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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2008, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790295

RESUMO

Despite the tremendous progress of coupling organic electrooxidation with hydrogen generation in a hybrid electrolysis, electroreforming of raw biomass coupled to green hydrogen generation has not been reported yet due to the rigid polymeric structures of raw biomass. Herein, we electrooxidize the most abundant natural amino biopolymer chitin to acetate with over 90% yield in hybrid electrolysis. The overall energy consumption of electrolysis can be reduced by 15% due to the thermodynamically and kinetically more favorable chitin oxidation over water oxidation. In obvious contrast to small organics as the anodic reactant, the abundance of chitin endows the new oxidation reaction excellent scalability. A solar-driven electroreforming of chitin and chitin-containing shrimp shell waste is coupled to safe green hydrogen production thanks to the liquid anodic product and suppression of oxygen evolution. Our work thus demonstrates a scalable and safe process for resource upcycling and green hydrogen production for a sustainable energy future.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Quitina/química , Eletrólise/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Energia Renovável , Acetatos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Quitina/metabolismo , Eletrodos , Eletrólise/instrumentação , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6214-6226, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822592

RESUMO

As reliance on wind and solar power for electricity generation increases, so does the importance of understanding how variability in these resources affects the feasible, cost-effective ways of supplying energy services. We use hourly weather data over multiple decades and historical electricity demand data to analyze the gaps between wind and solar supply and electricity demand for California (CA) and the Western Interconnect (WECC). We quantify the occurrence of resource droughts when the daily power from each resource was less than half of the 39-year daily mean for that day of the year. Averaged over 39 years, CA experienced 6.6 days of solar and 48 days of wind drought per year, compared to 0.41 and 19 for WECC. Using a macro-scale electricity model, we evaluate the potential for both long-term storage and more geographically diverse generation resources to minimize system costs. For wind-solar-battery electricity systems, meeting California demand with WECC generation resources reduces the cost by 9% compared to constraining resources entirely to California. Adding long-duration storage lowers system costs by 21% when treating California as an island. This data-driven analysis quantifies rare weather-related events and provides an understanding that can be used to inform stakeholders in future electricity systems.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Vento , California , Secas , Eletricidade , Energia Renovável
3.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112496, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839606

RESUMO

There is an increasing demand for clean water as the population of the earth is exponentially increasing. Many countries are facing water shortage problems, which are bound to become more prevalent in upcoming years. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate sustainable methods to produce clean water for drinking, irrigation, agriculture and domestic use. Electrodialysis uses electricity and specialized membranes to separate ionic substances from water. This practice can be used for desalination and wastewater treatment. To make the process more sustainable, electrodialysis can be coupled with renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind power. Photo-electrodialysis and photovoltaic-electrodialysis are two methods commonly used to couple solar energy with the electrodialysis process. However, these processes are dependent on the availability of sunlight and wind as weather conditions and the positioning of the sun vary by time. Electrodialysis is more favourable for brackish water desalination instead of seawater desalination as it has a lower energy requirement. Desalinating brackish water (1000-5000 ppm) has an energy requirement in the range of 0.4-4 kWh/m3. This review paper summarizes the fundamental concepts of electrodialysis technology and its integration with renewable energy sources such as photo electrodialysis, photovoltaic assisted electrodialysis, reversible electrodialysis/electrodialysis and wind energy-driven electrodialysis. Some aspects that have been considered are the freshwater capacity, specific energy and costs of the hybrid systems.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Água Doce , Energia Renovável , Água do Mar , Luz Solar , Água
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801918

RESUMO

The European Union (EU) has launched two regional investment programs of European Funds (FE) in the last decade. One covers the period of 2007 to 2013, and the second from 2014 to 2020. Among the goals contained in FE regulations is that of achieving sustainable growth through the conversion of fossil energy production systems to renewable energy. This research has had a goal to determine whether the countries of the Eurozone maintain homogeneous levels of efficiency in the use of these resources to improve the levels of environmental quality related to the use of this type of energy. The adopted research method for efficiency analyses was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Findings revealed that the efficiency in the use of renewable energies is very uneven among the analyzed countries and that these differences are maintained throughout the analyzed period. These results suggest that the criteria for the distribution of the funds should be modified. The current distribution is mainly based on the per capita income of the countries and/or regions. In this way, compliance with the European Green Pact approved in September 2020 would be guaranteed.


