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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4931, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004795

RESUMO

Testis-restricted melanoma antigen (MAGE) proteins are frequently hijacked in cancer and play a critical role in tumorigenesis. MAGEs assemble with E3 ubiquitin ligases and function as substrate adaptors that direct the ubiquitination of novel targets, including key tumor suppressors. However, how MAGEs recognize their targets is unknown and has impeded the development of MAGE-directed therapeutics. Here, we report the structural basis for substrate recognition by MAGE ubiquitin ligases. Biochemical analysis of the degron motif recognized by MAGE-A11 and the crystal structure of MAGE-A11 bound to the PCF11 substrate uncovered a conserved substrate binding cleft (SBC) in MAGEs. Mutation of the SBC disrupted substrate recognition by MAGEs and blocked MAGE-A11 oncogenic activity. A chemical screen for inhibitors of MAGE-A11:substrate interaction identified 4-Aminoquinolines as potent inhibitors of MAGE-A11 that show selective cytotoxicity. These findings provide important insights into the large family of MAGE ubiquitin ligases and identify approaches for developing cancer-specific therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Neoplasias/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Fatores de Poliadenilação e Clivagem de mRNA/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Aminoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutagênese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade por Substrato/genética , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4629, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934208

RESUMO

Cancer therapy is currently shifting from broadly used cytotoxic drugs to patient-specific precision therapies. Druggable driver oncogenes, identified by molecular analyses, are present in only a subset of patients. Functional profiling of primary tumor cells could circumvent these limitations, but suitable platforms are unavailable for most cancer entities. Here, we describe an in vitro drug profiling platform for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), using a living biobank composed of twenty RMS patient-derived xenografts (PDX) for high-throughput drug testing. Optimized in vitro conditions preserve phenotypic and molecular characteristics of primary PDX cells and are compatible with propagation of cells directly isolated from patient tumors. Besides a heterogeneous spectrum of responses of largely patient-specific vulnerabilities, profiling with a large drug library reveals a strong sensitivity towards AKT inhibitors in a subgroup of RMS. Overall, our study highlights the feasibility of in vitro drug profiling of primary RMS for patient-specific treatment selection in a co-clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Rabdomiossarcoma/metabolismo , Animais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Anticancer Res ; 40(9): 5097-5106, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Accumulating evidence has shown therapeutic effects of herbals on breast cancer, a commonly diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide. However, their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to explore the mode of action of a recently developed herbal combination at system-level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed network pharmacological approaches to study the mechanism of a combination of three herbals, Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas and Trichosanthes kirilowii by investigating active compounds and performing functional enrichment analysis for the interacting targets. RESULTS: For in silico pharmacokinetic evaluation, ten active ingredients interacted with fifty-six breast cancer-associated therapeutic targets. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that TNF, estrogen, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathways were involved in tumorigenesis and development of breast cancer. The pharmacological mechanisms might be associated with cellular effects on proliferation, cell cycle process and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The present study provides novel insights into the system-level pharmacological mechanisms underlying a herbal combination used for breast cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Astragalus propinquus , Neoplasias da Mama , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fluxo de Trabalho
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4370, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873792

RESUMO

BRAF kinase, a critical effector of the ERK signaling pathway, is hyperactivated in many cancers. Oncogenic BRAFV600E signals as an active monomer in the absence of active RAS, however, in many tumors BRAF dimers mediate ERK signaling. FDA-approved RAF inhibitors poorly inhibit BRAF dimers, which leads to tumor resistance. We found that Ponatinib, an FDA-approved drug, is an effective inhibitor of BRAF monomers and dimers. Ponatinib binds the BRAF dimer and stabilizes a distinct αC-helix conformation through interaction with a previously unrevealed allosteric site. Using these structural insights, we developed PHI1, a BRAF inhibitor that fully uncovers the allosteric site. PHI1 exhibits discrete cellular selectivity for BRAF dimers, with enhanced inhibition of the second protomer when the first protomer is occupied, comprising a novel class of dimer selective inhibitors. This work shows that Ponatinib and BRAF dimer selective inhibitors will be useful in treating BRAF-dependent tumors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Sítio Alostérico/efeitos dos fármacos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidades Proteicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/ultraestrutura , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4391, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873806

