Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.389
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111353, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932071

RESUMO

This paper combines solar photovoltaic (PV) to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A new methodology is proposed to design solar PV to reduce energy consumptions of aeration thanks in WWTPs. New analytical equations and parameters, based on the air temperatures, solar irradiations, biological kinetics, dissolved oxygens, mechanical oxygenations, are introduced to obtain the peak power of PV that maximize the auto-consumptions of aeration blowers installed in the oxidation tanks of WWTPs. The method allows a direct preliminary design and a calibrated estimation for energy power. To justify this method, three aspect are mainly discussed: (i) the oxidation tanks consume up to 30% of the energy of a WWTP; (ii) the temperature of wastewater is variable during the year, in the smaller WWTPs; (iii) the dissolved oxygen reduces, increasing temperature of wastewater. This methodology will support the sector in making decision over PV investments, helping wastewater utilities to consider sustainable management practices. Therefore, a further contribute to develop the integration of renewable energy sources combined with wastewater sectors is activated.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Águas Residuárias , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20503-20510, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778577

RESUMO

This study examines how messaging approaches in a prosocial intervention can influence not only the effectiveness of the intervention but also, contagion afterward. Our investigation focuses on leveraging two motivations for solar adoption: self-interest and prosocial. Using data from a natural field experiment in 29 municipalities containing 684,000 people, we find that self-interest messaging is twice as effective in inducing solar adoption both during and after the intervention. Adoptions under self-interest messaging have 10% higher net present value, but prosocial messaging increases the likelihood that adopters recommend solar to their friends and neighbors. Income moderates the effectiveness of self-interest messaging, performing much better in high-income communities than low- and moderate-income communities. There was no significant difference across income groups for prosocial messaging. These results provide guidance to policy makers aiming to encourage prosocial behavior across all income groups.


Assuntos
Motivação , Marketing Social , Energia Solar , Humanos , Renda
3.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(11): 1969-1980, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789556

RESUMO

The aim of study was to characterize patterns of interception and distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in an apple orchard and to examine its relationship with morphophysiological characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apple trees. The experiments were conducted during three production cycles in two distinct orchard areas, one covered by black anti-hail netting and another uncovered (control). We analyzed PAR characteristics with data from meteorological sensors installed on the canopy, as well as growth, anatomical, and physiological variables of apple trees. The reduction of PAR by netting influenced the components of radiation balance. PAR intercepted, absorbed, transmitted, and reflected by the canopy under netting decreased by 33%, 31%, 32%, and 46%, respectively, in comparison to uncovered canopy. When leaf area index (LAI) was 1.5 (under netting) and 2.5 (uncovered), maximum PAR interception efficiency was reached. During the three production cycles, a light extinction coefficient of 1.09 and 0.76 was found under netting and in the control, respectively. Plant height was greater under netting in all three cycles for both cultivars. Number of leaves, LAI, and shape index did not differ between treatments. At stage 85, leaves of "Royal Gala" under netting showed lower chlorophyll content and thinner parenchymas in comparison to the control. However, physiological and anatomical characteristics of Fuji "Suprema" did not change under anti-hail netting.


Assuntos
Malus , Energia Solar , Brasil , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760117

RESUMO

Renewable electricity can fully decarbonise the European electricity supply, but large land requirements may cause land-use conflicts. Using a dynamic model that captures renewable fluctuations, I explore the relationship between land requirements and total system cost of different supply-side options in the future. Cost-minimal fully renewable electricity requires some 97,000 km2 (2% of total) land for solar and wind power installations, roughly the size of Portugal, and includes large shares of onshore wind. Replacing onshore wind with offshore wind, utility-scale PV, or rooftop PV reduces land requirements drastically with only small cost penalties. Moving wind power offshore is most cost-effective and reduces land requirements by 50% for a cost penalty of only 5%. Wind power can alternatively be replaced by photovoltaics, leading to a cost penalty of 10% for the same effect. My research shows that fully renewable electricity supply can be designed with very different physical appearances and impacts on landscapes and the population, but at similar cost.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Centrais Elétricas/economia , Energia Renovável/economia , Energia Solar/economia , Processos Estocásticos , Vento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234992, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603382