Assuntos
Indicadores Ambientais , Administração Financeira , União Europeia , Investimentos em Saúde , Energia Renovável
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804359

RESUMO

This study analyzes how the three pillars of sustainable development (economic growth, social justice, and environmental protection) have influenced each other for the past twenty-six years (from 1987 to 2013). The relationship between the triangular pillar of SD can be characterized by "ecological modernization", "eco-socialism", and the traditional debate between growth and distribution. This paper examined the correlation analysis of the nine representative variables in the three categories, adopting the cases of twenty-six OECD countries. In particular, the panel analysis (PCSE models) was conducted to identify the seven independent determinants affecting both response (dependent) variables and environmental factors ("CO2 emissions" and "renewable electricity output"). In short, during the entire period, the findings reveal that all economic and social variables did not have a positive impact on reducing CO2 emissions. However, the variables of "employment in industry" and "social expenditure" are effected by the increase of renewable electricity output. Consequently, highlighting the detailed findings different for each set period (1987-2013, 1987-2002, and 2003-2013), this study suggests the implications of the analysis result in the light of the theories of ecological modernization and eco-socialism.


Assuntos
Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
9.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112293, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714048

RESUMO

This paper aims to investigate the causal relationship among renewable energy technologies, biomass energy consumption, per capita GDP, and CO2 emissions for Germany. We constructed an innovative algorithm, the Quantum model, and applied it with Machine Learning experiments - through a software capable of emulating a quantum system - to data over the period of 1990-2018. This process is possible after eliminating the "irreversibility" of classical computations (unitary transformations) by making the process "reversible". The empirical findings support the powerful role of biomass energy in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, although the effect of renewable energy technology displays a much stronger magnitude. Moreover, income remains an important determinant of environmental pollution in Germany.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Energia Renovável , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Alemanha
10.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112261, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721760

RESUMO

This research evaluates the impacts of the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) on renewable electricity capacity using annual data spanning 47 states between 1990 and 2014 in the United States. RPS is a state-level policy that requires electricity suppliers to include a certain fraction of renewable electricity in their total electricity sales over a specified time period. Following nuanced identification strategies, generalized difference-in-difference method is used to transform observational data into a quasiexperimental setting to mitigate against potentially inconsistent estimator or selection bias concerns vis-à-vis the adoption of RPS across states. Generalized least squares with panel corrected standard errors and spatial econometric methods are selected as estimation techniques. The results show that RPS adoption drives more than one third increase in overall renewable electricity capacity. RPS impacts on total electricity capacity remain significantly positive with consistent estimates across modeling scenarios. However, the results reveal that impacts of heterogeneous RPS attributes differ across competing sources of renewable electricity. The impacts are positively significant for solar and wind capacity with the largest impact on wind capacity, while they are insignificant or significantly negative for biomass and geothermal capacity. The significantly positive contribution of renewable energy certificates provision and manifestation of spatial spillover effects indicate the regional marketing possibilities of renewable energy. The results imply that scaling up RPS proliferation across the states and specifying RPS targets by renewable energy sources at least up to the point when renewable energy sector achieves efficiency gains (economies of scales and allocative efficiency) or better alternatives to the RPS become available (e.g., least-cost carbon pricing policy), can play critical roles to exert transformative advances in renewable electricity sector.


Assuntos
Energia Renovável , Vento , Biomassa , Eletricidade , Padrões de Referência , Estados Unidos
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(8): 5258-5271, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709686

RESUMO

Earlier research in this journal suggests that nuclear power systems have prevented 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths from 1971 to 2009 and could save an additional 7 million deaths by 2050. Building on that work, we adopt a broader lens that looks at renewable energy and nuclear power as well as a greater range of energy pathways. We examine via 10 hypothetical scenarios and two time frames the varying impact of different technology configurations on the full potential of avoided carbon emissions and avoided mortality across China, the European Union, India, and the United States. From 2000 to 2020, we estimate the substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear power has saved as many as 42 million lives. Similarly, substituting fossil fuels with hydropower has saved 42.1 million lives (slightly more than that for nuclear power). Finally, other forms of renewable energy have saved another 38 million lives . We project that from 2021 to 2040, nuclear power could save an additional 46.1 million lives and displace 1198 GtCO2; hydropower could save a further 46.2 million lives and displace 1281.47 GtCO2; substituting fossil fuels with other renewable energy could similarly save an additional 41.2 million lives as well as displace over 1250 GtCO2. We offer a critical thought experiment on just how much potential low-carbon options have to provide positive externalities compared to fossil fuels.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Combustíveis Fósseis , Índia , Energia Renovável , Estados Unidos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112232, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676132