RESUMO

Deep learning with Convolutional Neural Networks has shown great promise in image-based classification and enhancement but is often unsuitable for predictive modeling using features without spatial correlations. We present a feature representation approach termed REFINED (REpresentation of Features as Images with NEighborhood Dependencies) to arrange high-dimensional vectors in a compact image form conducible for CNN-based deep learning. We consider the similarities between features to generate a concise feature map in the form of a two-dimensional image by minimizing the pairwise distance values following a Bayesian Metric Multidimensional Scaling Approach. We hypothesize that this approach enables embedded feature extraction and, integrated with CNN-based deep learning, can boost the predictive accuracy. We illustrate the superior predictive capabilities of the proposed framework as compared to state-of-the-art methodologies in drug sensitivity prediction scenarios using synthetic datasets, drug chemical descriptors as predictors from NCI60, and both transcriptomic information and drug descriptors as predictors from GDSC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4903, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994412

RESUMO

The CRISPR-Cas9 system has increased the speed and precision of genetic editing in cells and animals. However, model generation for drug development is still expensive and time-consuming, demanding more target flexibility and faster turnaround times with high reproducibility. The generation of a tightly controlled ObLiGaRe doxycycline inducible SpCas9 (ODInCas9) transgene and its use in targeted ObLiGaRe results in functional integration into both human and mouse cells culminating in the generation of the ODInCas9 mouse. Genomic editing can be performed in cells of various tissue origins without any detectable gene editing in the absence of doxycycline. Somatic in vivo editing can model non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinomas, enabling treatment studies to validate the efficacy of candidate drugs. The ODInCas9 mouse allows robust and tunable genome editing granting flexibility, speed and uniformity at less cost, leading to high throughput and practical preclinical in vivo therapeutic testing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Edição de Genes/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , RNA Guia/genética , Recombinação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção/métodos , Transgenes/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746451

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women globally. The existing treatment options for breast cancer are largely associated with severe toxicities, and lower efficacies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of non-toxic effective drugs against breast cancer. For this purpose, drug repositioning strategy was used to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of a library of heterocyclic drugs. The major advantage of drug repurposing is that the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicity profiles of drugs are well documented. In the current study, we screened 97 drugs of different chemical classes, and among them aripiprazole, an antipsychotic drug, was found to be sufficiently active against breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Aripiprazole showed a cytotoxicity (IC50 = 12.1 ± 0.40 µM) to MCF-7 cells, comparable to the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50 = 1.25 ± 0.34 µM). Aripiprazole was also found to be active against other cancer cell lines, including MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 19.83 ± 0.27 µM), AU565 (IC50 = 18.02 ± 0.44 µM), and BT-474 (IC50 = 36.42 ± 0.12 µM). Aripiprazole significantly inhibited the cell cycle progression at subG0G1 phase, and enhanced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The drug was also able to significantly increase the nuclear condensation, and modulated the expression of certain genes involved in breast cancer, such as caspases 3, and 9, BAK-1, C-MYC, BCL2L1, BCL-10, and BCL-2. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of aripiprazole on intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Aripiprazol/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7
8.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 229, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778976

