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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 216, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Colibacillosis is a frequent enteric disease in the pig industry that causes significant economic losses. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli isolates from suckling piglets with colibacillosis. RESULTS: A total of 43 FQ-resistant E. coli isolates were tested in this study and all isolates showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) and mutations in quinolone resistance determining regions (gyrA or parC). Especially, FQ-resistant E. coli isolates with double mutations in both gyrA and parC were shown a high FQs minimum inhibitory concentration (≥ 64 mg/L for ciprofloxacin, ≥ 128 mg/L for enrofloxacin, and ≥ 256 mg/L for norfloxacin). Among 43 FQ-resistant E. coli isolates, 12 (27.9%) were showed plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) positive E. coli. Prevalence of PMQR gene, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrS, and qepA, were identified in 7, 3, and 2 E. coli isolates, respectively. We identified the following in PMQR-positive E. coli isolates: the tetracycline resistance genes tetD (12 isolates, 100.0%), tetE (12 isolates, 100.0%), tetA (11 isolates, 91.7%), and tetB (1 isolate, 8.3%); ß-lactamases-encoding blaCMY-2 (10 isolates, 83.3%), blaTEM-1 (7 isolates, 58.3%), blaOXA-1 (7 isolates, 58.3%), blaSHV-1 (3 isolates, 16.7%), and blaAAC-2 (1 isolate, 8.3%); and the chloramphenicol resistance genes (10 isolates, 83.3%); the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 (9 isolates, 75.0%) and sul2 (10 isolates, 83.3%); the aminoglycoside modifying enzyme gene aac(3)-II (2 isolates, 16.7%). The F4 (7 isolates, 58.3%), LT:STb:EAST1 (5 isolates, 41.7%), and paa (3 isolates, 25.0%) were most common fimbrial antigen, combinations of toxin genes, and non-fimbrial adhesins genes, respectively. All PMQR-positive E. coli carried class I integrons but only 4 isolates carried the gene cassette. The most prevalent plasmid replicon was FIB (9 isolates, 75.0%), followed by FIC, HI1, and N (7 isolates, 58.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Because FQ-resistant E. coli can serve as a reservoir of FQ resistant genetic determinants that can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria in humans or pigs, this represents a public health hazard.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Quinolonas , Aminoglicosídeos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina , DNA Girase/genética , Enrofloxacina , Escherichia coli , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Humanos , Norfloxacino , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas , Suínos , beta-Lactamases
2.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080173

RESUMO

The inappropriate use and indiscriminate disposal of antibiotics has become a menace worldwide. The incomplete removal of these contaminants from wastewater treatment plants has also contributed to this. This study presents the biodegradation of two veterinary antibiotics; ciprofloxacin (CIP) and enrofloxacin (ENRO). Kinetics models were explored to understand the dynamics of biodegradation in an anaerobic digestion process. This was carried out in batch reactors under various operating conditions: pH, organic loading rate (OLR), and antibiotic concentration. The influence of the parameters was investigated using a response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken experimental design of 15 runs. The data obtained were fitted on a polynomial function model. OLR and pH exhibited a synergistic and antagonistic effect in the response models developed, with a high correlation regression coefficient (R2; 0.9834-0.9875) close to 1 at a 95% confidence level. The optimum conditions obtained from the RSM numerical optimization were pH (6), OLR (2 kgCOD·m-3·days-1), and an antibiotic concentration of 75%, which gave the removal of CIP, ENRO, and COD, respectively, as 80%, 83%, and 73% at a desirability function of 85%. The kinetics study shows that the biodegradation of antibiotics was well fitted on a first-order model (R2; 0.9885-0.9978) with rate constants ranging from 0.0695 to 0.96 days-1.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Ciprofloxacina/análise , Enrofloxacina , Cinética , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(9): 948-955, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972354