RESUMO

Achieving reliable energy supply and environment sustainability whereby mitigating CO2 emissions and promoting sustainable development has become a global effort. Thus, the current study intends to verify the non-linear influence effects of natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy and information and communication technology trade on economic growth and carbon dioxide emission in ten leading CO2 emitter countries from 20002016. The panel regression, such as pooled regression, model fixed effect, random effects, robust least squares and panel causation procedures are applied for panel data appraisal. The regression analysis results mention that nuclear energy, renewable energy, and Information and communication technology (ICT-trade) stimulate economic growth, whereas environmental results illustrate that renewable energy and ICT-trade contribute to eliminating CO2 emissions. The causality findings indicate that renewable energy consumption and ICT trade cause economic growth as well as CO2 emissions. Therefore, policymakers should invigorate to exploit renewable energy and achieve the benefits from the significant influence of economic growth and a clean environment through the potential of green ICT-trade.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Gás Natural , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Políticas , Energia Renovável
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(13): 15607-15626, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538968

RESUMO

One of the main problems facing our planetary bodies is unexpected and sudden climate change due to continuously increasing global energy demand, which currently is being met by fossil fuels. Hydrogen is considered as one of the major energy solutions of the twenty-first century, capable of meeting future energy needs. Being 61a zero-emission fuel, it could reduce environmental impacts and craft novel energy opportunities. Hydrogen through fuel cells can be used in transport and distributed heating, as well as in energy storage systems. The transition from fossil-based fuels to hydrogen requires intensive research to overcome scientific and socio-economic barriers. The purpose of this paper is to reflect the current state, related issues, and projection of hydrogen and fuel elements within the conceptual framework of 61a future sustainable energy vision. An attempt has been made to compile in this paper the past hydrogen-related technologies, present challenges, and role of hydrogen in the future.


Assuntos
Combustíveis Fósseis , Hidrogênio , Mudança Climática , Energia Renovável , Tecnologia
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 16982-16999, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641097

RESUMO

This study aims to provide a detailed overview of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis using bibliometric analysis for the Web of Science (WOS) database. Our analysis provides an overview of research trends, journals and most influential authors. China has contributed the most scientific publications; followed by the USA, Turkey, and Pakistan. Muhammad Shahbaz, Beijing Institute of Technology, and Environmental Science and Pollution Research are the most productive author, research institute, and research journal in EKC publications. Trend analysis of researchers, academic and country-level, reveal that publications in the environmental Kuznets curve have upward trend; also, cocitation analysis indicates that EKC publications are closely related. "Economic growth and income inequality" (1955) by Simon Kuznets is considered to be the basic literature, and "environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: A Survey" by Dinda (2004) is the most cited research article in the literature. Keywords and abstracts analysis further reveals that carbon emissions, renewable energy, energy consumption, economic growth, and sustainable development are the hot topics in current literature. We propose that joint research projects between industrial and emerging economies will promote research activities.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Pequim , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Paquistão , Energia Renovável , Turquia
15.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112121, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581459

RESUMO

In this paper, using Lebanon's capital, Beirut, as a case study, a methodology is proposed to assess the potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) in urban areas incorporating both economic and non-economic factors. Utilizing a rich spatial dataset of solar irradiation augmented with electricity bills at the building level, the cost and benefit of installing rooftop PV systems for each building is estimated. Additionally, incentives and barriers for adopting those systems are investigated using a probabilistic choice model. The results show that Beirut city has a potential for distributed rooftop solar PV to be between 195 and 295 MWp. However, adoption rates are low at 0.49% and 1.23% for residential and commercial buildings, respectively, reflecting the limitation of financial incentives alone to promote the deployment of distributed renewable energy systems in transition economies. The impact of different incentive policy instruments and the role of solar PV in today's economic crisis in Lebanon is analyzed. The biggest impact was achieved through removing (or lowering) electricity tariff subsidy, although this option remains highly constrained by political calculus. We argue that the Lebanese government should fast-track and implement the required legal framework to facilitate and incentivize distributed power generation from renewable sources to promote both green energy and its financial resilience. The proposed modeling framework together with the results obtained in this study will have important implications for energy policy makers in Lebanon and other transition economies.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Cidades , Eletricidade , Líbano , Energia Renovável
16.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112122, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582474

