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1.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 111, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280424

RESUMO

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) immune systems in bacteria have been used as tools for genome engineering. Thus far, the CRISPR-Cas system has been used in various yeast, bacterial, and mammalian cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a nonpathogenic yeast, classified under "generally recognized as safe", and has long been used to produce consumables such as alcohol or bread. Additionally, recombinant cells of S. cerevisiae have been constructed and used to produce various bio-based chemicals. Some types of CRISPR-Cas system for genetic manipulation have been constructed during the early developmental stages of the CRISPR-Cas system and have been mainly used for gene knock-in and knock-out manipulations. Thereafter, these systems have been used for various novel purposes such as metabolic engineering and tolerance engineering. In this review, we have summarized different aspects of the CRISPR-Cas in the yeast S. cerevisiae, from its basic principles to various applications. This review describes the CRISPR system in S. cerevisiae based on the differences in its origin and efficiency followed by its basic applications; for example, its involvement in gene knock-in and knock-out has been outlined. Finally, advanced applications of the CRISPR system in the bioproduction of useful chemicals have been summarized.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes/métodos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
2.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 112, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286266

RESUMO

Microorganisms have evolved permeases to incorporate various essential nutrients and exclude harmful products, which assists in adaptation to different environmental conditions for survival. As permeases are directly involved in the utilization of and regulatory response to nutrient sources, metabolic engineering of microbial permeases can predictably influence nutrient metabolism and regulation. In this mini-review, we have summarized the mechanisms underlying the general regulation of permeases, and the current advancements and future prospects of metabolic engineering strategies targeting the permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The different types of permeases and their regulatory mechanisms have been discussed. Furthermore, methods for metabolic engineering of permeases have been highlighted. Understanding the mechanisms via which permeases are meticulously regulated and engineered will not only facilitate research on regulation of global nutrition and yeast metabolic engineering, but can also provide important insights for future studies on the synthesis of valuable products and elimination of harmful substances in S. cerevisiae.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Carbono/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
3.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 335-344, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322471

RESUMO

Selenium-enriched yeast can transform toxic inorganic selenium into absorbable organic selenium, which is of great significance for human health and pharmaceutical industry. A yeast Rhodotorula glutinis X-20 we obtained before has good selenium-enriched ability, but its selenium content is still low for industrial application. In this study, strategies of process optimization and transport regulation of selenium were thus employed to further improve the cell growth and selenium enrichment. Through engineering phosphate transporters from Saccharomyces cerevisiae into R. glutinis X-20, the selenium content was increased by 21.1%. Through using mixed carbon culture (20 g L-1, glycerol: glucose 3:7), both biomass and selenium content were finally increased to 5.3 g L-1 and 5349.6 µg g-1 (cell dry weight, DWC), which were 1.14 folds and 6.77 folds compared to their original values, respectively. Our results indicate that high selenium-enrichment ability and biomass production can be achieved through combining process optimization and regulation of selenium transport.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Selênio/metabolismo , Transgenes , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Glucose/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicerol/química , Glicerol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Simportadores de Próton-Fosfato/genética , Simportadores de Próton-Fosfato/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/genética , Proteínas Cotransportadoras de Sódio-Fosfato Tipo III/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3099, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308373

