001). Moreover, SMI-CT correlated with nutritional factors, including cholinesterase (R = 0.50, P = .005), zinc (R = 0.45, P = .01), branched amino acid-to-tyrosine ratio (R = 0.39, P = .02), and triglyceride (R = 0.33, P = .03) in group N.Sarcopenia risk factors differ among cirrhosis etiologies. Alcohol-induced, intestine-mediated peripheral endotoxemia could participate in sarcopenia development in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. RESULTS: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially-expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Praguicidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulação para Cima , Zea mays/genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576061

RESUMO

The role of nintedanib, a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in the treatment of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, has been used to induce ALI. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of nintedanib in attenuating the histopathological changes of LPS-induced ALI. Nintedanib was administered via oral gavage to male C57BL/6 mice 24 h and 10 min before intratracheal endotoxin instillation. Lung histopathological characteristics, adhesion molecule expression, and the regulatory signaling pathways of neutrophil chemotaxis were analyzed after 24 h. We found that nintedanib significantly reduced histopathological changes and neutrophil recruitment in LPS-induced ALI. The number of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was reduced in nintedanib-treated relative to untreated mice with ALI. Nintedanib mediated the downregulation of the chemotactic response to LPS by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules and the phosphorylated p38:total p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ratio in the lungs of mice with ALI. Nintedanib also reduced the expression of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G6D (Ly6G) and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) in BALF neutrophils and mediated the downregulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) and upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) activity in peripheral blood neutrophils in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Nintedanib improved the histopathological changes of LPS-induced ALI by reducing neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects were mediated by the inhibition of adhesion molecules via the activation of GRK2 and the inhibition of p38 MAPK and CXCR2.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase 2 de Receptor Acoplado a Proteína G/genética , Indóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Interleucina-8B/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Animais , Antígenos Ly/genética , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Integrina alfa4beta1/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/patologia
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112721, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478987

RESUMO

Previous studies reported adverse effects of genetically engineered maize that produces insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on the water flea Daphnia magna. In the current study, effects of flour, leaves, or pollen from stacked Bt maize that contains six Bt proteins (SmartStax) in two plant backgrounds on life table parameters of D. magna were investigated. Adverse effects were observed for Bt maize flour, originating from different production fields and years, but not for leaves or pollen, produced from plants grown concurrently in a glasshouse. Because leaves contained eight to ten times more Cry protein than flour, the effects of the flour were probably not caused by the Cry proteins, but by compositional differences between the plant backgrounds. Furthermore, considering the natural range of variation in the response of D. magna to conventional maize lines, the observed effects of Bt maize flour were unlikely to be of biological relevance. Our study demonstrates how Cry protein effects can be separated from plant background effects in non-target studies using Bt plant material as the test substance and how detected effects can be judged for their biological relevance.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Daphnia/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Farinha , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética
14.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(9): 565-570, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543536

RESUMO

The concentration of bacterial plasmalogen 18a and endotoxin in the blood of elderly people 45-90 years old with the pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) - the main group and without diabetes mellitus - the comparison group was investigated. The concentration of both plasmalogen 18a and endotoxin in the blood of individuals with DM 2 pathology is statistically significantly higher than in the blood of individuals without DM 2 pathology. To assess the state of microbiocenosis and predict type 2 diabetes mellitus, decisive rules have been determined in the form of threshold values of plasma concentrations 18a and endotoxin in the blood of elderly people with a suspected or established diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Using ROC analysis, it was found that values above 20.66 µg / ml for plasmalogen 18a, and 0.48 nmol / ml for endotoxin, determine the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus pathology in the 45-90 age group.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Plasmalogênios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Endotoxinas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
15.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 185: 107657, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487747