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the most frequent type of cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. This study aimed to develop erlotinib (ELB)-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules (NCELB) and evaluated their in vitro cytotoxicity in A549 cells. The formulation was characterized in relation to hydrodynamic diameter (171 nm), polydispersity index (0.076), zeta potential (- 8 mV), drug content (0.5 mg.mL-1), encapsulation efficiency (99%), and pH (6.0). NCELB presented higher cytotoxicity than ELB in solution against A549 cells in the MTT and LIVE/DEAD cell viability assays after 24 h of treatment. The main mechanism of cytotoxicity of NCELB was the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells. Further, a significant decrease in A549 colony formation was verified after NCELB treatment in comparison with the unencapsulated drug treatment. The reduction in clonogenic capacity is very relevant as it can reduce the risk of tumor recurrence and metastasis. In conclusion, erlotinib-loaded PCL nanocapsules are promising nanoparticles carriers to increase the efficacy of ELB in lung cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Poliésteres/química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/química , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Humanos , Nanocápsulas/química , Nanopartículas/química
9.
Life Sci ; 259: 118148, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721465

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant cancer with poor prognosis. This study aimed to explore how O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) affects the gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cells by the regulatory role of SHH/GLI signaling pathway. MGMT inhibition induced by lomeguatrib (LM) suppressed the proliferation, invasion, migration and autophagy, promoted the apoptosis of PanC-1/GEM cells and up-regulated the GEM inhibition rates for PanC-1/GEM cells. Moreover, MGMT inhibition increased the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax and decreased the expression of Bcl-2, Beclin1 and Atg5 in PanC-1/GEM cells. PVT1 silencing could also produce the similar effects of MGMT inhibition induced by LM on PanC-1/GEM cells. And, PVT1 silencing could inhibit the SHH/GLI signaling pathway in PanC-1/GEM cells by regulating the MGMT expression. miR-409 was demonstrated to be a potential target of PVT1 and SHH was demonstrated to be a potential target of miR-409. Furthermore, GLI overexpression could reverse the effects of PVT1 silencing. In the xenograft model of pancreatic cancer, nude mice were treated with GEM. MGMT inhibition suppressed the tumor growth and autophagy and promoted the apoptosis in tumor tissues. And, PVT1 silencing could inhibit the SHH/GLI signaling pathway in tumor tissues. In conclusion, MGMT inhibition could suppress the proliferation, invasion, migration and autophagy and promote the apoptosis of PanC-1/GEM cells in vitro and in vivo. PVT1 silencing may affect the PanC-1/GEM cells through changing the MGMT expression by inhibiting the SHH/GLI signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/biossíntese , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/biossíntese , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109142, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610056

RESUMO

Juglone and thymoquinone are cytotoxic to pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate, using an analysis of isobolograms, the type and degree of interactions between juglone and thymoquinone on MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT assay. Cell death was determined by flow cytometry. The IC50 value for juglone and TQ in combination was found to be 24.75 µM, which was higher than juglone or TQ alone. Juglone alone killed Mia Paca-2 cells by ferroptosis. At concentrations where 10, 20 or 50% of cells were affected, there existed a moderate antagonistic relationship between juglone and TQ as indicated by the combination index (CI) value determined by the Compusyn software. At concentrations that affected 75% and 90% of cells, there were nearly an additive effect with CI value of 1.09249 and 0.92391, respectively. Moderate synergism was only seen at concentration where 95% of cells were affected, and the corresponding concentration of juglone and TQ at that combination was 40.90 µM and 511.19 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Naftoquinonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos
11.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4547-4556, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a cancer therapeutic target, has been exploited for cancer therapy. The natural compounds flavonoids have increasingly been shown to possess anticancer activity. The current study aimed to explore all known flavonoids for their ability to inhibit PI3Kγ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virtual screening of flavonoids using molecular docking to the ATP binding site of PI3Kγ was performed. The top 10 scoring flavonoids were selected for pose analysis and binding strength scores. RESULTS: Molecular docking revealed that the 10 selected flavonoids might inhibit PI3Kγ kinase activity. Literature search did not identify studies reporting a bioassay activity for any of these compounds. CONCLUSION: All 10 selected flavonoids are potential PI3Kγ kinase inhibitors and anticancer agents. Interestingly, one of the 10 least scoring flavonoids has been reported to be inactive, as expected, and thus validating the accuracy of the results.