RESUMO

The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis exhibits complex spatial and temporal gene expression signals. Although optogenetic tools are ideal for studying such processes, none has been engineered for this organism. Here, we port a cyanobacterial light sensor pathway comprising the green/red photoreversible two-component system CcaSR, two metabolic enzymes for production of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), and an output promoter to control transcription of a gene of interest into B. subtilis. Following an initial non-functional design, we optimize expression of pathway genes, enhance PCB production via a translational fusion of the biosynthetic enzymes, engineer a strong chimeric output promoter, and increase dynamic range with a miniaturized photosensor kinase. Our final design exhibits over 70-fold activation and rapid response dynamics, making it well-suited to studying a wide range of gene regulatory processes. In addition, the synthetic biology methods we develop to port this pathway should make B. subtilis easier to engineer in the future.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos da radiação , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Optogenética/métodos , Fitocromo/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Luz , Ficobilinas/biossíntese , Ficocianina/biossíntese , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
5.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 101, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many fermented foods and beverages are produced through the action of complex microbial communities. Synthetic biology approaches offer the ability to genetically engineer these communities to improve the properties of these fermented foods. Soy sauce is a fermented condiment with a vast global market. Engineering members of the microbial communities responsible for soy sauce fermentation may therefore lead to the development of improved products. One important property is the colour of soy sauce, with recent evidence pointing to a consumer preference for more lightly-coloured soy sauce products for particular dishes. RESULTS: Here we show that a bacterial member of the natural soy sauce fermentation microbial community, Bacillus, can be engineered to reduce the 'browning' reaction during soy sauce production. We show that two approaches result in 'de-browning': engineered consumption of xylose, an important precursor in the browning reaction, and engineered degradation of melanoidins, the major brown pigments in soy sauce. Lastly, we show that these two strategies work synergistically using co-cultures to result in enhanced de-browning. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential of using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for fine-tuning the process of soy sauce fermentation and indeed for many other natural food and beverage fermentations for improved products.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Polímeros/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja , Soja/microbiologia , Xilose/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Técnicas de Cocultura , Microbiologia Industrial , Microbiota , Biologia Sintética , Xilose/genética
6.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 105, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene alcohol, is found as a primary constituent in the essential oils of plants such as geranium, lemongrass and rose. The floral-like scent of geraniol has made it a popular constituent of flavour and fragrance products. Over recent decades biotechnology has made significant progress towards the development of industrial platforms for the production of commercially valuable monoterpenoids, such as geraniol, through expression of recombinant terpene biosynthetic pathways in microbial hosts. Titres, however, have been hindered due to the inherent toxicity of these compounds-which are often utilised for anti-microbial and anti-fungal functions in their host plant. RESULTS: In this study we modified an Escherichia coli strain, engineered to express a heterologous mevalonate pathway, by replacement of the terpene synthase with a geraniol synthase