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1.
Washington; Pan American Health Organization; 26 ed; Sept. 13, 2021. 357 p.
Não convencional em Inglês | PIE | ID: biblio-1291221

RESUMO

The vast amount of data generated by clinical studies of potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 presents important challenges. The new data must be interpreted quickly so that prescribers can make optimal treatment decisions with as little harm to patients as possible, and so that medicines manufacturers can scale up production rapidly and bolster their supply chains. Rapid interpretation of fresh data will save lives by ensuring that successful drugs can be administered to as many patients as possible as quickly as possible. This publication, the 25th edition of the database of evidence on potential therapeutic options for COVID-19, examines 137 therapeutic options. This information will help investigators, policymakers, and prescribers navigate the flood of relevant data to ensure that management of COVID-19, at both individual and population levels, is based on the best available knowledge. This resource will be continually updated as more research is released into the public space.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 589, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deferred consent is used to recruit patients in emergency research, when informed consent cannot be obtained prior to enrolment. This model of consent allows studies to recruit larger numbers of participants, especially where a surrogate-decision maker may be unavailable to provide consent. Whilst deferred consent offers the potential to promote trial diversity by including under-served groups, it is ethically complex and views about its use amongst these populations require further exploration. The aim of this article is to build upon recent initiatives to improve inclusivity in trials, such as the NIHR INCLUDE project, and consider whether trials methodology research is inclusive, focusing on ethnic minority populations' attitudes towards the use of deferred consent. MAIN TEXT: Findings from the literature suggest that research regarding attitudes toward recruitment methods like deferred consent largely fail to adequately represent ethnic minorities. Many studies fail to report the composition of patient samples or conduct analyses on any differences between specific patient groups. In those that do, the categorisation of ethnic groups is ambiguous. Frequently diversely different groups are considered as more homogenous than they are. Whilst deferred consent is deemed generally acceptable, analysis of patient sub-groups shows that this attitude is not universal. Those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds reported higher levels of unacceptability, which was impacted by previous first or second-hand experience of its use and historical mistrust in research. However, whilst deferred consent was found to increase the numbers of black participants enrolled in some trials, their over-enrolment in other trials may raise further concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusivity in clinical trials is important, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To improve this, we must ensure that methodological studies such as those exploring attitudes to research are inclusive. More effort is needed to understand the views of under-served groups, such as ethnic minorities, toward research in order to improve participation in clinical trials. Our findings echo those from the INCLUDE project, in that better reporting is needed and increasing the confidence of ethnic minority groups in research requires improving representation throughout the research process. This will involve diversifying research teams and ethics committees.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Grupos Étnicos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Grupos Minoritários , Seleção de Pacientes , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500838

RESUMO

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445499

RESUMO

Xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens are referred to as "foreign estrogens" that are produced outside of the human body and have been shown to exert estrogen-like activity. Xenoestrogens are synthetic industrial chemicals, whereas phytoestrogens are chemicals present in the plant. Considering that these environmental estrogen mimics potentially promote hormone-related cancers, an understanding of how they interact with estrogenic pathways in human cells is crucial to resolve their possible impacts in cancer. Here, we conducted an extensive literature evaluation on the origins of these chemicals, emerging research techniques, updated molecular mechanisms, and ongoing clinical studies of estrogen mimics in human cancers. In this review, we describe new applications of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) techniques in shaping the current knowledge. At the molecular and cellular levels, we provide comprehensive and up-to-date insights into the mechanism of xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens in modulating the hallmarks of cancer. At the systemic level, we bring the emerging concept of window of susceptibility (WOS) into focus. WOS is the critical timing during the female lifespan that includes the prenatal, pubertal, pregnancy, and menopausal transition periods, during which the mammary glands are more sensitive to environmental exposures. Lastly, we reviewed 18 clinical trials on the application of phytoestrogens in the prevention or treatment of different cancers, conducted from 2002 to the present, and provide evidence-based perspectives on the clinical applications of phytoestrogens in cancers. Further research with carefully thought-through concepts and advanced methods on environmental estrogens will help to improve understanding for the identification of environmental influences, as well as provide novel mechanisms to guide the development of prevention and therapeutic approaches for human cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445526