Assuntos
Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/química , Classe Ib de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Simulação por Computador , Regulação para Baixo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Cancer Sci ; 111(9): 3386-3394, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639672

RESUMO

Cell line-derived xenograft (CDX) models created by implanting cancer cell lines into immunodeficient mice have contributed largely to the development of cancer drug therapies. However, cell lines often lose their original biological characteristics through many passages and cancer tissues in CDX models have many cancer cells and few cancer stromal cells, therefore CDX models are currently considered not suitable for predicting the results of clinical studies. Conversely, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are gaining importance, as human cancer biological characteristics and microenvironments are recreated by implanting tumor tissue into immunodeficient mice. These highly expected, evidently beneficial PDX models have been used in some basic research and are becoming more generalized. However, quality control and quality assurance criteria have not been established for them, and challenges and problems in the utilization of valuable PDX models in drug development have yet to be clarified. In this report, we conducted a questionnaire survey among researchers in Japanese academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies to understand the current status of PDX models in Japan. Based on the questionnaire results, we summarized the situations surrounding respondent's utilization and quality control in the development of anticancer drugs and proposed several measures to facilitate the utilization of PDX models in the development of anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Humanos , Japão , Camundongos , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628693

RESUMO

As a new class of cancer therapeutic agents, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have gained much attention not only due to their ability to selectively replicate in and lyse tumor cells, but also for their potential to stimulate antitumor immune responses. As a result, there is an increasing need for in vitro modeling systems capable of recapitulating the 3D physiological tumor microenvironment. Here, we investigated the potential of our recently developed microphysiological system (MPS), featuring a vessel-like channel to reflect the in vivo tumor microenvironment and serving as culture spaces for 3D multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs). The MCTSs consist of cancer A549 cells, stromal MRC5 cells, endothelial HUVECs, as well as the extracellular matrix. 3D MCTSs residing in the MPS were infected with oncolytic VSV expressing GFP (oVSV-GFP). Post-infection, GFP signal intensity increased only in A549 cells of the MPS. On the other hand, HUVECs were susceptible to virus infection under 2D culture and IFN-ß secretion was quite delayed in HUVECs. These results thus demonstrate that OV antitumoral characteristics can be readily monitored in the MPS and that its behavior therein somewhat differs compared to its activity in 2D system. In conclusion, we present the first application of the MPS, an in vitro model that was developed to better reflect in vivo conditions. Its various advantages suggest the 3D MCTS-integrated MPS can serve as a first line monitoring system to validate oncolytic virus efficacy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Vírus Oncolíticos/imunologia , Vesiculovirus/imunologia , Células A549 , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Matriz Extracelular , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Esferoides Celulares , Vesiculovirus/genética
14.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2497-2507, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tumor explant culture systems can mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment, proposing as a substitute for preclinical studies for prediction of individual treatment response. Therefore, our study evaluated the potential usefulness of ex vivo tumor explants culture assembled into the cell sheets by anticancer drug screening in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: Our model included tumor explants incorporated into cell sheet composing of epithelium and subepithelial stroma using tumor and mucosal samples obtained from the HNSCC patients who underwent surgery. Cell growth, viability, and hypoxia were measured by cell counting kit-8, live/dead assay, propidium iodide, and LOX-1 staining, and were compared among the different treatment groups with vehicle, cisplatin or docetaxel. RESULTS: Tumor explants stably survived in the cell sheet over 10 days after explantation, whereas most of the explants in non-matrix culture became nonviable within 5-8 days with the significant daily decrease of viability. The live tissue areas of tumor explants in the cell sheet maintained over 30 days without significant changes although hypoxic cell areas gradually increased up to 5 days. Tissue viability and live cancer tissue areas significantly decreased after the treatment of cisplatin or docetaxel in the dose and time-dependent manners. CONCLUSION: Our cell sheet-based tumor explants model might be applied to the reliable ex vivo screening for anticancer chemotherapeutics for HNSCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Humanos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
15.
Prostate ; 80(11): 885-894, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eradication of persistent androgen receptor (AR) activity in castration-resistant prostate cancer may be a promising strategy to overcome castration resistance. We aimed to identify novel compounds that inhibit AR activity and could be potential therapeutic agents for prostate cancer. METHODS: A high-throughput screening system involving cell lines stably expressing AR protein and AR-responsive luciferase was employed for the 1260 compound library. Molecular and antitumor effects on candidate pathways that interacted with AR signaling were examined in prostate cancer cells expressing AR. RESULTS: The high-throughput screening identified various potential compounds that interfered with AR signaling through known and novel pathways. Among them, a 5-hydroxytryptamine 5A (5-HT5A) receptor antagonist suppressed AR activity through protein kinase A signaling, which was confirmed by 5-HT5A receptor knockdown. Consistently, 5-HT5A receptor inhibitors showed cytotoxic effects toward prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this study identifies 5-HT5A receptor as a promising therapeutic target for prostate cancer via its interaction with AR signaling.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Androgênios/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Células PC-3 , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo
16.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2499-2507, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476221