from Ocimum basilicum for the production of geraniol, and co-expressed an alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) from Rosa hybrida for the specific acetylation of geraniol. The low water solubility of geranyl acetate facilitated its partition into the organic phase of a two-phase system, relieving the cellular toxicity attributed to the build-up of geraniol in the aqueous phase. In a partially optimised system this strain produced 4.8 g/L geranyl acetate (based on the aqueous volume) which, on a molar equivalent basis, represents the highest monoterpene titre achieved from microbial culture to date. It was also found that esterification of geraniol prevented bioconversion into other monoterpenoids, leading to a significant improvement in product specificity, with geranyl acetate being the sole product observed. CONCLUSION: In this study we have shown that it is possible to both overcome the toxicity limit impeding the production of the monoterpene alcohol geraniol and mitigate product loss in culture through endogenous metabolism by using an in vivo esterification strategy. This strategy has resulted in the highest geraniol (equivalent) titres achieved from a microbial host, and presents esterification as a viable approach to increasing the titres obtained in microbial monoterpenoid production.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Terpenos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Esterificação , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados
7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 106, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late-stage fermentation broth contains high concentrations of target chemicals. Additionally, it contains various cellular metabolites which have leaked from lysed cells, which would exert multifactorial stress to industrial hyperproducers and perturb both cellular metabolism and product formation. Although adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) has been wildly used to improve stress tolerance of microbial cell factories, single-factor stress condition (i.e. target product or sodium chloride at a high concentration) is currently provided. In order to enhance bacterial stress tolerance to actual industrial production conditions, ALE in late-stage fermentation broth is desired. Genome replication engineering assisted continuous evolution (GREACE) employs mutants of the proofreading element of DNA polymerase complex (DnaQ) to facilitate mutagenesis. Application of GREACE coupled-with selection under stress conditions is expected to accelerate the ALE process. RESULTS: In this study, GREACE was first modified by expressing a DnaQ mutant KR5-2 using an arabinose inducible promoter on a temperature-sensitive plasmid, which resulted in timed mutagenesis introduction. Using this method, tolerance of a lysine hyperproducer E. coli MU-1 was improved by enriching mutants in a lysine endpoint fermentation broth. Afterwards, the KR5-2 expressing plasmid was cured to stabilize acquired genotypes. By subsequent fermentation evaluation, a mutant RS3 with significantly improved lysine production capacity was selected. The final titer, yield and total amount of lysine produced by RS3 in a 5-L batch fermentation reached 155.0 ± 1.4 g/L, 0.59 ± 0.02 g lysine/g glucose, and 605.6 ± 23.5 g, with improvements of 14.8%, 9.3%, and 16.7%, respectively. Further metabolomics and genomics analyses, coupled with molecular biology studies revealed that mutations SpeBA302V, AtpBS165N and SecYM145V mainly contributed both to improved cell integrity under stress conditions and enhanced metabolic flux into lysine synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our present study indicates that improving a lysine hyperproducer by GREACE-assisted ALE in its stressful living environment is efficient and effective. Accordingly, this is a promising method for improving other valuable chemical hyperproducers.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular Direcionada/métodos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Mutagênese
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 923-932, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154747