RESUMO

Among disorders of pigmentation, vitiligo is the most common, with an estimated prevalence between 0.5% and 1%. The disease has gathered increased attention in the most recent years, leading to a better understanding of the disease's pathophysiology and its implications and to the development of newer therapeutic strategies. A better, more integrated approach is already in use for other chronic inflammatory dermatological diseases such as psoriasis, for which metabolic comorbidities are well-established and part of the routine clinical evaluation. The pathogenesis of these might be linked to cytokines which also play a role in vitiligo pathogenesis, such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and possibly IL-17. Following the reports of intrinsic metabolic alterations reported by our group, in this brief review, we analyze the available data on metabolic comorbidities in vitiligo, accompanied by our single-center experience. Increased awareness of the metabolic aspects of vitiligo is crucial to improving patient care.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Vitiligo/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comorbidade , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Vitiligo/patologia
8.
Washington; Pan American Health Organization; 25 ed; Aug. 26, 2021. 346 p. tab..
Não convencional em Inglês | PIE | ID: biblio-1284280

RESUMO

The vast amount of data generated by clinical studies of potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 presents important challenges. The new data must be interpreted quickly so that prescribers can make optimal treatment decisions with as little harm to patients as possible, and so that medicines manufacturers can scale up production rapidly and bolster their supply chains. Rapid interpretation of fresh data will save lives by ensuring that successful drugs can be administered to as many patients as possible as quickly as possible. This publication, the 25th edition of the database of evidence on potential therapeutic options for COVID-19, examines 137 therapeutic options. This information will help investigators, policymakers, and prescribers navigate the flood of relevant data to ensure that management of COVID-19, at both individual and population levels, is based on the best available knowledge. This resource will be continually updated as more research is released into the public space.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
9.
Washington; Pan American Health Organization; 24 ed; Aug. 5, 2021. 345 p. tab..
Não convencional em Inglês | PIE | ID: biblio-1284281

RESUMO

The vast amount of data generated by clinical studies of potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 presents important challenges. The new data must be interpreted quickly so that prescribers can make optimal treatment decisions with as little harm to patients as possible, and so that medicines manufacturers can scale up production rapidly and bolster their supply chains. Rapid interpretation of fresh data will save lives by ensuring that successful drugs can be administered to as many patients as possible as quickly as possible. This publication, the 25th edition of the database of evidence on potential therapeutic options for COVID-19, examines 137 therapeutic options. This information will help investigators, policymakers, and prescribers navigate the flood of relevant data to ensure that management of COVID-19, at both individual and population levels, is based on the best available knowledge. This resource will be continually updated as more research is released into the public space.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443494

RESUMO

Taurine is a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid that is found abundantly in excitatory tissues, such as the heart, brain, retina and skeletal muscles. Taurine was first isolated in the 1800s, but not much was known about this molecule until the 1990s. In 1985, taurine was first approved as the treatment among heart failure patients in Japan. Accumulating studies have shown that taurine supplementation also protects against pathologies associated with mitochondrial defects, such as aging, mitochondrial diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders. In this review, we will provide a general overview on the mitochondria biology and the consequence of mitochondrial defects in pathologies. Then, we will discuss the antioxidant action of taurine, particularly in relation to the maintenance of mitochondria function. We will also describe several reported studies on the current use of taurine supplementation in several mitochondria-associated pathologies in humans.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Taurina/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Taurina/química
12.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 28: 100445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over half of the 1.5 million individuals globally who are diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with stage II-III disease. Understanding clinician attitudes towards treatment for this group is paramount to contextualise real-world outcomes and plan future trials. The aim of this study was to assess clinician awareness of trials assessing the optimal duration of CRC adjuvant therapy, their attitudes towards shorter treatment and their self-reported practice. METHODS: A survey was developed using OnlineSurveys® and distributed to clinicians in April 2019, with a follow-up survey disseminated to a subset of respondents in August 2020. Microsoft Excel® and Stata® were used for analysis. RESULTS: 265 clinicians replied to the first survey, with the majority aware of findings from the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy collaboration and contributory trials. Practice change was greatest for patients under 70 with low-risk stage III CRC, with most uncertainty around using 3-months of doublet chemotherapy for high-risk stage II disease. In August 2020, clinicians (n = 106) were more likely to use 3-months of FOLFOX for low-risk stage III disease and 3-months of CAPOX for stage II disease compared to April 2019. There was no indication that the COVID-19 pandemic had enduring changes on treatment decisions beyond those made in response to trial evidence. DISCUSSION: Clinicians use a risk-stratified approach to treat CRC the adjuvant setting. Lower utilisation of doublet chemotherapy for older and stage II patients has affected the extent of trial implementation. Active dialogue regarding how trial results apply to these groups may improve consensus.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Oncologistas , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445700

