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1.
Am Surg ; 86(10): 1296-1301, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284668

RESUMO

Contrast enema is the gold standard technique for evaluating a pelvic anastomosis (PA) prior to ileostomy closure. With the increasing use of flexible endoscopic modalities, the need for contrast studies may be unnecessary. The objective of this study is to compare flexible endoscopy and contrast studies for anastomotic inspection prior to defunctioning stoma reversal. Patients with a protected PA undergoing ileostomy closure between July 2014 and June 2019 at our institution were retrospectively identified. Demographics and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing preoperative evaluation with endoscopic and/or contrast studies were analyzed. We identified 207 patients undergoing ileostomy closure. According to surgeon's preference, 91 patients underwent only flexible endoscopy (FE) and 100 patients underwent both endoscopic and contrast evaluation (FE + CE) prior to reversal. There was no significant difference in pelvic anastomotic leak (2.2% vs. 1%), anastomotic stricture (1.1% vs. 6%), pelvic abscess (2.2% vs. 3.0%), or postoperative anastomotic complications (4.4% vs. 9%) between groups FE and FE + CE (P > .05). Flexible endoscopy alone appears to be an acceptable technique for anastomotic evaluation prior to ileostomy closure. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different diagnostic modalities for pelvic anastomotic inspection.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica , Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Endoscopia/métodos , Enema/métodos , Ileostomia , Radiografia Abdominal/métodos , Fístula Anastomótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22585, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute chronic liver failure (ACLF) is the most common type of liver failure. The clinical symptoms are complex and changeable, the treatment is difficult and the fatality rate is high. It has become an urgent problem to actively seek effective treatment means and improve the clinical efficacy of ACLF patients. Studies have shown that decreased intestinal barrier function and bacterial endotoxin translocation in ACLF patients are considered to be the key causes of enterogenic endotoxemia, and traditional Chinese medicine enema has certain advantages in adjuvant treatment of this disease. However, due to the lack of evidence, there is no specific method or suggestion, so it is necessary to carry out systematic evaluation on Traditional Chinese medicine enema for ACLF and provide effective evidence for further research. METHODS: We will search the following electronic databases from their inception to July 2020: Electronic database includes PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database WangFang, VIP medicine information, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Primary outcomes: survival rates, TCM syndrome score. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: liver function (alanine aminotransferase, aspartic acid amino transferase, total bilirubin), blood coagulation function (prothrombin activity), adverse events. Data will be extracted by 2 researchers independently, risk of bias of the meta-analysis will be evaluated based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by data statistics software Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The results of this study will systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Traditional Chinese medicine enema for ACLF. CONCLUSION: The systematic review of this study will summarize the currently published evidence of Traditional Chinese medicine enema for ACLF to further guide its promotion and application.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Enema , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22517, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of the common complications of many serious liver diseases. Western medicine treatment is mainly symptomatic treatment such as neutralizing blood ammonia and protecting liver, which has poor curative effect, easy repetition and high mortality. Retention enema with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used on treatment of HE in China for many years. And it has been clinically proved that retention enema with TCM is effective and safe. But there is absent convincing evidence-based medicine to confirm the efficacy of retention enema with TCM for HE. Thus, we aimed to conduct this meta-analysis to summarize the efficacy of retention enema with TCM in patients with HE. METHODS: The study only selects clinical randomized controlled trials of retention enema with TCM for HE. We will search each database from the built-in until December 31, 2020. The English literature mainly searches Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. While the Chinese literature comes from CNKI, CBM, VIP, and Wanfang database. Meanwhile, we will retrieve clinical trial registries and gray literature. Two researchers worked independently on literature selection, data extraction and quality assessment. The dichotomous data is represented by relative risk (RR), and the continuous is expressed by mean difference (MD) or standard mean difference (SMD), eventually the data is synthesized using a fixed effect model (FEM) or a random effect model (REM) depending on the heterogeneity. The total effective rate, blood ammonia and the total bilirubin were evaluated as the main outcomes. While several secondary outcomes were also evaluated in this study. The statistical analysis of this Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan software version 5.3. RESULTS: This study will synthesize and provide high-quality evidence based on the data of the currently published retention enema with TCM for the treatment of HE. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the benefits of retention enema with TCM for the treatment of HE reported in randomized controlled trials, and provide more options for clinicians and patients with HE. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202080107.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatia Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Enema , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21998, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the self-administration of coffee enema is being used as a mean of self-care for detoxication in various indications, it is important that evidence-based public health information is provided for effective and safe use. However, the evidence is so far rare. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the safety and effectiveness of self-administered coffee enema in a wide range of use, and to provide evidence about its benefits and risks. METHODS: Relevant studies were retrieved from Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; and also from oriental databases, KoreaMed, Korean Medical Database, Korean Studies Information Service System, National Discovery for Science Leaders, and Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator. Considering self-administered coffee enema being used in a various indication, study population was not restricted. Any types of published studies that included outcomes of effectiveness and safety of self-administered coffee enema with or without comparators were eligible for this systematic review. Data on biomedical indications, patient-reported outcomes, and adverse events were collected. Descriptive analyses were planned because diverse health conditions and outcome variables did not allow for quantitative synthesis. RESULTS: Nine case reports that describe adverse events were identified and included in the analysis. Of these, 7 recent ones reported colitis after self-administration, mentioning that the most plausible cause assumed was the coffee fluid itself, which contained numerous chemical substances. Two others reported more critical adverse events. All 9 case reports with acceptable quality of evidence warned against the self-administration of the procedure. No study that reports the effectiveness of coffee enema was found. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidences reviewed, this systematic review does not recommend coffee enema self-administration as a complementary and alternative medicine modality that can be adopted as a mean of self-care, given the unsolved issues on its safety and insufficient evidence with regard to the effectiveness.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Enema/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Autoadministração
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1609-1616, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although current literature has addressed gastrointestinal presentations including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal liver chemistries, and hyperlipasemia as possible coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations, the risk and type of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in this population is not well characterized. METHODS: This is a matched case-control (1:2) study with 41 cases of GIB (31 upper and 10 lower) in patients with COVID-19 and 82 matched controls of patients with COVID-19 without GIB. The primary objective was to characterize bleeding etiologies, and our secondary aim was to discuss outcomes and therapeutic approaches. RESULTS: There was no difference in the presenting symptoms of the cases and controls, and no difference in severity of COVID-19 manifestations (P > 0.05) was observed. Ten (32%) patients with upper GIB underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and 5 (50%) patients with lower GIBs underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The most common upper and lower GIB etiologies were gastric or duodenal ulcers (80%) and rectal ulcers related to rectal tubes (60%), respectively. Four of the esophagogastroduodenoscopies resulted in therapeutic interventions, and the 3 patients with rectal ulcers were referred to colorectal surgery for rectal packing. Successful hemostasis was achieved in all 7 cases that required interventions. Transfusion requirements between patients who underwent endoscopic therapy and those who were conservatively managed were not significantly different. Anticoagulation and rectal tube usage trended toward being a risk factor for GIB, although it did not reach statistical significance. DISCUSSION: In COVID-19 patients with GIB, compared with matched controls of COVID-19 patients without GIB, there seemed to be no difference in initial presenting symptoms. Of those with upper and lower GIB, the most common etiology was peptic ulcer disease and rectal ulcers from rectal tubes, respectively. Conservative management seems to be a reasonable initial approach in managing these complex cases, but larger studies are needed to guide management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Endoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Enema/efeitos adversos , Enema/instrumentação , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Doenças Retais/etiologia , Doenças Retais/terapia , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(4): 504-506, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770243