RESUMO

Current strategies of strain improvement processes are mainly focused on enhancing the synthetic pathways of the products. However, excessive metabolic flux often creates metabolic imbalances, which lead to growth retardation and ultimately limit the yield of the product. To solve this problem, we applied a dynamic regulation strategy to produce L-phenylalanine (LPhe) in Escherichia coli. First, we constructed a series of Phe-induced promoters that exhibited different strengths through modification of the promoter region of tyrP. Then, two engineered promoters were separately introduced into a Phe-producing strain xllp1 to dynamically control the expression level of one pathway enzyme AroK. Batch fermentation results of the strain xllp3 showed that the titer of Phe reached 61.3 g/l at 48 h, representing a titer of 1.36- fold of the strain xllp1 (45.0 g/l). Moreover, the L-Phe yields on glucose of xllp3 (0.22 g/g) were also greatly improved, with an increase of 1.22-fold in comparison with the xllp1 (0.18 g/ g). In summary, we successfully improved the titer of Phe by using dynamic regulation of one key enzyme and this strategy can be applied for improving the performance of strains producing other aromatic amino acids and derived compounds.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fenilalanina/biossíntese , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Análise do Fluxo Metabólico , Mutação , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2615, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197154

RESUMO

Balanced expression of multiple genes is central for establishing new biosynthetic pathways or multiprotein cellular complexes. Methods for efficient combinatorial assembly of regulatory sequences (promoters) and protein coding sequences are therefore highly wanted. Here, we report a high-throughput cloning method, called COMPASS for COMbinatorial Pathway ASSembly, for the balanced expression of multiple genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. COMPASS employs orthogonal, plant-derived artificial transcription factors (ATFs) and homologous recombination-based cloning for the generation of thousands of individual DNA constructs in parallel. The method relies on a positive selection of correctly assembled pathway variants from both, in vivo and in vitro cloning procedures. To decrease the turnaround time in genomic engineering, COMPASS is equipped with multi-locus CRISPR/Cas9-mediated modification capacity. We demonstrate the application of COMPASS by generating cell libraries producing ß-carotene and co-producing ß-ionone and biosensor-responsive naringenin. COMPASS will have many applications in synthetic biology projects that require gene expression balancing.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Flavanonas/biossíntese , Recombinação Homóloga/genética , Norisoprenoides/biossíntese , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , beta Caroteno/biossíntese
10.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 98, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farnesol is an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol present in the essential oils of various plants in nature. It has been reported to be valuable in medical applications, such as alleviation of allergic asthma, gliosis, and edema as well as anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory effects. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor in the aerobic respiratory electron transport chain, has attracted growing interest owing to its clinical benefits and important applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and health industries. In this work, co-production of (E,E)-farnesol (FOH) and CoQ10 was achieved by combining 3 different exogenous terpenes or sesquiterpene synthase with the RNA interference of psy (responsible for phytoene synthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides GY-2). RESULTS: FOH production was significantly increased by overexpressing exogenous terpene synthase (TPS), phosphatidylglycerophosphatase B (PgpB), and sesquiterpene synthase (ATPS), as well as RNAi-mediated silencing of psy coding phytoene synthase (PSY) in R. sphaeroides strains. Rs-TPS, Rs-ATPS, and Rs-PgpB respectively produced 68.2%, 43.4%, and 21.9% higher FOH titers than that of the control strain. Interestingly, the CoQ10 production of these 3 recombinant R. sphaeroides strains was exactly opposite to that of FOH. However, CoQ10 production was almost unaffected in R. sphaeroides strains modified by psy RNA interference. The highest FOH production of 40.45 mg/L, which was twice as high as that of the control, was obtained from the TPS-PSYi strain, where the exogenous TPS was combined with the weakening of the phytoene synthesis pathway via psy RNA interference. CoQ10 production in TPS-PSYi, ATPS-PSYi, and PgpB-PSYi was decreased and lower than that of the control strain. CONCLUSIONS: The original flux that contributed to phytoene synthesis was effectively redirected to provide precursors toward FOH or CoQ10 synthesis via psy RNA interference, which led to weakened carotenoid synthesis. The improved flux that was originally involved in CoQ10 production and phytoene synthesis was redirected toward FOH synthesis via metabolic modification. This is the first reported instance of FOH and CoQ10 co-production in R. sphaeroides using a metabolic engineering strategy.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Farneseno Álcool/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Fosfatidato Fosfatase/genética , Interferência de RNA , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/enzimologia , Rhodobacter sphaeroides/genética , Ubiquinona/biossíntese , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
11.
Gene ; 706: 106-114, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039437

RESUMO

Biological significance of 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3 n-6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; C20:3 n-6) has gained much attention in the systematic development of optimized strains for industrial applications. In this work, a n-6 PUFAs-producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae was generated by manipulating metabolic reactions in fatty acid modification and triacylglycerol biosynthesis. The codon-optimized genes coding for Δ6-desaturase and Δ6-elongase of Pythium sp., and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (mMaDGAT2) of Mortierella alpina were co-transformed in a single vector into A. oryzae BCC14614, yielding strain TD6E6-DGAT2. Comparative phenotypic analysis showed that a 70% increase of lipid titer was found in the engineered strain, which was a result of a significant increase in triacylglycerol (TAG) content (52.0 ±â€¯1.8% of total lipids), and corresponded to the increased size of lipid particles observed in the fungal cells. Interestingly, the proportions of GLA and DGLA in neutral lipids of the engineered strain were similar, with the highest titers obtained in the high C:N culture (29:0; 6% glucose) during the lipid-accumulating stage of growth. Time-course expression analysis of the engineered strain revealed transcriptional control of TAG biosynthesis through a co-operation between the native DGAT2 of A. oryzae and the transformed mMaDGAT2.


Assuntos
Aspergillus oryzae/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/metabolismo , Ácido Araquidônico/biossíntese , Aspergillus oryzae/genética , Aspergillus oryzae/fisiologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Mortierella/genética , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Ácido gama-Linolênico/biossíntese
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 227, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serratia marcescens is a chitinolytic bacterium that can potentially be used for consolidated bioprocessing to convert chitin to value-added chemicals. Currently, S. marcescens is poorly characterized and studies on intracellular metabolic and regulatory mechanisms would expedite development of bioprocessing applications. RESULTS: In this study, our goal was to characterize the metabolic profile of S. marcescens to provide insight for metabolic engineering applications and fundamental biological studies. Hereby, we constructed a constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model (iSR929) including 929 genes, 1185 reactions and 1164 metabolites based on genomic annotation of S. marcescens Db11. The model was tested by comparing model predictions with experimental data and analyzed to identify essential aspects of the metabolic network (e.g. 138 essential genes predicted). The model iSR929 was refined by integrating RNAseq data of S. marcescens growth on three different carbon sources (glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and glycerol). Significant differences in TCA cycle utilization were found for growth on the different carbon substrates, For example, for growth on N-acetylglucosamine, S. marcescens exhibits high pentose phosphate pathway activity and nucleotide synthesis but low activity of the TCA cycle. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that S. marcescens model iSR929 can provide reasonable predictions and can be constrained to fit with experimental values. Thus, our model may be used to guide strain designs for metabolic engineering to produce chemicals such as 2,3-butanediol, N-acetylneuraminic acid, and n-butanol using S. marcescens.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Serratia marcescens/genética
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(5): 77, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069553

RESUMO

Ethylene is a volatile alkene which is used in large commercial scale as a precursor in plastic industry, and is currently derived from petroleum refinement. As an alternative production strategy, photoautotrophic cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 have been previously evaluated as potential biotechnological hosts for producing ethylene directly from CO2, by the over-expression of ethylene forming enzyme (efe) from Pseudomonas syringae. This work addresses various open questions related to the use of Synechococcus as the engineering target, and demonstrates long-term ethylene production at rates reaching 140 µL L-1 h-1 OD750-1 without loss of host vitality or capacity to produce ethylene. The results imply that the genetic instability observed earlier may be associated with the expression strategies, rather than efe over-expression, ethylene toxicity or the depletion of 2-oxoglutarate-derived cellular precursors in Synechococcus. In context with literature, this study underlines the critical differences in expression system design in the alternative hosts, and confirms Synechococcus as a suitable parallel host for further engineering.


Assuntos
Etilenos/biossíntese , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Synechococcus/genética , Synechococcus/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/genética , Etilenos/toxicidade , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Synechococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Synechococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transformação Genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2142, 2019 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086174

RESUMO

Metabolic engineers endeavor to create a bio-based manufacturing industry using microbes to produce fuels, chemicals, and medicines. Plant natural products (PNPs) are historically challenging to produce and are ubiquitous in medicines, flavors, and fragrances. Engineering PNP pathways into new hosts requires finding or modifying a suitable host to accommodate the pathway, planning and implementing a biosynthetic route to the compound, and discovering or engineering enzymes for missing steps. In this review, we describe recent developments in metabolic engineering at the level of host, pathway, and enzyme, and discuss how the field is approaching ever more complex biosynthetic opportunities.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Enzimas/genética , Enzimas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/tendências , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Biologia Sintética/tendências
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 287: 121410, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076292

RESUMO

In this study, nerol was biosynthesized in the metabolic engineered Escherichia coli from glucose for the first time. Firstly, the truncated neryl diphosphate synthase gene tNDPS1 was expressed that catalyzes isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to form neryl diphosphate (NPP), and then the nerol synthase gene GmNES was co-expressed to synthesize the final product nerol from NPP. The engineered strain LZ001 accumulated 0.053 ±â€¯0.015 mg/L of nerol. Secondly, the IDI1, MVD1, ERG8, ERG12, tHMG1 and ERG13 were co-expressed to increase the supply of IPP and DMAPP. Finally, the heterologous ERG10 gene was overexpressed, and the recombinant strain LZ005 produced 1.564 ±â€¯0.102 mg/L of nerol in shaking-flask culture, which represents a 29.51-fold increase over LZ001 strain. This study shows the novel method for the biosynthesis of nerol and provides new metabolic engineering strategy for the production of terpenoids.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Terpenos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Hemiterpenos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/metabolismo
16.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(8): 1871-1879, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135027

RESUMO

Wild-type plants of the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil) produce blue flowers that accumulate anthocyanin pigments, whereas its mutant cultivars show wide range flower color such as red, magenta and white. However, I. nil lacks yellow color varieties even though yellow flowers were curiously described in words and woodblocks printed in the 19th century. Such yellow flowers have been regarded as 'phantom morning glories', and their production has not been achieved despite efforts by breeders of I. nil. The chalcone isomerase (CHI) mutants (including line 54Y) bloom very pale yellow or cream-colored flowers conferred by the accumulation of 2', 4', 6', 4-tetrahydoroxychalcone (THC) 2'-O-glucoside. To produce yellow phantom morning glories, we introduced two snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) genes to the 54Y line by encoding aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) and chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (Am4'CGT), which are necessary for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside and yellow coloration in A. majus. The transgenic plants expressing both genes exhibit yellow flowers, a character sought for many years. The flower petals of the transgenic plants contained aureusidin 6-O-glucoside, as well as a reduced amount of THC 2'-O-glucoside. In addition, we identified a novel aurone compound, aureusidin 6-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside, in the yellow petals. A combination of the coexpression of AmAS1 and Am4'CGT and suppression of CHI is an effective strategy for generating yellow varieties in horticultural plants.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Ipomoea nil/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
17.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 60(6): 1274-1283, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056666

RESUMO

As an important industrial feedstock, wax esters (WEs) have been used as lubricants in a number of technical processes. There is however currently no large-scale biological source for WE production and alteration in metabolic pathways of plant oils for producing WEs could be attractive to the commercial markets. Here, we present the breeding results of long-term studies on successful development of new crambe lines producing WEs through genetic engineering and cross breeding. The transgenic crambe lines producing WEs at over 25% of the total seed oil were first generated by introduction of the jojoba WE biosynthetic genes ScFAR and ScWS. Further improvement of the lines aiming at improving oxidative stability of WEs was achieved through introducing the CaFAD2-RNAi gene into these lines by crossing. The hybrid lines possessed similar agronomic traits to the wild type and a stable level of WEs over several generations, suggesting a high potential of crambe as an industrial crop for WE production.


Assuntos
Crambe (Planta)/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Crambe (Planta)/genética , Genes de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Óleos Industriais , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo
18.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 77, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenoid and a potential antiviral and antitumor drug, but the amount of betulinic acid in plants is low and cannot meet the demand for this compound. Yarrowia lipolytica, as an oleaginous yeast, is a promising microbial cell factory for the production of highly hydrophobic compounds due to the ability of this organism to accumulate large amounts of lipids that can store hydrophobic products and supply sufficient precursors for terpene synthesis. However, engineering for the heterologous production of betulinic acid and related triterpenoids has not developed as systematically as that for the production of other terpenoids, thus the production of betulinic acid in microbes remains unsatisfactory. RESULTS: In this study, we applied a multimodular strategy to systematically improve the biosynthesis of betulinic acid and related triterpenoids in Y. lipolytica by engineering four functional modules, namely, the heterogenous CYP/CPR, MVA, acetyl-CoA generation, and redox cofactor supply modules. First, by screening 25 combinations of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductases (CPRs), each of which originated from 5 different sources, we selected two optimal betulinic acid-producing strains. Then, ERG1, ERG9, and HMG1 in the MVA module were overexpressed in the two strains, which dramatically increased betulinic acid production and resulted in a strain (YLJCC56) that exhibited the highest betulinic acid yield of 51.87 ± 2.77 mg/L. Then, we engineered the redox cofactor supply module by introducing NADPH- or NADH-generating enzymes and the acetyl-CoA generation module by directly overexpressing acetyl-CoA synthases or reinforcing the ß-oxidation pathway, which further increased the total triterpenoid yield (the sum of the betulin, betulinic acid, betulinic aldehyde yields). Finally, we engineered these modules in combination, and the total triterpenoid yield reached 204.89 ± 11.56 mg/L (composed of 65.44% betulin, 23.71% betulinic acid and 10.85% betulinic aldehyde) in shake flask cultures. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we systematically engineered Y. lipolytica and achieved, to the best of our knowledge, the highest betulinic acid and total triterpenoid yields reported in microbes. Our study provides a suitable reference for studies on heterologous exploitation of P450 enzymes and manipulation of triterpenoid production in Y. lipolytica.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Yarrowia/enzimologia
19.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 79, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Styrene is a large-volume commodity petrochemical, which has been used in a wide range of polymer industry as the main building block for the construction of various functional polymers. Despite many efforts to produce styrene in microbial hosts, the production titers are still low and are not enough to meet the commercial production of styrene. RESULTS: Previously, we developed a high L-phenylalanine producer (E. coli YHP05), and it was used as a main host for de novo synthesis of styrene. First, we introduced the co-expression system of phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL) and ferulic acid decarboxylase (FDC) genes for the synthesis of styrene from L-phenylalanine. Then, to minimize cell toxicity and enhance the recovery of styrene, in situ product recovery (ISPR) with n-dodecane was employed, and culture medium with supplementation of complex sources was also optimized. As a result, 1.7 ± 0.1 g/L of styrene was produced in the flask cultures. Finally, fed-batch cultivations were performed in lab-scale bioreactor, and to minimize the loss of volatile styrene during the cultivation, three consecutive bottles containing n-dodecane were connected to the air outlet of bioreactor for gas-stripping. To conclude, the total titer of styrene was as high as 5.3 ± 0.2 g/L, which could be obtained at 60 h. CONCLUSION: We successfully engineered E. coli strain for the de novo production of styrene in both flask and fed-batch cultivation, and could achieve the highest titer for styrene in bacterial hosts reported till date. We believe that our efforts in strain engineering and ISPR strategy with organic solvent will provide a new insight for economic and industrial production of styrene in a biological platform.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Microrganismos Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Estireno/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Reatores Biológicos
20.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 83, 2019 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As renewable biomass, lignocellulose remains one of the major choices for most countries in tackling global energy shortage and environment pollution. Efficient utilization of xylose, an important monosaccharide in lignocellulose, is essential for the production of high-value compounds, such as ethanol, lipids, and isoprenoids. Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a kind of isoprenoids, has important medical values and great market potential. RESULTS: The engineered protopanaxadiol-producing Yarrowia lipolytica strain, which can use xylose as the sole carbon source, was constructed by introducing xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Scheffersomyces stipitis, overexpressing endogenous xylulose kinase (ylXKS) and heterologous PPD synthetic modules, and then 18.18 mg/L of PPD was obtained. Metabolic engineering strategies such as regulating cofactor balance, enhancing precursor flux, and improving xylose metabolism rate via XR (K270R/N272D) mutation, the overexpression of tHMG1/ERG9/ERG20 and transaldolase (TAL)/transketolase (TKL)/xylose transporter (TX), were implemented to enhance PPD production. The final Y14 strain exhibited the greatest PPD titer from xylose by fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L fermenter, reaching 300.63 mg/L [yield, 2.505 mg/g (sugar); productivity, 2.505 mg/L/h], which was significantly higher than the titer of glucose fermentation [titer, 167.17 mg/L; yield, 1.194 mg/g (sugar); productivity, 1.548 mg/L/h]. CONCLUSION: The results showed that xylose was more suitable for PPD synthesis than glucose due to the enhanced carbon flux towards acetyl-CoA, the precursor for PPD biosynthetic pathway. This is the first report to produce PPD in Y. lipolytica with xylose as the sole carbon source, which developed a promising strategy for the efficient production of high-value triterpenoid compounds.


Assuntos
Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo , Yarrowia/genética , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Aldeído Redutase/genética , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Biomassa , Vias Biossintéticas , D-Xilulose Redutase/genética , D-Xilulose Redutase/metabolismo , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados
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