RESUMO

Renewable energy resources connected to a single utility grid system require highly nonlinear control algorithms to maintain efficient operation concerning power output and stability under varying operating conditions. This research work presents a comparative analysis of different adaptive Feedback Linearization (FBL) embedded Full Recurrent Adaptive NeuroFuzzy (FRANF) control schemes for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV subsystem tied to a smart microgrid hybrid power system (SMG-HPS). The proposed schemes are differentiated based on structure and mathematical functions used in FRANF embedded in the FBL model. The comparative analysis is carried out based on efficiency and performance indexes obtained using the power error between the reference and the tracked power for three cases; a) step change in solar irradiation and temperature, b) partial shading condition (PSC), and c) daily field data. The proposed schemes offer enhanced convergence compared to existing techniques in terms of complexity and stability. The overall performance of all the proposed schemes is evaluated by a spider chart of multivariate comparable parameters. Adaptive PID is used for the comparison of results produced by proposed control schemes. The performance of Mexican hat wavelet-based FRANF embedded FBL is superior to the other proposed schemes as well as to aPID based MPPT scheme. However, all proposed schemes produce better results as compared to conventional MPPT control in all cases. Matlab/Simulink is used to carry out the simulations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Energia Solar , Simulação por Computador , Eletrodos , Retroalimentação , Modelos Lineares , Temperatura
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 38221-38240, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621198

RESUMO

The performance of single slope solar still with an enhanced condenser at different saline water mediums in the basin is studied and assessed based on productivity, energy, exergy, economic, and enviroeconomic methodologies. Six solar still configurations are considered: conventional solar still (CSS); modified solar still (MSS) which is a still with heat sink condenser; MSS having an umbrella (MSS + U); MSS with forced-air cooling (MSS + FA); MSS with forced-water cooling (MSS + FW); and finally, MSS with forced-water cooling and contains sand in the basin (MSS + FW + SD). Experiments are conducted under hot and cold climate conditions of Sohag city, Egypt. The results indicate that the MSS + FW + SD has a maximum daily yield of 5.37 kg/m2 in summer and 2.74 kg/m2 in winter with an increase of 36% in summer and 26% in winter compared with CSS. It was found that the maximum increase of the energy and exergy efficiency compared with CSS is achieved in the case of MSS + FW + SD of 39% and 33%, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum cost of freshwater is achieved in cases of MSS + U and MSS + FW + SD, respectively. Finally, among all studied systems, MSS + FW + SD achieves the best performance based on the exergoeconomic approach.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Luz Solar , Temperatura Baixa , Egito , Transição de Fase , Porosidade
7.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115103, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650303

RESUMO

Biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is attracting increased interest because it can achieve high system energy efficiency (>50%), which is predicted to increase with the increase in the solar share in biomass IGCC. This study evaluated the potential of crop residues numerically for the co-production of power and bio-fertilizer using ASPEN Plus® simulation software. The results showed that the gas yield increases with increasing temperature and decreasing pressure while the yield of bio-fertilizer is dependent on the biomass composition. The biomass with a low ash content produces high bio-fertilizer at the designated gasification temperature. The IGCC configuration conserves more energy than a directly-fired biomass power plant. In addition, the solar-assisted IGCC attains a higher net electricity output per unit of crop residue feed and achieves net thermal efficiencies of around 53%. The use of such hybrid systems offer the potential to produce 0.55 MW of electricity per unit of solar-thermal energy at a relatively low cost. The ASPEN Plus model predicted that the solar biomass-based IGCC set up is more efficient in increasing the power generation capacity than any other conversion system. The results showed that a solar to electricity efficiency of approximately 55% is achievable with potential improvements. This work will contribute for the sustainable bioenergy production as the relationship between energy production and biomass supplies very important to ensure the food security and environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Energia Solar , Biomassa , Eletricidade , Centrais Elétricas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545711

RESUMO

Rapid economic growth has caused many environmental problems in China, resulting in international pressure on China to fight against climate change and to shift to a more environmentally friendly economy. Therefore, over the past decades, China has been working on transforming its economy to counter the concerns of different environmental hazards caused by the burning fossil fuels and rising oil imports to support the energy sector. This study explores the shift in the Chinese government's policies towards a low-carbon economy by adopting more environmentally friendly solar energy. A cost-benefit analysis of the solar water heater industry in China indicates that it not only brings economic benefits to society but also environmental benefits to the earth. Furthermore, this paper focuses on the use of solar energy as a kind of renewable energy, as solar energy is plentiful, which is beneficial from both an environmental and economic perspective.