RESUMO

DNA damage-induced apoptosis suppressor (DDIAS) facilitates the survival of lung cancer by suppressing apoptosis. Moreover, DDIAS promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) via their interaction. Here, we identified miconazole as an inhibitor of DDIAS/STAT3 interaction by screening a chemical library using a yeast two-hybrid assay. Miconazole inhibited growth, migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, miconazole suppressed STAT3 tyrosine Y705 phosphorylation and the expression of its target genes, such as cyclin D1, survivin and snail but had no suppressive effect on the activation of ERK1/2 or AKT, which is involved in the survival of lung cancer. As expected, no interaction between DDIAS and STAT3 occurred in the presence of miconazole, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. Mouse xenograft experiments showed that miconazole significantly suppressed both tumor size and weight in an NCI-H1703 mouse model. Tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 at Y705 and expression of its targets, such as cyclin D1, survivin and snail, were decreased in miconazole-treated tumor tissues, as compared with those in vehicle-treated tumor tissues. These data suggest that miconazole exerts an anti-cancer effect by suppressing STAT3 activation through inhibiting DDIAS/STAT3 binding.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Dano ao DNA , Miconazol/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008808, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497036

RESUMO

Metastasis is responsible for 90% of human cancer mortality, yet it remains a challenge to model human cancer metastasis in vivo. Here we describe mouse models of high-grade serous ovarian cancer, also known as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and deadliest human ovarian cancer type. Mice genetically engineered to harbor Dicer1 and Pten inactivation and mutant p53 robustly replicate the peritoneal metastases of human HGSC with complete penetrance. Arising from the fallopian tube, tumors spread to the ovary and metastasize throughout the pelvic and peritoneal cavities, invariably inducing hemorrhagic ascites. Widespread and abundant peritoneal metastases ultimately cause mouse deaths (100%). Besides the phenotypic and histopathological similarities, mouse HGSCs also display marked chromosomal instability, impaired DNA repair, and chemosensitivity. Faithfully recapitulating the clinical metastases as well as molecular and genomic features of human HGSC, this murine model will be valuable for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of metastatic ovarian cancer and also for evaluating potential therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/secundário , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Reparo do DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Cultura Primária de Células , Ribonuclease III/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109163, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534988