RESUMO

Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in a large variety of freshwater fish, is a major problem in commercial aquaculture. A limited number of antimicrobial therapies are available to control this disease; therefore, these agents must be used judiciously. To facilitate effective monitoring for changes in susceptibility, the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has a standard broth microdilution test method specific for F. columnare. However, there are no CLSI-approved criteria (termed epidemiological cutoff values [ECVs]) to interpret results. Nevertheless, researchers have developed provisional ECVs based on testing by one laboratory. To satisfy CLSI data requirements, three laboratories used the standard method to generate additional antimicrobial susceptibility data against ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/ormetoprim, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim using 109 F. columnare isolates. The new data combined with previously published data from 120 F. columnare isolates were analyzed and ECVs proposed to CLSI. Of the 10 antimicrobials, ECVs were approved for ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, oxolinic acid, and oxytetracycline, which were published in the 2020 edition of the CLSI document VET04 performance standards. These ECVs will help microbiologists categorize decreased antimicrobial susceptibility among F. columnare and will help in surveillance efforts to ensure judicious antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Oxitetraciclina , Ampicilina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enrofloxacina , Eritromicina , Peixes , Flavobacterium , Gentamicinas , Ácido Oxolínico , Sulfadimetoxina , Sulfametoxazol , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Trimetoprima
4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(24): 7315-7323, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018333

RESUMO

Herein, we report a new polydopamine (PDA)-coated metal-organic framework (MOF) as a label to improve the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The MOF, UiO-66-NH2, was synthesized via the hydrothermal method, and it exhibited the advantageous features of ordered pore structure, strong absorbance, and high specific surface area. Subsequently, UiO-66-NH2 was coated with PDA to improve the antibody coupling effectivity and light absorption ability. The optical intensity and antibody coupling efficiency of UiO-66@PDA were superior to those of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Under the optimum condition, the limit of detection and cutoff value of UiO-66@PDA-LFIA in detecting enrofloxacin were 0.045 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively, which were lower than those of AuNPs-LFIA (0.095 and 5 ng/mL). The recoveries of UiO-66@PDA-LFIA in low-fat milk and whole milk were 85.6-107.4% and 79.3-115.5%, respectively, with coefficients of variation of 2.91-9.59% and 3.91-11.8%, respectively, as further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These results indicate that UiO-66@PDA can be used as a novel probe for LFIA development and applications. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Animais , Enrofloxacina , Ouro/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Indóis , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Leite , Ácidos Ftálicos , Polímeros
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 941867, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35992162

RESUMO

Phage therapy is a promising alternative treatment of bacterial infections in human and animals. Nevertheless, despite the appearance of many bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics, these drugs still remain important therapeutics used in human and veterinary medicine. Although experimental phage therapy of infections caused by Salmonella enterica was described previously by many groups, those studies focused solely on effects caused by bacteriophages. Here, we compared the use of phage therapy (employing a cocktail composed of two previously isolated and characterized bacteriophages, vB_SenM-2 and vB_Sen-TO17) and antibiotics (enrofloxacin and colistin) in chickens infected experimentally with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that the efficacies of both types of therapies (i.e. the use of antibiotics and phage cocktail) were high and very similar to one another when the treatment was applied shortly (one day) after the infection. Under these conditions, S. Typhimurium was quickly eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), to the amount not detectable by the used methods. However, later treatment (2 or 4 days after detection of S. Typhimurium in chicken feces) with the phage cocktail was significantly less effective. Bacteriophages remained in the GIT for up to 2-3 weeks, and then were absent in feces and cloaca swabs. Interestingly, both phages could be found in various organs of chickens though with a relatively low abundance. No development of resistance of S. Typhimurium to phages or antibiotics was detected during the experiment. Importantly, although antibiotics significantly changed the GIT microbiome of chickens in a long-term manner, analogous changes caused by phages were transient, and the microbiome normalized a few weeks after the treatment. In conclusion, phage therapy against S. Typhimurium infection in chickens appeared as effective as antibiotic therapy (with either enrofloxacin or colistin), and less invasive than the use the antibiotics as fewer changes in the microbiome were observed.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Terapia por Fagos , Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas , Colistina/farmacologia , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/terapia , Salmonella typhimurium , Sorogrupo
6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1221: 340123, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934403