Assuntos
Carbono , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Energia Solar , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Combustíveis Fósseis
9.
Photochem Photobiol ; 96(4): 731-737, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502327

RESUMO

Using a model developed for estimating solar inactivation of viruses of biodefense concerns, we calculated the expected inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus, cause of COVID-19 pandemic, by artificial UVC and by solar ultraviolet radiation in several cities of the world during different times of the year. The UV sensitivity estimated here for SARS-CoV-2 is compared with those reported for other ssRNA viruses, including influenza A virus. The results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 aerosolized from infected patients and deposited on surfaces could remain infectious outdoors for considerable time during the winter in many temperate-zone cities, with continued risk for re-aerosolization and human infection. Conversely, the presented data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 should be inactivated relatively fast (faster than influenza A) during summer in many populous cities of the world, indicating that sunlight should have a role in the occurrence, spread rate and duration of coronavirus pandemics.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Energia Solar , Luz Solar , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação , Aerossóis/efeitos da radiação , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Estações do Ano , Raios Ultravioleta , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
Science ; 368(6498): 1490-1495, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587021

RESUMO

Photosynthesis achieves near unity light-harvesting quantum efficiency yet it remains unknown whether there exists a fundamental organizing principle giving rise to robust light harvesting in the presence of dynamic light conditions and noisy physiological environments. Here, we present a noise-canceling network model that relates noisy physiological conditions, power conversion efficiency, and the resulting absorption spectra of photosynthetic organisms. Using light conditions in full solar exposure, light filtered by oxygenic phototrophs, and light filtered under seawater, we derived optimal absorption characteristics for efficient solar power conversion. We show how light-harvesting antennae can be tuned to maximize power conversion efficiency by minimizing excitation noise, thus providing a unified theoretical basis for the observed wavelength dependence of absorption in green plants, purple bacteria, and green sulfur bacteria.


Assuntos
Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Adsorção , Chlorobi , Transferência de Energia , Luz , Oxigênio , Energia Solar
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544157

RESUMO

The variation of the HOMO-LUMO band gap is explored for varying packing arrangements of the 4mod BT-4TIC donor-acceptor molecule pair, by means of a high-throughput ab-initio random structure search of packing possibilities. 350 arrangements of the dimer have been relaxed from initial random dispositions, using non-local density-functional theory. We find that the electronic band gap varies within 0.3 eV, and that this magnitude, the binding energy, and the geometry are not significantly correlated. A clearly favoured structure is found with a binding energy of 1.75±0.07 eV, with all but three other arrangements displaying values of less than one third of this highest binding one, which involves the aliphatic chain of 4TIC.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos/química , Energia Solar , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Tiadiazóis/química , Tiofenos/química
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31737-31749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500502

RESUMO

Solar energy systems are a cheaper and easy solution to cope with severe energy crisis especially in emerging economies including Turkey which exerted huge efforts to enhance the existing solar power projects. However, the selection of the optimal site for the installation of solar projects needs vigorous investigation through various factors. Adequate quantitative scientific research is required for the process of site selection in Turkey. This paper categorizes various sites in Turkey through various factors such as economic, environmental, and social factors. Various major criteria have been combined through mathematical development to install the solar power project in remote areas of Turkey. The scientific evaluation of remote and rural solar projects in Turkey has been taken as a case study in the current paper. Additionally, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and F-VIKOR methods were used to aggregate the criteria. The results show that economic and social ratio is significant, whereas the transmission matrix, land cost, and the sun irradiance got a major score in order to generate electricity. The study results show that total sunshine time per year determined is 2741 h (a total of 7.5 h per day) and the total solar energy obtained each year is 1527 kWh per square meter per year (a total of 4.18 kWh per square meter per day).