RESUMO

We note that intussusception was likely associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in 2 infants in Wuhan and London. The intussusception was reduced by enemas in Wuhan; the outcome was fatal. The intussusception was not reduced by enemas in London and required surgery; the outcome was favorable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Enema , Intussuscepção/terapia , Intussuscepção/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , China , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Londres , Pandemias
8.
Orv Hetil ; 161(32): 1331-1338, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750021

RESUMO

Intussusception is one of the most common abdominal emergencies in children. The understanding of its aetiology and management has changed significantly over the last decades. Earlier, the hypertrophic Peyer's patches and polyps were considered responsible, but with the knowledge obtained from the lipopolysaccharide-induced animal model of intussusception, the rotavirus vaccination, the seasonality and the postnatal changes of the enteric nervous system it became clear that the intestinal motility plays a key role in the aetiology. The efficacy of non-operative management is continuously improving. The radiologists initially moved from the hydrostatic X-ray-controlled reduction towards the air enema (pneumatic reduction), however, nowadays, there is a shift back to hydrostatic procedures but under ultrasound guidance to reduce radiation exposure. In many institutions, intussusception is managed as day-case rather than as an inpatient case. The role of medications like glucagon and cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors used during reduction manoeuvres and prevention of recurrence is still controversial. Surgical management is shifting towards laparoscopy. The authors herein reviewed the current literature to present recent insights into understanding the pathogenesis and management updates. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(32): 1331-1338.