RESUMO

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used globally as a biopesticide for effective and environmentally friendly pest control. Research has intensified following the development of resistance by lepidopteran species to Bt insecticidal crystal proteins. Discovering new Bt strains with novel toxin properties which can overcome resistance is one of the strategies to improve pesticide sustainability. The genome of the Bacillus thuringiensis LTS290 strain was sequenced and assembled in 252 contigs containing a total of 6,391,328 bp. The novel cry79Aa1 gene from this strain was identified and cloned. Cry79Aa1 contains 729 amino acid residues and a molecular mass of 84.8 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. Cry79Aa1 was found to be active against the lepidopteran larvae of Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, and Plutella xylostella with LC50 values of 13.627 µg/mL, 42.8 µg/mL, and 38.086 µg/mL, respectively. However, Cry79Aa1 protein showed almost no insecticidal activity against Leguminivora glycinivorella, although some degree of growth retardation was observed.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 21(3): 101616, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479677

RESUMO

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Bedran NR, Nadelman P, Magno MB, de Almeida Neves A, Ferreira DM, Braga Pintor AV, Maia LC, Primo LG. Does Calcium Hydroxide Reduce Endotoxins in Infected Root Canals? Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Endod. 2020 Aug 11:S0099-2399(20)30582-3. doi:10.1016/j.joen.2020.08.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32795549. SOURCE OF FUNDING: This systematic review was supported in part by the Coordenaçao de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (finance code 001, 88882.424816/2019-01) and Fundaçao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (grant nos. E-26/202.334/2019, E-26/202.399/ 2017, and E-26/210.352/2019). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Endotoxinas , Brasil , Clorexidina , Humanos
17.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(3): 96-97, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561657

RESUMO

Data sources PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS/Biblioteca Brasileira de Odontologica, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, grey literature.Study selection Randomised and non-randomised clinical studies, experimental studies. Population: human studies with permanent dentition; Intervention: evaluation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after dressing with calcium hydroxide (CH); Comparison: evaluation of LPS before dressing with CH; Outcome: antimicrobial efficacy against LPS.Data extraction and synthesis A modified Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool was used to evaluate internal validity of randomised controlled trials, Robins-1 tool for non-randomised controlled trials, and the 'Before and After' tool for experimental studies. Meta-analyses were conducted by subgrouping according to CH use, chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP), antimicrobial substance (AS), and irrigant. Further analyses explored incidence of LPS reduction. All subgroups were assessed for heterogeneity through I2 test and the random-effect model was applied. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of studies with RoB in effect significance.Results Nine studies were included for qualitative assessment, of which seven were included for meta-analysis. Three studies were assessed as low RoB, one was medium risk, with two having a high RoB. Three studies presented with 'some concerns'. After dressing with CH, no AS resulted in 61.7% of teeth with reduction in LPS (95% CI: 37.7%-82.9%, I2 = 96.7%), compared to AS where 98.9% of teeth showed an LPS reduction (95% CI: 97.4%-99.8%, I2 = 38.6%). Where mean reductions in LPS were compared, CH with or without AS, reduced mean LPSs before (standardised mean difference [SMD] = 21.087 [CI: 21.453 to 20.721], P = 0.001, I2 = 58.7%) and after CMP (SMD = 20.919 [CI: 21.156 to 20.682], P = 0.001, I2 = 24.7%) using a CH dressing. Considering the irrigant solutions, the overall results showed a reduction before (SMD = 21.053 [CI: 21.311 to 20.795], P = 0.001, I2 = 58.7%) and after CMP (SMD = 20.938 [CI: 21.147 to 20.729], P = 0.001, I2 = 24.6%) using a CH dressing. There was a reduction in mean LPS over time, up to 30 days. All analyses presented a very low certainty of evidence.Conclusions An interim dressing with CH reduces LPS levels below those achieved with CMP and AS, but does not eliminate LPS completely. No evidence is presented on improved clinical outcomes following multiple-visit treatment with CH dressing.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio , Endotoxinas , Bandagens , Hidróxido de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Dentição Permanente , Humanos , Incidência
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112805, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592526