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletricidade , Turquia
13.
Science ; 368(6491): 587-588, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381709
14.
J Environ Manage ; 267: 110665, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421682

RESUMO

The electro-kinetic remediation of soils using different powering strategies has been studied, in order to clarify which is the best strategy to couple solar powering with this remediation technology, in a context of developing more sustainable electrochemical remediation technologies. Direct powering from photovoltaic panels (Case a), application of constant electric fields with the same average value of Case a (Case b) and application of constant specific power with the same average value of Case a (Case c) have been compared. Results show an outstanding influence of the powering strategy on the removal efficiency of clopyralid (model of herbicide used in this work). The direct use of solar power profiles obtained the lowest removal efficiencies, which contrasts with the higher expected sustainability of this powering strategy. Reversion of pollutant transport overnight and extreme electric field values at noon help to explain the lower efficiency of this strategy. Evaporation mechanisms are promoted by operating at extreme large electric fields. In addition, harsher conditions lead to a higher negative soil affectation in terms of regions affected by extreme pHs, water contents and/or conductivities and to lower specific pollutant removals. Therefore, maximum efficiencies were found for Case b (constant electric potential gradient) with a total removal over 110 g kWh-1 and only a slight affectation into the final soil properties.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Energia Solar , Solo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427990

RESUMO

PV (Photovoltaic) cells have nonlinear current-voltage (I - V) and power-voltage (P - V) characteristics with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) that entirely depends on the ambient meteorological conditions (i.e. solar irradiance and temperature). Hence, to continuously extract and deliver the maximum possible power from the PV system, under given meteorological conditions, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control strategy needs to be formulated that continuously operates the PV system at its MPP. To achieve this goal, a hybrid nonlinear, very fast and efficient MPPT control strategy, based on the robust integral backstepping (RIB) control, is formulated in this research article. The simulation testbed comprises a standalone PV array, a non-inverting buck-boost (NIBB) DC-DC power converter, a purely resistive and a dynamic load (sound system). The proposed MPPT control scheme consists of two loops, where the first loop generates the real-time offline reference peak power voltage through an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) network, which is then utilized in the second loop as a set-point value for generating a control signal and then forcing the PV system to be operated at this set-point by continuously adjusting the duty ratio of the power converter. This control strategy exhibits no overshoot, fast convergence, good transient response, fast rising and settling times and minimum output tracking error. The MATLAB/Simulink platform is used to test the performance of the proposed MPPT strategy against varying meteorological conditions, plant current and voltage faults and plant parametric uncertainties. To validate the superiority of the proposed control strategy, a comparative analysis of the proposed control strategy is presented with the nonlinear backstepping (B), integral backstepping controller (IB) and conventional PID and P&O based MPPT controllers.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica/tendências , Energia Solar , Simulação por Computador , Meteorologia , Modelos Teóricos
16.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127053, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454351

RESUMO

To meet the increasing worldwide need for freshwater, it has become critical to exploit non-potable saline water. Solar membrane distillation (MD) is a promising desalination technique, which does not require conventional energy and can reduce the cost of water production. We developed a cost-effective and high-efficiency photothermal membrane that employs TiN nanoparticles as an absorber of sunlight and energy converter. Due to a strong photothermal effect, the solar energy efficiency significantly improved. With optimal membrane and MD operating conditions, we obtained an MD flux of 0.940 kg/m2∙h and a solar efficiency of 64.1% under 1.0 kW/m2 solar irradiation. Compared with a bare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane, 65.8% more pure water was produced. Furthermore, the temperature polarization encountered in the conventional MD process was relieved on account of the unique interfacial heating of the photothermal coating, which also contributed to the high solar efficiency. In addition, the membrane was quite stable and the permeate water was of a high, potable quality. The as-prepared photothermal membrane demonstrated a good performance and application prospects for solar MD.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Destilação/métodos , Membranas , Membranas Artificiais , Energia Solar , Luz Solar , Temperatura , Água
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 29075-29090, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424748