Assuntos
Enema/métodos , Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/terapia , Laparoscopia , Ultrassonografia , Criança , Enema/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Intussuscepção/diagnóstico por imagem , Intussuscepção/cirurgia , Radiografia , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
10.
Eur J Radiol ; 129: 109100, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652432

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of our prospective randomized study was to assess diagnostic quality and stability of bowel distension in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy volunteers subjected to synchronous magnetic resonance enterography and colonography (MREC), as well as to test the role of water enema and intravenous spasmolytics. The influence of gastric content, age, gender, and body mass on bowel distension was also evaluated. METHOD: Study groups included 164 CD patients and 53 healthy volunteers. After bowel preparation, randomized subgroups started ingestion ≥1000 mL of hyperosmolar solution within 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min before admission to MRI, respectively. Patients were examined in prone position and water enema was applied. Spasmolytics were administered prior to I.V. gadolinium. Distension of five bowel segments was independently assessed by two experienced radiologists. RESULTS: MREC yields diagnostic distension of the jejunum in 81.1 % and 79.2 % patients in the CD group and controls, respectively. For the terminal ileum it was >94 % in both groups. Good and excellent distension was achieved in other bowel segments. Distension was maintained up to 75 min from the start of oral ingestion. Water enema and spasmolytics significantly and independently improved distension of the small bowel. Distension of the cecum after spasmolytics was decreased. Gastric content, age, gender and body mass had no significant influence of bowel distension. CONCLUSIONS: MREC enables diagnostic distension of the colon and ileum (including terminal segment) in CD patients and healthy volunteers and diagnostically acceptable distension of the jejunum.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Enema/métodos , Intestinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Parassimpatolíticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Gadolínio , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(5): e202000502, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638843

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Changrui enema, a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is used as a supplementary treatment for acute radiation proctitis (ARP). Herein we explored the inhibition effects of Changrui enema on NF-κB and VEGF in ARP mice. METHODS: A total of 120 C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into normal mice group, ARP mice group, western medicine enema group (dexamethasone combined with gentamicin), and Changrui enema group. ARP mice were established by pelvic local irradiation. The expression of IL-1ß, NF-κB, VEGF, AQP1, AQP3, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK was determined by immunohistochemistry or western blot. RESULTS: The study firstly found that Changrui enema alleviated ARP mice. The expression of IL-1ß, NF-κB, VEGF, AQP1 and p-ERK1/2 was increased in ARP mice, and was reserved by Changrui enema. However, the expression of AQP3 and p-JNK was decreased in ARP mice, and was up-regulated by Changrui enema. CONCLUSIONS: Changrui enema is an effective treatment with fewer side effects for ARP. The mechanism of Changrui enema may be related to the inhibition of inflammation-induced angiogenesis. Changrui enema inhibits IL-1ß and NF-κB expression as well as VEGF expression. Interestingly, AQP1 promotes angiogenesis, while AQP3 inhibits inflammation. Changrui enema probably inhibits AQP1 expression by down-regulating p-ERK1/2, and improves AQP3 expression by up-regulating p-JNK.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , NF-kappa B , Proctite , Lesões por Radiação , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Enema , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , Proctite/tratamento farmacológico , Proctite/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões por Radiação/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Surg Res ; 254: 247-254, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A successful flush is the ability to flush through the appendicostomy or cecostomy channel, empty the flush through the colon, and achieve fecal cleanliness. We evaluated our experience with patients who were having flush difficulties based on a designed algorithm. METHODS: Eight patients with flush difficulties were initially evaluated. Based on the need for additional surgery versus changes in bowel management therapy (BMT), we developed an algorithm to guide future management. The algorithm divided flush issues into before, during, and after flushing. Children aged <20 y who presented with flush issues from September 2018 to August 2019 were evaluated to determine our algorithm's efficacy. Specific outcomes analyzed included changes in BMT versus need for additional surgery. RESULTS: After algorithm creation, 29 patients were evaluated for flush issues. The median age was 8.4 y (interquartile range: 6, 14); 66% (n = 19) were men. Underlying diagnoses included anorectal malformations (n = 17), functional constipation (n = 7), Hirschsprung's disease (n = 2), spina bifida (n = 2), and prune belly (n = 1). A total of 35 flush issues/complaints were noted: 29% before the flush, 9% during the flush, and 63% after the flush. Eighty percent of issues before the flush required surgical intervention, wherease 92% of issues during or after the flush were managed with changes in BMT. CONCLUSIONS: Most flush issues respond to changes in BMT. This algorithm can help delineate which types of flush issues would benefit from surgical intervention and what problems might be present if patients are not responding to changes in their flush regimen.