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to synthesize a new series of benzimidazole derivatives and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the potential cell cycle inhibition and apoptotic effects against a panel of selected human cancer cell lines along with HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells. MTT assay was used to evaluate cytotoxic effects. Muse™ Cell Analyzer was used to assess cell cycle progression. Annexin-V/PI staining assay was used for detecting apoptosis. All the synthesized compounds showed a significant cytotoxic effect against cancer cells with the IC50 values between 9.2 and 166.1 µg/mL. Among the tested derivatives, compound 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, DU-145 and H69AR cancer cells with the IC50 values of 17.8 ± 0.24, 10.2 ± 1.4 and 49.9 ± 0.22 µg/mL respectively. The compounds 5 was also tested on HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells and found to be safer with lesser cytotoxicity. The results revealed that compound 5 significantly increased cell population in the G2/M-phase which is modulated by a p53 independent mechanism. Compound 5 caused an increase in the percentage of late apoptotic cells in all tested cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Among all synthesized derivatives, compound 5 the bromo-derivative, showed the highest cytotoxic potential, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in genotypically different human cancer cells. These results suggest that compound 5 might be a promising agent for cancer therapy and further structural modifications of benzimidazole derivatives may create promising anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Benzimidazóis/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28372, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder characterized by plexiform neurofibromas (pNF), which are thought to be congenital tumors that arise in utero and enlarge throughout life. Genetic studies in murine models delineated an indispensable role for the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit pathway in pNF initiation and progression. A subsequent phase 2 clinical trial using imatinib mesylate to inhibit SCF/c-kit demonstrated tumor shrinkage in a subset of preexisting pNF; however, imatinib's role on preventing pNF development has yet to be explored. PROCEDURE: We evaluated the effect of imatinib dosed at 10-100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks to one-month-old Nf1flox/flox ;PostnCre(+) mice, prior to onset of pNF formation. To determine durability of response, we then monitored for pNF growth at later time points, comparing imatinib- with vehicle-treated mice. We assessed gross and histopathological analysis of tumor burden. RESULTS: Imatinib administered preventatively led to a significant decrease in pNF number, even at doses as low as 10 mg/kg/day. Tumor development continued to be significantly inhibited after cessation of imatinib dosed at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. In the cohort of treated mice that underwent prolonged follow-up, the size of residual tumors was significantly reduced as compared with age-matched littermates that received vehicle control. CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of imatinib inhibits pNF genesis in vivo, and effects are sustained after discontinuation of therapy. These findings may guide clinical use of imatinib in young NF1 patients prior to the substantial development of pNF.


Assuntos
Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Experimentais/prevenção & controle , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/prevenção & controle , Neurofibromatose 1/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/genética , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/metabolismo , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/metabolismo , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia
20.
Exp Hematol ; 86: 67-77.e2, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422231

RESUMO

There exists an urgent need for the development of new drugs for the treatment of lymphoid neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the marine plastoquinone 9'-hydroxysargaquinone (9'-HSQ), focusing on investigation of the mechanism by which it causes death in lymphoid neoplastic cells. This particular plastoquinone reduced the cell viability of different hematological tumor cell lines in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Intrinsic apoptosis occurred with time-dependent reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (42.3 ± 1.1% of Daudi cells and 18.6 ± 5.6% of Jurkat cells maintained mitochondrial membrane integrity) and apoptosis-inducing factor release (Daudi: 133.3 ± 8.1%, Jurkat: 125.7 ± 6.9%). Extrinsic apoptosis also occurred, as reflected by increased FasR expression (Daudi: 139.5 ± 7.1%, Jurkat: 126.0 ± 1.0%). Decreases were observed in the expression of Ki-67 proliferation marker (Daudi: 67.5 ± 2.5%, Jurkat: 84.3 ± 3.8%), survivin (Daudi: 66.0 ± 9.9%, Jurkat: 63.1 ± 6.0%), and NF-κB (0.7 ± 0.04% in Jurkat cells). Finally, 9'-HSQ was cytotoxic to neoplastic cells from patients with different lymphoid neoplasms (IC50: 4.9 ± 0.6 to 34.2 ± 0.4 µmol/L). These results provide new information on the apoptotic mechanisms of 9'-HSQ and suggest that it might be a promising alternative for the treatment of lymphoid neoplasms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/tratamento farmacológico , Feófitas/química , Plastoquinona/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Células K562 , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/metabolismo , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Plastoquinona/química
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