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is a new, highly pathogenic virus that has recently elicited a global pandemic called the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is characterized by significant immune dysfunction, which is caused by strong but unregulated innate immunity with depressed adaptive immunity. Reduced and delayed responses to interferons (IFN-I/IFN-III) can increase the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and extensive immune cell infiltration into the airways, leading to pulmonary disease. The development of effective treatments for severe COVID-19 patients relies on our knowledge of the pathophysiological components of this imbalanced innate immune response. Strategies to address innate response factors will be essential. Significant efforts are currently underway to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines, such as inactivated DNA, mRNA, and protein subunit vaccines, have already been applied in clinical use. Various vaccines display different levels of effectiveness, and it is important to continue to optimize and update their composition in order to increase their effectiveness. However, due to the continuous emergence of variant viruses, improving the immunity of the general public may also increase the effectiveness of the vaccines. Many observational studies have demonstrated that serum levels of vitamin D are inversely correlated with the incidence or severity of COVID-19. Extensive evidence has shown that vitamin D supplementation could be vital in mitigating the progression of COVID-19 to reduce its severity. Vitamin D defends against SARS-CoV-2 through a complex mechanism through interactions between the modulation of innate and adaptive immune reactions, ACE2 expression, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). However, it remains unclear whether Vit-D also plays an important role in the effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines. Based on analysis of the molecular mechanism involved, we speculated that vit-D, via various immune signaling pathways, plays a complementary role in the development of vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Animais , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina D/imunologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444116

RESUMO

We evaluated the short- and longer-term effects of exercise therapy in hip osteoarthritis patients (OA) at baseline, three, six, and 12 months in a randomized setting, followed by a non-randomized setting. The primary randomized intervention (E = exercise, P = placebo-ultrasound, C = control) was followed by a voluntary three-month exercise therapy for P and C (renamed P-E, C-E). Participants randomized to E were not offered treatment again (E-C). Effect sizes (ES; 95% CI) were calculated for within-group effects across time for bodily pain (SF-36) and WOMAC pain, function, and stiffness. ANCOVAs of post-treatment scores were used for group comparison after the group-specific exercise intervention phase. Exercise adherence was assessed and related to post-treatment scores of clinical outcomes. Data of 115 participants of the RCT eligible for follow-up and completing exercise therapy were included into our analyses. Small to medium beneficial long-term effects of cumulative interventional effects, including exercise training, persisted in all groups. Group E-C (n = 49) showed significant 12 months vs. baseline within-group ES in all outcomes (ES 0.39-0.59) except stiffness. Findings were less prominent for exercise therapy in a non-randomized setting (C-E, P-E, both n = 33). Differences are partially explained by adherence rates, highlighting the relevance of therapy compliance strategies. Short-term between-group differences (ANCOVAs) only showed statistically significant differences for WOMAC function between P-E and E-C in favor of E-C (6.4 (95% CI 1.6-11.2; score range 0-100)).