Assuntos
Malformações Anorretais/reabilitação , Cecostomia/reabilitação , Doenças Funcionais do Colo/reabilitação , Enema , Adolescente , Algoritmos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 501-510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rectosigmoid involvement by endometriosis causes intestinal symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, and dyschezia. A precise diagnosis about the presence, location, and extent of bowel implants is required to plan the most appropriate treatment. The aim of the study was to compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance with distension of the rectosigmoid (MR-e) with computed colonography (CTC) for diagnosing rectosigmoid endometriosis. METHODS: This study was based on the retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of patients with suspicion of rectosigmoid endometriosis who underwent both MR-e and CTC, and subsequently were treated by laparoscopy. The findings of imaging techniques were compared with surgical and histological results. RESULTS: Of 90 women included in the study, 44 (48.9%) had rectosigmoid nodules and underwent bowel surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for the diagnosis of rectosigmoid endometriosis were 88.6%, 93.5%, 92.9%, 89.6%, and 91.1% for CTC, and 93.2%, 97.9%, 97.6%, 93.8%, and 95.6% for MR-e. There was no significant difference in the accuracy of both radiologic examinations for diagnosing rectosigmoid endometriosis (P = 0.344). However, MR-e was more accurate than CTC in estimating the largest diameter of the main rectosigmoid nodule (P < 0.001). The pain perceived by the patients was significantly lower during MR-e than during CTC (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MR-e and CTC have similar diagnostic performance for the diagnosis of rectosigmoid involvement of endometriosis. However, MR-e is more accurate in the estimation of the largest diameter of main rectosigmoid nodule and more tolerated than CTC.


Assuntos
Colo Sigmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/métodos , Endometriose/diagnóstico por imagem , Enema/métodos , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Colo Sigmoide/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Prospectivos , Reto/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 578-583, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521978

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the current practice of preoperative bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery in China. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted through wechat. The content of the questionnaire survey included professional title of the participants, the hospital class, dietary preparation and protocol, oral laxatives and specific types, oral antibiotics, gastric intubation, and mechanical enema before elective colorectal surgery. A stratified analysis based on hospital class was conducted to understand their current practice of preoperative bowel preparation in elective colorectal surgery. Result: A total of 600 questionnaires were issued, and 516 (86.00%) questionnaires of participants from different hospitals, engaged in colorectal surgery or general surgeons were recovered, of which 366 were from tertiary hospitals (70.93%) and 150 from secondary hospitals (29.07%). For diet preparation, the proportions of right hemicolic, left hemicolic and rectal surgery were 81.59% (421/516), 84.88% (438/516) and 84.88% (438/516) respectively. The average time of preoperative dietary preparation was 2.03 days. The study showed that 85.85% (443/516) of surgeons chose oral laxatives for bowel preparation in all colorectal surgery, while only 4.26% (22/516) of surgeons did not choose oral laxatives. For mechanical enema, the proportions of right hemicolic, left hemicolic and rectal surgery were 19.19% (99/516), 30.04% (155/516) and 32.75% (169/516) respectively. Preoperative oral antibiotics was used by 34.69% (179/516) of the respondents. 94.38% (487/516) of participants were satisfied with bowel preparation, and 55.43% (286/516) of participants believed that preoperative bowel preparation was well tolerated. In terms of preoperative oral laxatives, there was no statistically significant difference between different levels of hospitals [secondary hospitals vs. tertiary hospitals: 90.00% (135/150) vs. 84.15% (308/366), χ(2)=2.995, P=0.084]. Compared with the tertiary hospitals, the surgeons in the secondary hospitals accounted for higher proportions in diet preparation [87.33% (131/150) vs. 76.78% (281/366), χ(2)=7.369, P=0.007], gastric intubation [54.00% (81/150) vs. 36.33% (133/366), χ(2)=13.672, P<0.001], preoperative oral antibiotics [58.67% (88/150) vs. 24.86% (91/366), χ(2)=12.259, P<0.001] and enema [28.67% (43/150) vs. 15.30% (56/366), χ(2)=53.661, P<0.001]. Conclusion: Although the preoperative bowel preparation practice in elective colorectal surgery for most of surgeons in China is basically the same as the current international protocol, the proportions of mechanical enema and gastric intubation before surgery are still relatively high.