RESUMO

This study searches the role of the financial system efficiency in renewable energy demand for the case of the 36 OECD countries. Numerous financial system proxies are used between 1990 and 2017. Results show that financial system proxies generally are poorly linked to the renewable energy demand of the OECD member states. Although the coefficient of the overall financial development proxy is positively significant for renewable energy demand, the coefficients of financial efficiency are insignificant. The present study finds significant effects of the overall financial markets and institutions on renewable energy demand; however, any vital link between financial system efficiency and renewable energy demand could not be obtained in the OECD countries. Policy implications regarding this major finding are provided in the current study.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono , Políticas , Energia Renovável
17.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 36(5): 377-380, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618937

RESUMO

Renewable energy contributes substantially to climate change mitigation, but its expansion can have trade-offs with biodiversity. These trade-offs could be reduced by building a strong evidence base, rationalizing the selection of sites and operational characteristics of renewable energy installations, and coordinating concerted policy efforts at the national and international levels.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mudança Climática , Políticas , Energia Renovável
18.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 111999, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556829

RESUMO

Greenhouse gasses have adverse effects on global warming and air pollution and need to be optimized by minimizing the contributing factors. This work analyzes the effects of economic growth and energy resources (renewable and nonrenewable) on the emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG). A 2000-2016 panel data from 25 developing Asian countries is analyzed through a robust Random Effect (RE) approach and Hausman Taylor Regression (HTR). Findings show a positive correlation between economic growth and energy consumption, while a 1% increase in renewable energy consumption results in a 0.193% decrease in carbon emissions. Economic growth and renewable energy are positively correlated in both the short and long term, which implies a valid feedback hypothesis. The findings indicate the significant contribution of nonrenewable energy resources to greenhouse gas emissions and the positive impact of renewable resources on greenhouse gas emissions' control. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of developing Asian economies to preserve the environment through more robust regional environmental policies and renewable energy resources. In light of this study's findings, policymakers in Asian developing economies should develop policies on Renewable Energy infrastructure (RE) to improve GDP and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Ásia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Energia Renovável
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19511-19520, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624248

RESUMO

We contribute to the renewable energy consumption-income (and growth) nexus literature by performing an empirical study on a worldwide panel database that, depending on data availability, covers between 146 and 161 countries for the period of 1960 to 2019 (59 years), enabling much more observations than most of the literature on the subject. The empirical methodology used accounts for cross-country dependency, heterogeneity and common effects amongst countries using a parsimonious specification that controls for traditional sources of income differences as well as institutional features of the countries. We also run an error correction model to check the impact of the share of the renewables on the income on the long run. Our results give support to the use of models that control for cross dependence giving a more accurate depiction of the renewable energy consumption-income nexus, showing either a negative or nonsignificant influence of the share of renewable energies consumption in the short run and a possible positive effect in the long run.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Renda , Energia Renovável
20.
Environ Res ; 194: 110718, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421428

RESUMO

In recent days, many emerging nations facing severe environmental pollution problems. In order to overcome the environmental problems, many new methods and strategies have been built and some advance sources of energies were also utilized in order to overcome such issues but by using such sources, many challenges were faced. In order to find best possible solutions of such issues, this paper was aimed to minimize the gap of research by examining the effect on economic development of energy expenditure and environmental pollution and by means of finding the casual relationship between them because it has been observed that with development of economy, environmental issues always increase. Effects of both traditional and modern energies was analyzed in this research. Several explanatory variables will be used: Renewable energy consumption, CO2 emission, economic GDP. Environmental pollution will be taken as the mediating factor that influence this association between energy utilization as well as economic development. Present study was based on the economy of China. ARDL regression model was applied in this research to increase the time series econometrics when non-stationary value demonstrated the co-integration and it is also effective for both stationary and non-stationary time series. At the end, some advanced methods of production were discussed that can be used in this era of industry 4.0. By proper implementation of such processes, many economic and environmental benefits can be achieved.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Energia Renovável
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