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia por Exercício , Seguimentos , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/terapia , Dor , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
BMJ ; 374: n1493, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380627

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally. While pharmacological advancements have improved the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, non-adherence to prescribed treatment remains a significant barrier to improved patient outcomes. A variety of strategies to improve medication adherence have been tested in clinical trials, and include the following categories: improving patient education, implementing medication reminders, testing cognitive behavioral interventions, reducing medication costs, utilizing healthcare team members, and streamlining medication dosing regimens. In this review, we describe specific trials within each of these categories and highlight the impact of each on medication adherence. We also examine ongoing trials and future lines of inquiry for improving medication adherence in patients with cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Medicamentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/ética , Polimedicação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Sistemas de Alerta/instrumentação
17.
S Afr Med J ; 111(6): 559-562, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382566

RESUMO

Although human challenge studies (HCSs) have been widely employed in vaccine development for malaria, dengue, typhoid and cholera, the role of this research design in COVID-19 remains controversial. While the potential social value of HCSs in the context of a pandemic is clear, bioethicists are divided on the ethics, given that effective treatment for COVID-19 has eluded us to date. While compelling ethics arguments have been offered on both sides of the debate, scientific and regulatory complexities may not have been fully appreciated. Furthermore, accelerated development of efficacious vaccine candidates in traditional clinical trials has diluted some of the arguments in favour of HCSs. In low- and middle-income country settings, including South Africa, the need for robust patient care conditions for the conduct of HCSs, coupled with considerations such as perceptions of risk, consent processes, remuneration, vaccine hesitancy, fear of exploitation and access to vaccines, makes HCSs challenging to justify.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Países em Desenvolvimento , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , África do Sul , Recusa de Vacinação
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711565, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335627

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by most cell types as part of an intracellular communication system in crucial processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and immune response. However, EVs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer and numerous infectious diseases. An important feature of EVs is their ability to deliver a wide range of molecules to nearby targets or over long distances, which allows the mediation of different biological functions. This delivery mechanism can be utilized for the development of therapeutic strategies, such as vaccination. Here, we have highlighted several studies from a historical perspective, with respect to current investigations on EV-based vaccines. For example, vaccines based on exosomes derived from dendritic cells proved to be simpler in terms of management and cost-effectiveness than dendritic cell vaccines. Recent evidence suggests that EVs derived from cancer cells can be leveraged for therapeutics to induce strong anti-tumor immune responses. Moreover, EV-based vaccines have shown exciting and promising results against different types of infectious diseases. We have also summarized the results obtained from completed clinical trials conducted on the usage of exosome-based vaccines in the treatment of cancer, and more recently, coronavirus disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Exossomos/imunologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunização
19.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 96, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygenation serves as a cornerstone in the treatment of COVID-19, and several methods have been extensively studied so far. Herein, we aimed to systematically review the studies discussing hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to examine its reported efficacy and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched and retrieved the relevant articles using keywords on the online databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases up to April 11th, 2021. The retrieved records underwent a two-step title/abstract and full-text screening process, and the eligible papers were identified. National Institutes of health (NIH) quality assessment tool was used for this study. This study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with ID CRD42021269821. RESULTS: Eight articles from three countries were included. All the included studies had good and fair quality scores, with no poor studies included in this systematic review (Good: n = 5, Fair: n = 3). Studies were divided into clinical trials and case reports/series. Most of the studies used HBOT less than 1.5-2 absolute atmospheres (ATA) for 90 min sessions and thereafter sessions were decreased to 60 min. Trials demonstrated most of the patients recovered after receiving HBOT, and blood oxygen saturation increased after several sessions of HBOT. CONCLUSION: Overall, HBOT seems to be a safe and effective oxygenation method in patients with COVID-19. However, there is limited knowledge and evidence regarding the effects and mechanism of HBOT in COVID-19 treatment, and further evaluations require extensive well-designed studies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Hipóxia , Oxigênio , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361037

RESUMO

There is a need for new, safer, and more effective agents to treat cancer. Cytostatics that have transition metals at their core have attracted renewed interest from scientists. Researchers are attempting to use chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin, in combination therapy (i.e., in order to enhance their effectiveness). Moreover, studies are being carried out to modify molecules, by developing them into multinuclear structures, linking different compounds to commonly used drugs, or encapsulating them in nanoparticles to improve pharmacokinetic parameters, and increase the selectivity of these drugs. Therefore, we attempted to organize recent drug findings that contain palladium and platinum atoms in their structures.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/química , Paládio/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico
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