Assuntos
Colectomia/métodos , Enema/métodos , Protectomia/métodos , Prática Profissional/normas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , China , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia
15.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(Z1): 45-47, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594725

RESUMO

Washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) is a new concept and technique of fecal microbiota transplantation. The delivery routes of WMT include oral capsule, nasogastric tube, nasojejunal tube, gastroscopy, colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing, and anal enema. The research results among different indications or different designs based on the same indication are quite different, partially because of the influence of WMT delivery route. In the process of clinical research design and clinical practice, there are four aspects that affect the decision-making of WMT delivery route: safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and patients' willingness. This article focuses on how to integrate the four aspects mentioned above in the decision-making process of choosing proper delivery of WMT for the final goal of mutual satisfaction between doctors and patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Enema , Nutrição Enteral , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal
16.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(Z1): 48-55, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594726

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of intestinal preparation on the efficacy and complications of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Clinical and follow-up data of 1501 patients who received FMT in the department of Colorectal Disease Specialty, Intestinal Microecology Diagnosis and Treatment Center, the Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University from February 2018 to June 2019 were collected retrospectively. According to the intestinal preparation before FMT treatment, patients were divided into non-intestinal preparation group (n=216), antibiotic pretreatment group (n=383), intestinal cleansing group (n=267), and antibiotic combined with intestinal cleansing group (n=635). The adverse reactions after FMT treatment and the effective rates at 4-week and 8-week after treatment among the groups were compared. Patients, who repeated FMT treatment in the 3rd month and the 6th month due to reduced efficacy or ineffectiveness were divided into two subgroups: without intestinal preparation group and with intestinal preparation group. The effective rates of the two subgroups were compared. Results: Of the 1501 cases, 588 were male and 913 were female with mean age of (43.3±13.7) years and body mass index of (20.2±2.1) kg/m(2). Transplantation course was (3.3±1.7) weeks. The underlying diseases mainly included constipation (n=564), Crohn's disease (n=157), ulcerative colitis (n=142), irritable bowel syndrome (n=158), recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI) (n=106), autism (n=84), radiation intestinal injury (n=133), radiation enteritis (n=133), and non-CDI chronic diarrhea (n=60); the remaining cases (n=155). Baseline data among the 4 groups were not significantly different (all P>0.05). The overall morbidity of complication was 31.1% (467/1501), including 41 cases of vomiting (2.7%), 91 of nausea (6.1%), 49 of diarrhea (3.3%), 41 of abdominal pain (2.7%), 79 of bloating (5.3%), 72 of throat pain (4.8%), 38 of dizziness (2.5%), 51 of fever (3.4%), 3 of pulmonary infection (0.2%) and 2 of intestinal infection (0.1%). The above symptoms disappeared after symptomatic treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions among the 4 groups (P>0.05). After 4-week of FMT treatment, the overall effective rate was 63.5% (902/1420); the effective rate of non-intestinal preparation group, antibiotic pretreatment group, intestinal cleaning group, and antibiotic combined with intestinal cleansing groupwas 57.6% (114/198), 64.2% (231/360), 60.2% (154/265) and 66.5% (403/606), respectively, with no statistically significant difference (χ(2)=6.659, P=0.084). After 8-week of FMT treatment, the overall effective rate was 61.3% (729/1293); the effective rate of non-intestinal preparation group, antibiotic pretreatment group, intestinal cleaning group, and antibiotic combined with intestinal cleansing group was 54.0% (88/163), 62.2% (202/325), 57.4% (132/230) and 64.4% (370/575), respectively, with no statistically significant difference (χ(2)=13.620, P=0.003). The effective rates of antibiotic combined with intestinal cleansing group and antibiotic pretreatment group were obviously higher than that of non-intestinal preparation group (χ(2)=5.789, P=0.016; χ(2)=10.117, P=0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that in the third month, the effective rate at 4-week after treatment was 60.1% (184/306) in the without intestinal preparation group and 61.5% (115/187) in the with intestinal preparation group, whose difference was not significant (χ(2)=0.091, P=0.763); however, in the sixth month, the effective rate at 4-week after treatment was 51.4% (89/173) in the without intestinal preparation group and 61.2% (161/263) in the with intestinal preparationgroup, whose difference was significant (χ(2)=4.229, P=0.040). Conclusions: FMT treatment is safe and effective. The combination of antibiotics and intestinal cleaning can improve overall efficacy of FMT. For patients who need repeated FMT treatment, the combination of antibiotics and intestinal cleaning program within 3 months has no significant effect on the effective rate, but in the sixth month, combinedpreparation is necessary.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Enteropatias/terapia , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Catárticos/administração & dosagem , Enema , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Bull Hist Med ; 94(1): 29-63, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362593