RESUMO

The present article focuses on a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) of the most widely adopted solar photovoltaic power generation technologies, viz., mono-crystalline silicon (mono-Si), multi-crystalline silicon (multi-Si), amorphous silicon (a-Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) energy technologies, based on ReCiPe life cycle impact assessment method. LCA is the most powerful environmental impact assessment tool from a product perspective and ReCiPe is one of the most advanced LCA methodologies with the broadest set of mid-point impact categories. More importantly, ReCiPe combines the strengths of both mid-point-based life cycle impact assessment approach of CML-IA, and end-point-based approach of Eco-indicator 99 methods. Accordingly, the LCA results of all four solar PV technologies have been evaluated and compared based on 18 mid-point impact indicators (viz., climate change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, ionising radiation, agricultural land occupation, urban land occupation, natural land transformation, water depletion, metal depletion and fossil depletion), 3 end-point/damage indicators (viz., human health, ecosystems and cost increases in resource extraction) and a unified single score. The overall study has been conducted based on hierarchist perspective and according to the relevant ISO standards. Final results show that the CdTe thin-film solar plant carries the least environmental life cycle impact within the four PV technologies, sequentially followed by multi-Si, a-Si and mono-Si technology.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio , Pontos Quânticos , Energia Solar , Telúrio , Ecossistema , Humanos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 28730-28736, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462622

RESUMO

For several decades air pollution has been recognized to hit drastically the skin of human body. Air pollutants predominantly accountable for aging, oxidative damage, and inflammatory allergic reactions led to psoriasis, dermatitis, acne, and skin cancer owing to the impaired functions of DNA, proteins, and lipid biomolecules. Elevated air pollution and its detrimental effects along with variations in physiological parameters of the skin are verily the scaffold for anti-pollution assertions and could be recognized as markers. The present article encompasses the salient features of air pollution and UV radiations besides dreadful effects on human skin physiological parameters and some anti-pollution approaches.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Energia Solar , Humanos , Pele/química , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 539-547, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404546

RESUMO

Highly efficient nanocomposite electrolytes were prepared by mixing the montmorillonite (MMT) clay nanofillers and iodide poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) gel electrolytes for the purpose of measuring the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs). The impacts of different amounts of MMT nanofillers on the ion diffusivity, conductivity of the polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs), and the photovoltaic performance of the cells using the PGEs were evaluated. The results indicated that the use of 5 wt.% MMT markedly increase the ion diffusivity and conductivity of the PVDF-HFP PGE. The introduction of 5 wt.% nanofillers considerably reduced the Warburg diffusion resistance, which made to the high performance of the QS-DSSCs. Cells utilizing 5 wt.% MMT nanofillers were shown to obtain a power conversion efficiency (PCE) (6.77%) higher than that obtained for cells using pure PGEs and identical to that obtained using liquid electrolytes (LEs) (6.77%). The high PCE was a result of an enhance in the current density in the presence of the 5 wt.% MMT nanofillers. The DSSC efficiency was found to maintain 99.9% of its initial value after 194 h of testing at 60℃ under dark environments. The stability of the DSSC using PGEs with the optimal amount of MMT nanofillers was higher than that for the cells using liquid electrolyte and pure PGE.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Corantes , Eletrólitos/química , Iodetos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Polivinil/química , Energia Solar , Géis , Polímeros
20.
Water Res ; 177: 115770, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305700

RESUMO

Solar-driven interfacial water evaporation, which gets rid of the limitation of saline waters, enables to supply potable water in the worldwide, especially in remote areas where only solar energy and water are available. This technique has also exhibited great potential applications in fields such as seawater desalination, steam sterilization, and fuel production. However, the evaporation efficiency decreases during continuous operation in saline water due to the blockage of the solar absorber resulting from crystalline salt deposition. Therefore, it is still a great challenge to design a stable and efficient solar-driven interfacial saline water evaporator. Herein, a variety of structural designs and engineering strategies for salt removal of evaporators in the latest years were reviewed. We classified these strategies as remaining unsaturated evaporation of saline water, preventing salt ions from contacting the solar absorber, dissolving and/or migrating back of crystalline salts, and keeping salt crystallization away from evaporation area. Finally, the current challenges and future research opportunities were discussed. The purpose of this review was: (1) to provide ideas to solve the problem of the reduced efficiency causing by salt deposition during saline water evaporation and (2) to promote the application of solar-driven interfacial saline water evaporation technology by providing the latest achievements in structural designs for salt removal.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Purificação da Água , Águas Salinas , Cloreto de Sódio , Luz Solar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA