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1.
BMJ ; 369: m718, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349978

RESUMO

Head and neck structures govern the vital functions of breathing and swallowing. Additionally, these structures facilitate our sense of self through vocal communication, hearing, facial animation, and physical appearance. Loss of these functions can lead to loss of life or greatly affect quality of life. Regenerative medicine is a rapidly developing field that aims to repair or replace damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Although the field is largely in its nascence, regenerative medicine holds promise for improving on conventional treatments for head and neck disorders or providing therapies where no current standard exists. This review presents milestones in the research of regenerative medicine in head and neck surgery.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/uso terapêutico , Otolaringologia/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/tendências , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Tecidos Suporte , Bioengenharia , Transplante de Células/métodos , Transplante de Células/tendências , Cóclea , Cartilagem da Orelha , Ossos Faciais , Humanos , Laringe , Cartilagens Nasais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Glândulas Salivares , Crânio , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Traqueia , Membrana Timpânica
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1174: 401-440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713207

RESUMO

The human body can be viewed as an organism consisting of a variety of cellular and non-cellular materials interacting in a highly ordered manner. Its complex and hierarchical nature inspires the multi-level recapitulation of the human body in order to gain insights into the inner workings of life. While traditional cell culture models have led to new insights into the cellular microenvironment and biological control in vivo, deeper understanding of biological systems and human pathophysiology requires the development of novel model systems that allow for analysis of complex internal and external interactions within the cellular microenvironment in a more relevant organ context. Engineering organ-on-chip systems offers an unprecedented opportunity to unravel the complex and hierarchical nature of human organs. In this chapter, we first highlight the advances in microfluidic platforms that enable engineering of the cellular microenvironment and the transition from cells-on-chips to organs-on-chips. Then, we introduce the key features of the emerging organs-on-chips and their proof-of-concept applications in biomedical research. We also discuss the challenges and future outlooks of this state-of-the-art technology.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Engenharia Tecidual , Microambiente Celular , Humanos , Microfluídica/tendências , Modelos Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/tendências , Fisiologia/tendências , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
4.
J Med Life ; 12(3): 225-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666821

RESUMO

Almost 30 years have passed since the term 'tissue engineering' was created to represent a new concept that focuses on the regeneration of neotissues from cells with the support of biomaterials and growth factors. This interdisciplinary engineering has attracted much attention as a new therapeutic means that may overcome the drawbacks involved in the current artificial organs and organ transplantation that have also been aiming at replacing lost or severely damaged tissues or organs. However, the tissues regenerated by tissue engineering and widely applied to patients are still minimal, including skin, bone, cartilage, capillary, and periodontal tissues. What are the reasons for such slow advances in clinical applications of tissue engineering? This article gives a brief overview of the current state of tissue engineering, covering the fundamentals and applications. The fundamentals of tissue engineering involve cell sources, scaffolds for cell expansion and differentiation, as well as carriers for growth factors. Animal and human trials are a major part of the applications. Based on these results, some critical problems to be resolved for the advances of tissue engineering are addressed from the engineering point of view, emphasizing the close collaboration between medical doctors and biomaterials scientists.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Tecidos Suporte/química
5.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 61(4): 429-439, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573338

RESUMO

The University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), the Alpha-1 Foundation, the American Thoracic Society, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, the European Respiratory Society, the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop titled "Stem Cells, Cell Therapies, and Bioengineering in Lung Biology and Diseases" from July 24 through 27, 2017, at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. The conference objectives were to review and discuss current understanding of the following topics: 1) stem and progenitor cell biology and the role that they play in endogenous repair or as cell therapies after lung injury, 2) the emerging role of extracellular vesicles as potential therapies, 3) ex vivo bioengineering of lung and airway tissue, and 4) progress in induced pluripotent stem cell protocols for deriving lung cell types and applications in disease modeling. All of these topics are research areas in which significant and exciting progress has been made over the past few years. In addition, issues surrounding the ethics and regulation of cell therapies worldwide were discussed, with a special emphasis on combating the growing problem of unproven cell interventions being administered to patients with lung diseases. Finally, future research directions were discussed, and opportunities for both basic and translational research were identified.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Pneumopatias/terapia , Células-Tronco , Bioengenharia/tendências , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/ética , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Vesículas Extracelulares/transplante , Previsões , Prioridades em Saúde , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pulmão/citologia , Pesquisa , Empresa de Pequeno Porte , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/tendências
6.
Biosci Trends ; 13(4): 292-298, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527326

RESUMO

The past decade has witnessed remarkable development in tissue engineering technologies and stem cells. Our lab has developed a novel technology - "cell sheet technology" for tissue engineering. After the confluent cells are cultured on an innovative temperature-responsive culture dish, the cells can be harvested as an intact sheet by lowering temperature. We have successfully created multiple cell sheet-based tissues for therapies of a vast variety of diseases, in particular, myocardial diseases. On the other side, the discovery of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) enables stable production of defined tissue-specific cell types and thus makes it possible to regenerate tissues or even organs for clinical application and in vitro drug screening/disease modeling. Recently, we have combined cell sheet technology and hiPSC-derived cardiac cells for fabrication of functional human cardiac tissues. This review summarizes ongoing challenges in this field and our progresses in solving issues, such as large scale culture of hiPSC-derived cardiac cells, elimination of undifferentiated iPSCs to decrease the risk of tumor formation as well as myocardial tissue fabrication technologies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/tendências , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
7.
Mol Cells ; 42(9): 617-627, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564073

RESUMO

Brain organoids are an exciting new technology with the potential to significantly change our understanding of the development and disorders of the human brain. With step-by-step differentiation protocols, three-dimensional neural tissues are self-organized from pluripotent stem cells, and recapitulate the major millstones of human brain development in vitro. Recent studies have shown that brain organoids can mimic the spatiotemporal dynamicity of neurogenesis, the formation of regional neural circuitry, and the integration of glial cells into a neural network. This suggests that brain organoids could serve as a representative model system to study the human brain. In this review, we will overview the development of brain organoid technology, its current progress and applications, and future prospects of this technology.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Organoides/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Encefalopatias/patologia , Humanos
8.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 33(9): 1064-1070, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512444

RESUMO

In sports system, the tendon-bone interface has the effect of tensile and bearing load, so the effect of healing plays a crucial role in restoring joint function. The process of repair is the formation of scar tissue, so it is difficult to achieve the ideal effect for morphology and biomechanical strength. The tissue engineering method can promote the tendon-bone interface healing from the seed cells, growth factors, and scaffolds, and is a new direction in the field of development of the tendon-bone interface healing.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Tendões , Engenharia Tecidual , Cicatrização , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
9.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 21(9): 105, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367922

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tissue engineering has expanded into a highly versatile manufacturing landscape that holds great promise for advancing cardiovascular regenerative medicine. In this review, we provide a summary of the current state-of-the-art bioengineering technologies used to create functional cardiac tissues for a variety of applications in vitro and in vivo. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies over the past few years have made a strong case that tissue engineering is one of the major driving forces behind the accelerating fields of patient-specific regenerative medicine, precision medicine, compound screening, and disease modeling. To date, a variety of approaches have been used to bioengineer functional cardiac constructs, including biomaterial-based, cell-based, and hybrid (using cells and biomaterials) approaches. While some major progress has been made using cellular approaches, with multiple ongoing clinical trials, cell-free cardiac tissue engineering approaches have also accomplished multiple breakthroughs, although drawbacks remain. This review summarizes the most promising methods that have been employed to generate cardiovascular tissue constructs for basic science or clinical applications. Further, we outline the strengths and challenges that are inherent to this field as a whole and for each highlighted technology.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Bioimpressão , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Tecidos Suporte , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6258248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312660

RESUMO

Guanosine is an important building block for supramolecular gels owing to the unique self-assembly property that results from the unique hydrogen bond acceptors and donor groups. Guanosine-derived supramolecular hydrogels have promise in the fields of drug delivery, targeted release, tissue engineering applications, etc. However, the property of poor longevity and the need for excess cations hinder the widespread applications of guanosine hydrogels. Although guanosine-derived supramolecular hydrogels have been reviewed previously by Dash et al., the structural framework of this review is different, as the modification of guanosine is described at the molecular level. In this review, we summarize the development and lifetime stability improvement of guanosine-based supramolecular hydrogels through optimized structure and elaborate on three aspects: sugar modification, base modification, and binary gels. Additionally, we introduce the concept and recent research progress of self-healing gels, providing inspiration for the development of guanosine-derived supramolecular hydrogels with longer lifespans, unique physicochemical properties, and biological activities.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Guanosina/química , Hidrogéis/química , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Cátions/química , Humanos , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Longevidade , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(6): 911-921, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203564

RESUMO

Regenerative medicine represents the forefront of health sciences and holds promises for the treatment and, possibly, the cure of a number of challenging conditions. It relies on the use of stem cells, tissue engineering, and gene therapy alone or in different combinations. The goal is to deliver cells, tissues, or organs to repair, regenerate, or replace the damaged ones. Among stem-cell populations, both haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells have been employed in the treatment of refractory chronic inflammatory diseases with promising results. However, only mesenchymal stem cells seem advantageous as both systemic and local injections may be performed without the need for immune ablation. Recently, also induced pluripotent stem cells have been exploited for therapeutic purposes given their tremendous potential to be an unlimited source of any tissue-specific cells. Moreover, through the development of technologies that make organ fabrication possible using cells and supporting scaffolding materials, regenerative medicine promises to enable organ-on-demand, whereby patients will receive organs in a timely fashion without the risk of rejection. Finally, gene therapy is emerging as a successful strategy not only in monogenic diseases, but also in multifactorial conditions. Several of these approaches have recently received approval for commercialization, thus opening a new therapeutic era. This is why both General Practitioners and Internists should be aware of these great advancements.


Assuntos
Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Células-Tronco , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
13.
Acta Biomed ; 90(2): 197-208, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Adipose tissue is an organ of energy storage, an endocrine organ, a soft tissue filler and a cosmetically unnecessary tissue discarded by liposuction. Liposuction was designed to correct unaesthetic deposits of subcutaneous fat; it produces satisfactory silhouette contouring when performed by appropriately trained operators using properly selected technologies. However, from lipoaspirate it is possible to obtain autologous fat graft and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for reconstructive surgery and regenerative medicine. Autologous fat transplantation uses include the correction of body contour, malformations and post-surgical outcomes. The regenerative properties of ASCs allow treating damaged tissues such as wounds, burns, scars and radiodermatitis. The aim of this study was to perform a literature review highlighting the crucial role of adipose tissue in plastic and reconstructive surgery, from liposuction to lipofilling and ASCs, exposing the indications, procedures and complications of these surgical techniques. METHODS: Literature review of publications concerning liposuction, lipofilling and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCS). RESULTS: The introduction of liposuction allowed the use of adipose tissue for many clinical uses. The adipose tissue filling properties have been highlighted by the advent of lipofilling. The regenerative properties evidence of autologous fat transplantation encouraged the research on the clinical use of ASCs. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue is not only the main energy storage of our body but also an important source of stem cells that can be used in various fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering with encouraging results for the future.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/transplante , Tecido Adiposo/transplante , Lipectomia/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Transplante Autólogo
14.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 35(4): 316-326, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038109

RESUMO

FDA approval and French ATU for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells represent an advanced step in the challenge of immunotherapy to cure cancer. The field of adoptive cell therapy emerged with the discovery that tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes (TIL) can be used to treat melanoma patients. CAR T cells are engineered by gene transfer to express both receptors that target tumor-associated molecules and killing T cell functions. We report here how several decades of technology combining the specific recognition of an antibody with T cell function have led to the potent activity of CD19-targeting CAR KYMRIAH™ and YESCARTA™ i.e, high remission rates in patients with chemorefractory lymphoma. However, potentially fatal toxicity including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity need next generation developments. Affinity fine-tuning, combinational CARs and guidelines for toxicity management are enhancing the safety of more powerful CAR T. Such CARs are emerging for solid tumor targeting. Synthetic biology approaches leading to personalized cell therapy marks the beginning of a new area.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva/tendências , Linfoma/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Linfócitos T/transplante , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Terapia Combinada , Terapia Genética/métodos , Terapia Genética/tendências , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfoma/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
15.
Int J Oral Sci ; 11(2): 17, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110170

RESUMO

Bone defects caused by trauma, tumour resection, infection and congenital deformities, together with articular cartilage defects and cartilage-subchondral bone complex defects caused by trauma and degenerative diseases, remain great challenges for clinicians. Novel strategies utilising cell sheet technology to enhance bone and cartilage regeneration are being developed. The cell sheet technology has shown great clinical potential in regenerative medicine due to its effective preservation of cell-cell connections and extracellular matrix and its scaffold-free nature. This review will first introduce several widely used cell sheet preparation systems, including traditional approaches and recent improvements, as well as their advantages and shortcomings. Recent advances in utilising cell sheet technology to regenerate bone or cartilage defects and bone-cartilage complex defects will be reviewed. The key challenges and future research directions for the application of cell sheet technology in bone and cartilage regeneration will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Cartilagem Articular , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Osso e Ossos , Regeneração , Tecidos Suporte
16.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 39(4): 451-468, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929528

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death in developed nations. As the disease progresses, myocardial infarction can occur leaving areas of dead tissue in the heart. To compensate, the body initiates its own repair/regenerative response in an attempt to restore function to the heart. These efforts serve as inspiration to researchers who attempt to capitalize on the natural regenerative processes to further augment repair. Thus far, researchers are exploiting these repair mechanisms in the functionalization of soft materials using a variety of growth factor-, ligand- and peptide-incorporating approaches. The goal of functionalizing soft materials is to best promote and direct the regenerative responses that are needed to restore the heart. This review summarizes the opportunities for the use of functionalized soft materials for cardiac repair and regeneration, and some of the different strategies being developed.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Tecidos Suporte , Coração , Humanos , Ligantes , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências
17.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther ; 14(2): 80-82, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957721

RESUMO

This article presents a special issue of "Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy" devoted to exploring and exploiting tissue engineering through the design of multifunctional therapeutic systems. This lead article draws from twelve contributed articles to discuss the most recent advancements in this emerging field. The common theme in the contributed articles is the emerging therapeutic strategies, and a special appeal is made for collaboration between engineers and biologists for the development of multifunctional therapeutic systems for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Pesquisa com Células-Tronco , Tecidos Suporte/tendências
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1123: 151-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016599

RESUMO

Epithelial damage in the salivary gland (SG) resulting in irreversible dry mouth can be commonly induced by gamma radiation therapy. This radiation depletes the SG stem/progenitor cell niche slowing healing and natural gland regeneration. Biologists have been focused in understanding the development and differentiation of epithelial stem and progenitor cell niches during SG organogenesis. These organogenesis studies gave insights into novel cell-based therapies to recreate the three-dimensional (3D) salivary gland (SG) organ, recapitulate the SG native physiology, and restore saliva secretion. Such therapeutical strategies apply techniques that assemble, in a 3D organotypic culture, progenitor and stem cell lines to develop SG organ-like organoids or mini-transplants. Future studies will employ a combination of organoids, decellularized matrices, and smart biomaterials to create viable and functional SG transplants to repair the site of SG injury and reestablish saliva production.


Assuntos
Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Glândulas Salivares/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Organoides , Glândulas Salivares/efeitos da radiação , Xerostomia/terapia
19.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 19(8): 773-779, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009588

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biomaterials have provided a wide range of exciting opportunities in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Gelatin, a collagen-derived natural biopolymer, has been extensively used in regenerative medicine applications over the years, due to its cell-responsive properties and the capacity to deliver a wide range of biomolecules. AREAS COVERED: The most relevant properties of gelatin as biomaterial are presented together with its main therapeutic applications. The latter includes drug delivery systems, tissue engineering approaches, potential uses as ink for 3D/4D Bioprinting, and its relevance in organ-on-a-chip platforms. EXPERT OPINION: Advances in polymer chemistry, mechanobiology, imaging technologies, and 3D biofabrication techniques have expanded the application of gelatin in multiple biomedical research applications ranging from bone and cartilage tissue engineering, to wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. Here, we highlight the latest advances in gelatin-based approaches within the fields of biomaterial-based drug delivery and tissue engineering together with some of the most relevant challenges and limitations.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Terapia Biológica/instrumentação , Gelatina/química , Animais , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Terapia Biológica/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa/instrumentação , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(18): 16402-16411, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998317

RESUMO

Fully integrated hydrogel channels were fabricated via interfacial bioorthogonal cross-linking, a diffusion-controlled method for the creation and patterning of synthetic matrices based on the rapid bioorthogonal reaction between s-tetrazines (Tz) and trans-cyclooctene (TCO) dienophiles. Injecting an aqueous solution of a bisTCO cross-linker into a reservoir of tetrazine-modified hyaluronic acid (HA-Tz), while simultaneously drawing the syringe needle through the reservoir, yielded a cross-linked hydrogel channel that was mechanically robust. Fluorescent tags and biochemical signals were spatially patterned into the channel wall through time-dependent perfusion of TCO-conjugated molecules into the lumen of the channel. Different cell populations were spatially encapsulated in the channel wall via temporal alteration of cells in the HA-Tz reservoir. The interfacial approach enabled the spatial patterning of vascular cells, including human abdominal aorta endothelial cells, aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, and aortic adventitial fibroblasts, into the hydrogel channels with high viability and proper morphology in the anatomical order found in human arteries. The bioorthogonal platform does not rely on external triggers and represents the first step toward the engineering of functional and implantable arteries.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Hidrogéis/química , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/química , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
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