RESUMO

Magnetic biosensor takes advantage of rapid and facile magnetic separation/collection of targets, however, generally relies on additional signal labels to generate signal in a tedious and high-cost way. Here, we proposed a chemical and electrochemical conversion (C-ECC) method to develop a label-free electrochemical magnetic biosensor to detect antibiotics enrofloxacin (ENR). The C-ECC method integrates the chemical decomposition of magnetic beads (MBs) to release ironic ions and the simultaneous electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue (PB) analogs through the reaction of ironic ions and co-existing K4Fe(CN)6. Unlike conventional method that relies on the physical magnetic property of MBs, the C-ECC method fully exploited the chemical/electrochemical properties of MBs to produce electrochemically active PB to generate signal, thus endowing MBs with dual roles in both sample treatment and signal generation. The incorporation of chemical and electrochemical conversion produced more PB with higher electroactivity when compared with sole chemical or electrochemical conversion. Moreover, an interesting electrochemical refreshment (ER) was designed to remove insulative species on the electrode surface to improve electroactivity of electrode and benefit amperometric detection significantly. Under optimized conditions, the C-ECC-based biosensor presented limit of detection (LOD) of 4.17 pg mL-1 for ENR, which is lower than most analogs, as well as satisfactory specificity. The biosensor also performed well in fish and chicken meat samples, with LODs lower than maximum residue limits of national standards. The C-ECC method may create a new way to design magnetic sensors and contribute to rapid, facile and sensitive detection in agriculture/food, clinic diagnosis and environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Enrofloxacina , Ferrocianetos/química , Ouro/química , Limite de Detecção
7.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 119923, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961576

RESUMO

Veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, are emerging contaminants of concern worldwide. Avian scavengers are exposed to pharmaceuticals through consumption of livestock carcasses used for feeding wildlife for conservation purposes at supplementary feeding stations. Here we tested the hypothesis that griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) would be more exposed to antibiotics (i.e., quinolones) when feeding on livestock carcasses from intensive farming than when they rely on carcasses from extensive farming or wild animals. We sampled 657 adult griffon vultures captured between 2008 and 2012. In addition, we sampled tissues from domestic livestock supplied at feeding stations in the study area between 2009 and 2019; pig (n = 114), sheep (n = 28), cow (n = 1) and goat (n = 2). Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Quinolones were detected in plasma from 12.9% of the griffon vultures analysed. Quinolone prevalence in griffon vultures varied significantly among feeding stations but was also affected by the total amount of carcasses supplemented, especially the mass of pig carcasses. These results aligned with a 21.1% quinolone prevalence in pig carcasses sampled at feeding stations, wherein enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin levels of up to 3359 ng/g and 1550 ng/g, respectively, were found. Given enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics in pig tissues, 5.3% of the analysed pigs may have died no more than one day after treatment. Quinolone presence in vultures was negatively associated with blood lead levels, which mostly originates from lead ammunition and indicates a higher consumption of game animal carcasses. Carcass disposal for feeding avian scavengers must always assess and manage the risks posed by veterinary pharmaceuticals, especially when livestock provided may have died soon after treatment.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Quinolonas , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Aves , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/toxicidade , Chumbo , Gado , Ovinos , Suínos , Drogas Veterinárias/toxicidade
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 848: 157821, 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931174

RESUMO

With the increasing use of antibiotics, their ecological impacts have received widespread attention. However, research on the toxicity of quinolone antibiotics is still limited, especially regarding the oxidative stress and phyllosphere of plants. In this study, the toxic effects of enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin on Arabidopsis thaliana and their underlying mechanisms were investigated. The toxicity of the three quinolone antibiotics decreased in the following order: enrofloxacin > norfloxacin > levofloxacin. Physiological cellular changes, such as plasmolysis and chloroplast swelling, were observed using electron microscopy. Photosynthetic efficiency was inhibited with a decline in the effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (Y(II)) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), indicating that quinolone antibiotics might reduce light energy conversion efficiency and excess light energy dissipation. Oxidative stress occurred in A. thaliana after quinolone antibiotic treatment, with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. High ROS levels stimulated the over-expression of superoxide-responsive genes for self-protection. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis showed that photosynthesis inhibition and cellular damage caused by oxidative stress were critical factors for growth inhibition, suggesting that the antioxidant response activated by ROS might be a potential mechanism. Furthermore, the diversity of the phyllospheric microbial communities decreased after enrofloxacin exposure. Additionally, specific microbes were preferentially recruited to the phyllosphere because of the higher ROS levels.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila , Enrofloxacina , Levofloxacino , Malondialdeído , Norfloxacino , Estresse Oxidativo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxidos/farmacologia
9.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114071, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995223

RESUMO

In this research, the adsorption/desorption of the antibiotics doxycycline (DC), enrofloxacin (ENR), and sulfamethoxypyradazine (SMP) was studied in 6 agricultural soils with predominance of variable charge, both before and after removing organic matter by calcination. DC adsorption was high at acidic pH, and decreased at pH values above 8. Removal of organic matter with calcination caused just a slight decrease in adsorption, and even in some soils adsorption was similar to that in non-calcined samples. The adsorption coefficients (Kd) were higher for the DC- species compared to DC+, DC0 and DC2-. Regarding DC desorption, the values were very low throughout the pH range covered in the study (2-12), both in the calcined samples and in those not subjected to calcination. ENR showed a similar behavior to DC regarding the effect of pH, since ENR adsorption also decreased at basic pH, but the effect of removing organic matter was different, as it caused a clear decrease in ENR adsorption. The species with the highest Kd was in this case ENR0, although ENR+ is also quantitatively important as regards Kd value in calcined samples. For this antibiotic, no differences in desorption were observed between calcined and non-calcined samples. Finally, SMP adsorption also decreased as pH increased, and, in addition, similarly to what happened with ENR, in general, there was a strong decrease in SMP adsorption when organic matter was removed. The species with the highest Kd in this case was SMP+ in non-calcined samples, but SMP0 and SMP- become more relevant in calcined samples. The percentages of SMP desorption were higher than those for the other two antibiotics, and an increase occurs at intermediate pH values, being higher for calcined samples. These results can be considered relevant in terms of increasing the knowledge as regards the possible evolution and fate of the three antibiotics studied. Specifically, for different pH conditions and with different organic matter contents, when they reach soils and other environmental compartments after being discharged as contaminants. This could have important repercussions on public health and the overall environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Sulfametoxipiridazina , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Doxiciclina , Enrofloxacina , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 2734-2741, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35983590

RESUMO

In order to solve the difficulties in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections, a novel enrofloxacin-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) inclusion complexes (IC) containing hyaluronic acid/chitosan (HA/CS) self-assemble composite nanosystems covered by poloxamer 188 was designed in our previous study. In this study, the sustained release peforemance, targeting delivery, and therapy effects of the enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems were evaluated in vivo. The enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems had uniform size and smooth surface with drug loading capacity (LC) of 9.92 ± 0.3%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the material used for the preparation of the enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems did not affect the thermal stability of enrofloxacin. Compared with enrofloxacin injection and enrofloxacin polymeric nanoparticles, the enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems had excellent sustained-release performance in vivo. The enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems have specific targeting to the infection site of Staphylococcus aureus. The excellent sustained release and targeting delivery properties ensure that the anti-infective treatment effect of the enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems in vivo was higher than that of enrofloxacin injection and enrofloxacin polymeric nanoparticles. It can more effectively promote the wound healing. These results suggest that our previous designed enrofloxacin-composite nanosystems will be a promising formulation for effective targeting therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infections.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Enrofloxacina , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 970125, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032163

RESUMO

Gut microbiota play a vital role in fish health homeostasis. Antibiotics are known to alter microbial community composition and diversity; however, the substantial effects of antibiotics upon the gut microbiome with respect to immune-related pathways in healthy fish remain unclear. Accordingly, here we explored the impact of two antibiotics on the intestinal health, immune response, microbiome dynamics, and transcriptome profiles of grass carp. A two-week feeding trial was carried out in which the basal diet was complemented with enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) or florfenicol (10 mg/kg). The results showed that: (1) Enrofloxacin and florfenicol both induced intestinal oxidative stress and reduced the digestive enzyme activity of grass carp. (2) High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that enrofloxacin but not the florfenicol treatment influenced gut microbiota diversity in grass carp by shifting α/ß-diversity with more abundant pathogens detected. (3) Transcriptome profiling demonstrated that florfenicol down-regulated the immune-related pathways of grass carp, and the network analysis revealed that IgA was negatively correlated with certain pathogens, such as Shewanella and Aeromonas. (4) Antibiotic-induced alternations of gut core microbes were revealed via immune-related transcripts, as were lower mRNA expression levels of mucosal-related genes. (5) Apoptosis and histopathological changes were detected in the enrofloxacin- and florfenicol-treated groups compared with the control group. Overall, administering antibiotics will promote oxidative stress, cause intestinal flora dysbiosis, inhibit the mucosal immune system, and induce apoptosis in grass carp.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Carpas/imunologia , Enrofloxacina , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Comp Med ; 72(4): 220-229, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882504

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes severe pneumonia, pyelonephritis, and sepsis in immunocompromised hosts. During a 4-mo interval, several NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) breeders and pups in our facilities were diagnosed with Kp infections. An initial 6 adult and 1 juvenile NSG mice were submitted for necropsy and histologic examination because of acute onset of diarrhea and death. The evaluation revealed typhlocolitis in 2 of the mice and tritrichomoniasis in all 7. Escherichia coli positive for polyketide synthase (pks+) and Kp were isolated from the intestines. Given a history of sepsis due to pks+ E. coli in NSG mice in our facilities and determination of its antimicrobial susceptibility, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was administered to the colony in the drinking water for 4 wk. After this intervention, an additional 21 mice became ill or died; 11 of these mice had suppurative pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, hepatitis, metritis, pyelonephritis, or sepsis. Kp was cultured from pulmonary abscesses or blood of 10 of the mice. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) indicated that the Kp isolates contained genes associated with phenotypes found in pore-forming Kp isolates cultured from humans with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. None of the Kp isolates exhibited a hyperviscous phenotype, but 13 of 14 were resistant to TMP-SMX. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated sensitivity of the Kp to enrofloxacin, which was administered in the drinking water. Antibiotic sensitivity profiles were confirmed by WGS of the Kp strains; key virulence and resistance genes to quaternary ammonia compounds were also identified. Enrofloxacin treatment resulted in a marked reduction in mortality, and the study using the NSG mice was completed successfully. Our findings implicate intestinal translocation of Kp as the cause of pneumonia and systemic infections in NSG mice and highlight the importance of identification of enteric microbial pathogens and targeted antibiotic selection when treating bacterial infections in immunocompromised mice.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Pneumonia , Pielonefrite , Sepse , Adulto , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enrofloxacina , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 151: 42-46, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853330

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from dogs and cats with urinary tract infections in northwestern Croatia. During this study, the laboratory received 787 urine samples, 651 from dogs and 136 from cats. A total of 260 urine samples (211 from dogs and 49 from cats) were bacteriologically positive. Of these, 29 isolates belonged to Enterococcus spp.; 22 from dogs and seven from cats. Enterococci isolates were identified by PCR method, 12 of which were Enterococcus faecium and 17 were Enterococcus faecalis species. In dogs, 16 E. faecalis and six E. faecium strains were identified, whereas in cats, six E. faecium and only one E. faecalis strain were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method for nine antimicrobials: penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, rifampicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin. The isolates were tested for high-level resistance to streptomycin and gentamicin. The highest resistance of Enterococcus spp. was observed to rifampicin (86%) and enrofloxacin (83%), followed by tetracycline and ciprofloxacin (69%). Resistance to vancomycin was 28%, and the lowest resistance was to chloramphenicol (17%). Multidrug resistance was found in 76% of enterococci isolates. High-level streptomycin resistance was detected in 17% and high-level gentamicin resistance in 10% of the isolated enterococci. When comparing species susceptibility, E. faecium isolates were significantly more resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, and ciprofloxacin (p < 0.05). Eleven E. faecium isolates (92%) and 12 E. faecalis isolates (76%) were multidrug resistant.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Enterococcus faecium , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Ampicilina , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cloranfenicol , Ciprofloxacina , Croácia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enrofloxacina , Enterococcus , Gentamicinas , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Nitrofurantoína , Penicilinas , Prevalência , Rifampina , Estreptomicina , Tetraciclina , Vancomicina
14.
Environ Pollut ; 311: 119641, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787425

RESUMO

Based on the application of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) in the bioremediation of sediment, this study used the sediment microbial fuel cell technology as the leading reactor. Modification of anode carbon felts (CF) by synthesis of PANI/MnO2 composited to improve the electrical performance of the sediment microbial fuel cell. This study investigated the degradation effects, degradation pathways of the specific contaminant enrofloxacin and microbial community structure in sediment microbial fuel cell systems. The results showed that the sediment microbial fuel cell system with modified anode carbon felt (PANI-MnO2/CF) prepared by in-situ chemical polymerization had the best power production performance. The maximum output voltage was 602 mV and the maximum power density was 165.09 mW m-2. The low concentrations of enrofloxacin (12.81 ng g-1) were effectively degraded by the sediment microbial fuel cell system with a removal rate of 59.52%.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Microbiota , Eletrodos , Enrofloxacina , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(27): 8441-8450, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776853

RESUMO

In this work, metabolomic profile changes in milk from cows affected by mastitis and treated with enrofloxacin (ENR) have been studied using LC-HRMS techniques. Principal component analysis was applied to the obtained results, and the interest was focused on changes affecting compounds without a structural relationship to ENR. Most of the compounds, whose concentrations were modified as a result of the pharmacological treatment and/or the pathological status, were related to amino acids and peptides. Compounds that may become possible biomarkers for either disease or treatment have been detected. Additionally, the alterations caused by thermal processes, such as those applied to milk before consumption, on the identified metabolites have also been considered.


Assuntos
Mastite Bovina , Leite , Animais , Bovinos , Enrofloxacina/análise , Enrofloxacina/metabolismo , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Mastite Bovina/metabolismo , Leite/química , Temperatura
16.
Molecules ; 27(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889250

RESUMO

Manure is a major source of soil and plant contamination with veterinary drugs residues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of 14 veterinary pharmaceuticals by parsley from soil fertilized with manure. Pharmaceutical content was determined in roots and leaves. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used for targeted analysis. Screening analysis was performed to identify transformation products in the parsley tissues. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was developed combined with solid-phase extraction, providing recoveries of 61.9-97.1% for leaves and 51.7-95.6% for roots. Four analytes were detected in parsley: enrofloxacin, tylosin, sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline. Enrofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations (13.4-26.3 ng g-1). Doxycycline accumulated mainly in the roots, tylosin in the leaves, and sulfamethoxazole was found in both tissues. 14 transformation products were identified and their distribution were determined. This study provides important data on the uptake and transformation of pharmaceuticals in plant tissues.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes do Solo , Drogas Veterinárias , Doxiciclina/análise , Enrofloxacina/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Esterco/análise , Petroselinum , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfametoxazol , Tilosina , Drogas Veterinárias/análise
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 242: 113889, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853362

RESUMO

Growing evidence has indicated the association of clinical antibiotic use with abnormal blood lipid levels; however, no epidemiological study has examined the relationship of antibiotic exposure, probably derived from food chains, with blood lipid levels. This study investigated the relationships of urinary antibiotic levels with blood lipid levels and dyslipidemias in the older population. Baseline data of 960 participants from the Cohort of Elderly Health and Environment Controllable Factors were used in the present study. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was performed to detect antibiotic residues in the urine samples of the participants. Our findings revealed that each 1 µg/g increase in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin levels was associated with an increase of 0.084 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.030, 0.139) and 0.049 (95 % CI: 0.012, 0.086) in triglyceride levels, respectively. Enrofloxacin was associated with an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia. Each 1 µg/g increase in the enrofloxacin level corresponded to an increase of 0.052 (95 % CI: 0.006, 0.098) in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Furthermore, florfenicol exposure increased the risks of both hyperbetalipoproteinemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. By contrast, each 1 µg/g increase in sulfaclozine and doxycycline levels was associated with a - 0.062 (95 % CI: -0.111, -0.020), and - 0.083 (95 % CI: -0.160, -0.007) decrease in total cholesterol levels, respectively. Sulfaclozine was closely related to a decreased risk of hypercholesterolemia. Stratification analysis revealed specific differences in the correlation between antibiotic exposure and lipid levels based on the waist circumference (WC) values of the participants. Except for sulfaclozine and doxycycline, other antibiotics exerted adverse effects on lipid levels and increased dyslipidemia prevalence. The older participants with higher WC values were vulnerable to antibiotic exposure. Therefore, an appropriate understanding of the epidemiological attributes of antibiotic residues is indispensable to prevent abdominal obesity in the older population.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Dislipidemias , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Colesterol , Doxiciclina , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Enrofloxacina , Humanos , Lipídeos , Fatores de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 94: 103932, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840088

RESUMO

In the present study, we assessed the ecotoxicological effects of selected human and veterinary antibiotics to D. magna. Ecological risk assessment was done by calculating the risk quotients (RQs) of the antibiotics to the species. Results showed that enrofloxacin, a veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was the most toxic against D. magna with a 48 h EC50 value of 28.59 mg/l. The binary mixture of fluoroquinolones was also more toxic to the species than binary mixtures of macrolides. Fecundity in organisms in negative control was higher than fecundity in organisms exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the four antibiotics. Enrofloxacin also has a moderate risk to the species with RQ values of 0.199 and 0.416 in surface waters and wastewaters, respectively. Antibiotics pose a greater ecological risk when present in mixtures in the aquatic environment. Environmental standards for pharmaceuticals should incorporate mixture toxicity data to ensure accurate protection of non-target organisms in polluted environments.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Daphnia , Enrofloxacina/toxicidade , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/toxicidade , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
J Environ Manage ; 319: 115702, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834855

RESUMO

Antibiotic pollution in the environment caused by animal breeding has become a serious issue. The persistent release of antibiotics with animal waste may lead to antibiotic resistances in the environment, which poses a threat to human health. This study tries to provides a practical method for screening prioritized antibiotics via a comprehensive risk assessment and determination of their major sources, and put forward corresponding regulatory measures for animal industries. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of 20 antibiotics belonging to eight classes, spanning the areas of animal feed, drinking water, and animal feces on 59 animal farms in Shandong Province, China. The results showed that antibiotic contamination was prevalent in different environmental mediums (feed, feces, and drinking water) on these farms. Tetracyclines typically exhibited higher concentrations than the other classes in all samples, and the majority of antibiotics had greater concentrations in cattle feces than in pig- or chicken feces. For the antibiotic ecological risks in feces, doxycycline, tetracycline, and enrofloxacin exhibited much more toxic effects on terrestrial organisms (e.g., wheat, cucumber, and rice). Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, ofloxacin, and tetracycline levels in drinking water samples can lead to high risk of antibiotic resistance, while no antibiotic posed obvious risks to human health. Based on compressive risk assessments, 11 antibiotics were prioritized to control in the animal breeding environment. Based on the survey of feeds, drinking water and animal waste from the farm, roxithromycin in the feces mainly originated from the feeds, while most prioritized antibiotics, were from extra addition in the animal breeding process (including injection and other oral routes). The key point of local antibiotic management in animal farms should be adjusted from the feed factory to the extra addition of antibiotics in animal breeding processes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Água Potável , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bovinos , China , Enrofloxacina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Suínos , Tetraciclina
20.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 2): 113924, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35868578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although animal experiments found that antibiotic exposure during early life increased adiposity, limited human epidemiological evidence is available for the effects of veterinary antibiotic exposure on children's growth and development. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the body burden of fluoroquinolones in northern Chinese children and assess its association with growth and development. METHODS: After recruiting 233 children aged 0-15 years from 12 different sites in northern China in 2020, we measured urinary concentrations of 5 respective fluoroquinolones (fleroxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) by high performance liquid chromatography. Categories of children's growth and development were identified based on the Z score of body mass index. The health risks of individual and combined antibiotic exposure were estimated by the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI), respectively. The association between children's growth and development with antibiotic concentrations was evaluated via multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 4 antibiotics, fleroxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin, were found in urine samples of northern Chinese children at an overall frequency of 57.08%. Due to diet and economic differences, antibiotic concentrations in urine samples differed by study area, and the highest concentrations were found in Tianjin, Henan, and Beijing. The percentage of the participants with HQ > 1 caused by ciprofloxacin exposure was 20.61%, and the HI values in 23.18% of samples exceeded 1, suggesting potential health risks. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of overweight or obesity risk of tertile 2 of enrofloxacin was 3.01 (1.12, 8.11), indicating an increase in overweight or obesity risk for children with middle-concentration enrofloxacin exposure. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show a positive association of enrofloxacin internal exposure with overweight or obesity risk in children, demonstrating that more attention should be given to the usage and disposal of fluoroquinolones to safeguard children's health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Fluoroquinolonas , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Ciprofloxacina , Enrofloxacina/análise , Fleroxacino/análise , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Humanos , Obesidade , Ofloxacino/análise , Sobrepeso
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