RESUMO

During the production and application of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops, large doses of insecticidal Bt toxic proteins are expressed continuously. The multi-interfacial behaviors of Bt proteins entering the environment in multi-media affects their states of existence transformation, transport and fate as well as biological and ecological impacts. Because both soil matrix and organisms will be exposed to Bt proteins to a certain extent, knowledge of the multi-interfacial behaviors and affecting factors of Bt proteins are vital not only for understanding the source-sink distribution mechanisms, predicting their bio-availability, but also for exploring the soil safety and environmental problems caused by the interaction between Bt proteins and soil matrix. This review summarized and analyzed various internal and external factors that affect the adsorption/ desorption and degradation of Bt proteins in the environment, so as to understand the multi-interfacial behaviors of Bt proteins. In addition, the reasons of concentration changes of Bt proteins in soil are discussed. This review will also discuss the existing knowledge of the combined effects of Bt proteins and other pollutants in environment. Finally, discussing the factors that should be considered when assessing the environmental risk of Bt proteins, thus to further improve the understanding of the environmental fate of Bt proteins.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Adsorção , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Solo
19.
Acta Biomater ; 135: 650-662, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525415

RESUMO

Emerging studies indicate hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) exhibit modest immunogenicity to elicit innate immune response which might involve Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. This study was proposed to elucidate how HANPs direct over TLR4 signal activity in macrophage in response to TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study for the first time reveals that HANPs themselves can induce TLR4 endocytosis and activate pathways both of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which potentially trigger the production of inflammatory cytokine by macrophage. Further, HANPs dose-dependently reprogram over LPS driven TLR4 signaling transduction in macrophage, leading to synergistically augmented innate immune response. In particular, HANPs synergize with LPS to promote macrophage polarization toward M1 phenotype. Moreover, HANPs abrogate the endotoxin tolerance in macrophages by restoring the production of inflammatory cytokines from macrophage in response to secondary LPS stimulation, and enhance the responsiveness of the body to LPS re-challenge in the endotoxin tolerance mice model. Therefore, this study sheds a new light on the mechanism by which HANPs drive the innate immune response, and offers a powerful strategy to potentiate LPS mediated TLR4 signaling activation in macrophage. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In recent years, increasing attention has been given to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) on how they interact with immune cells for achieving appropriate biological effect such as bone tissue repair, soft tissue filler, tumor treatment, vaccine delivery, et al. This study indicated HANPs can induce TLR4 signaling activation. In the further, HANPs dose-dependently synergize with LPS to program over LPS induced TLR4 signaling transduction in macrophage, to favor macrophage polarizing toward M1 phenotype, as well as to abrogate immune tolerance in macrophage in response to repeated LPS stimulation. This work opens a window for the intrinsic mechanism of HANPs to drive immune response and facilitate to direct the rational use or design of HANPs for their better biomedical application.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Durapatita , Endotoxinas , Tolerância Imunológica , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 2 Toll-Like
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(5): 1934-1949, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505143

RESUMO

The recent invasion of Africa by fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a lepidopteran pest of maize and other crops, has heightened concerns about food security for millions of smallholder farmers. Maize genetically engineered to produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a potentially useful tool for controlling fall armyworm and other lepidopteran pests of maize in Africa. In the Americas, however, fall armyworm rapidly evolved practical resistance to maize producing one Bt toxin (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa). Also, aside from South Africa, Bt maize has not been approved for cultivation in Africa, where stakeholders in each nation will make decisions about its deployment. In the context of Africa, we address maize production and use; fall armyworm distribution, host range, and impact; fall armyworm control tactics other than Bt maize; and strategies to make Bt maize more sustainable and accessible to smallholders. We recommend mandated refuges of non-Bt maize or other non-Bt host plants of at least 50% of total maize hectares for single-toxin Bt maize and 20% for Bt maize producing two or more distinct toxins that are each highly effective against fall armyworm. The smallholder practices of planting more than one maize cultivar and intercropping maize with other fall armyworm host plants could facilitate compliance. We also propose creating and providing smallholder farmers access to Bt maize that produces four distinct Bt toxins encoded by linked genes in a single transgene cassette. Using this novel Bt maize as one component of integrated pest management could sustainably improve control of lepidopteran pests including fall armyworm.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , África do Sul , Spodoptera , Estados Unidos , Zea mays/genética
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