RESUMO

This article examines resuscitation practices in the second half of the eighteenth century, especially the new use of tobacco smoke enema machines on people who had been extracted from water with no signs of life. Drownings accounted for a small number and proportion of urban deaths, yet governments promoted resuscitation techniques at considerable expense in order to prevent such deaths. The visibility of drowning in religious, urban, and civic life encouraged engagement with new approaches. Analyzing the deployment of resuscitation practices illuminates three key features of premodern public health interventions: the focus of governments on the logistics of these interventions, the participation of physicians and surgeons at all levels of the professional hierarchy, and the importance of communication.


Assuntos
Afogamento/história , Comunicação em Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Ressuscitação/história , Fumaça , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Enema/história , Enema/instrumentação , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Itália , Ressuscitação/métodos , Tabaco
18.
Intern Med ; 59(13): 1659-1663, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269190

RESUMO

A 66-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was admitted for glycemic control and weight loss. The rectal mucosa was unfortunately injured during glycerin enema administration in preparation for colonoscopy, after which dark red urine and renal dysfunction were observed. Considering the clinical diagnosis of glycerol-induced hemolysis and acute kidney injury, intravenous hydration and haptoglobin administration were started, which successfully treated the dark red urine and renal dysfunction. This case highlights the importance of appropriate glycerin enema administration and emphasizes the need to recognize glycerol-induced hemolysis and acute kidney injury as complications of glycerin enemas. This case also provides insight into glycerol-induced hemolysis and acute kidney injury as complications of glycerin enemas.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Enema/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Reto/lesões , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Glicerol/administração & dosagem , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Reto/patologia
19.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(6): 1094-1098, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease with a high mortality rate. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has been used to treat a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to investigate the role of FMT in NEC. METHODS: NEC was induced by hypoxia, LPS, and hyperosmolar gavage feeding between postnatal days P5 and P9 (n = 8). Breastfed mice were used as control (n = 7). FMT (30 µl/g) was administered by gavage or enema at P6 during NEC induction. Distal ileum was harvested on P9. Disease severity was evaluated by H&E staining. Gene expression of inflammatory markers IL6 and TNFa was measured. Expression of intestinal barrier function was investigated by measuring Claudin-7. Microbiota composition in ileum and colon was analyzed by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: FMT by gavage further increased terminal ileum inflammation and did not improve the histological damage owing to experimental NEC. Conversely, FMT by enema decreased intestinal inflammation and improved histology of the NEC-like injury in the ileum. In addition, compared with NEC alone, FMT by enema increased Claudin-7 expression indicating an improvement in barrier function. These beneficial effects occurred despite no change in microbiota. CONCLUSION: Our results show that FMT by enema may be an effective strategy to reduce NEC progression as it attenuates intestinal inflammation and enhances intestinal barrier function. FMT by enema is a potential novel treatment for NEC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Evidence from well-designed case-control or cohort studies.


Assuntos
Enema/métodos , Enterocolite Necrosante/terapia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipóxia , Íleo/patologia , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 36(6): 657-668, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185458

RESUMO

The antegrade continence enema (ACE) procedures are successful surgical options to achieve bowel cleaning in children with faecal incontinence due to a neuropathy or an anorectal malformation and an intractable constipation. The reversed and orthotopic appendicocecostomy, tubularized ileal conduit and the tubularized cecal flap are frequently applied procedures in the treatment of faecal incontinence (FI). The most common complications are the stoma stenosis, leakage, prolapse, adhesive obstruction and the difficulty in catheterization. Each procedure has its own advantages and disadvantages with different complication rates. The postoperative complications of ACE procedures may reduce patient compliance and quality of life. Most of these complications can be preventable and are easy to manage. This review aimed to discuss the prevention and management strategies for various ACE procedure complications.


Assuntos
Enema/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Humanos
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