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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4935, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004797

RESUMO

Gramicidin A (1) is a peptide antibiotic that disrupts the transmembrane ion concentration gradient by forming an ion channel in a lipid bilayer. Although long used clinically, it is limited to topical application because of its strong hemolytic activity and mammalian cytotoxicity, likely arising from the common ion transport mechanism. Here we report an integrated high-throughput strategy for discovering analogues of 1 with altered biological activity profiles. The 4096 analogue structures are designed to maintain the charge-neutral, hydrophobic, and channel forming properties of 1. Synthesis of the analogues, tandem mass spectrometry sequencing, and 3 microscale screenings enable us to identify 10 representative analogues. Re-synthesis and detailed functional evaluations find that all 10 analogues share a similar ion channel function, but have different cytotoxic, hemolytic, and antibacterial activities. Our large-scale structure-activity relationship studies reveal the feasibility of developing analogues of 1 that selectively induce toxicity toward target organisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Gramicidina/análogos & derivados , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Química Farmacêutica , Eritrócitos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gramicidina/química , Gramicidina/farmacologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Coelhos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4851, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978386

RESUMO

Cell factories converting bio-based precursors to chemicals present an attractive avenue to a sustainable economy, yet screening of genetically diverse strain libraries to identify the best-performing whole-cell biocatalysts is a low-throughput endeavor. For this reason, transcriptional biosensors attract attention as they allow the screening of vast libraries when used in combination with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). However, broad ligand specificity of transcriptional regulators (TRs) often prohibits the development of such ultra-high-throughput screens. Here, we solve the structure of the TR LysG of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which detects all three basic amino acids. Based on this information, we follow a semi-rational engineering approach using a FACS-based screening/counterscreening strategy to generate an L-lysine insensitive LysG-based biosensor. This biosensor can be used to isolate L-histidine-producing strains by FACS, showing that TR engineering towards a more focused ligand spectrum can expand the scope of application of such metabolite sensors.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ligantes , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Básicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Cristalografia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Lisina/metabolismo , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Termodinâmica
3.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938700

RESUMO

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread around the world, there is an urgent need for new assay formats to characterize the humoral response to infection. Here, we present an efficient, competitive serological assay that can simultaneously determine an individual's seroreactivity against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein and determine the proportion of anti-Spike antibodies that block interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) required for viral entry. In this approach based on the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we present natively folded viral Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD)-containing antigens via avidin-biotin interactions. Sera are then competed with soluble ACE2-Fc, or with a higher-affinity variant thereof, to determine the proportion of ACE2 blocking anti-RBD antibodies. Assessment of sera from 144 SARS-CoV-2 patients ultimately revealed that a remarkably consistent and high proportion of antibodies in the anti-RBD pool targeted the epitope responsible for ACE2 engagement (83% ± 11%; 50% to 107% signal inhibition in our largest cohort), further underscoring the importance of tailoring vaccines to promote the development of such antibodies.IMPORTANCE With the emergence and continued spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and of the associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for improved understanding of how the body mounts an immune response to the virus. Here, we developed a competitive SARS-CoV-2 serological assay that can simultaneously determine whether an individual has developed antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and measure the proportion of these antibodies that block interaction with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) required for viral entry. Using this assay and 144 SARS-CoV-2 patient serum samples, we found that a majority of anti-RBD antibodies compete for ACE2 binding. These results not only highlight the need to design vaccines to generate such blocking antibodies but also demonstrate the utility of this assay to rapidly screen patient sera for potentially neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4903, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994412

RESUMO

The CRISPR-Cas9 system has increased the speed and precision of genetic editing in cells and animals. However, model generation for drug development is still expensive and time-consuming, demanding more target flexibility and faster turnaround times with high reproducibility. The generation of a tightly controlled ObLiGaRe doxycycline inducible SpCas9 (ODInCas9) transgene and its use in targeted ObLiGaRe results in functional integration into both human and mouse cells culminating in the generation of the ODInCas9 mouse. Genomic editing can be performed in cells of various tissue origins without any detectable gene editing in the absence of doxycycline. Somatic in vivo editing can model non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adenocarcinomas, enabling treatment studies to validate the efficacy of candidate drugs. The ODInCas9 mouse allows robust and tunable genome editing granting flexibility, speed and uniformity at less cost, leading to high throughput and practical preclinical in vivo therapeutic testing.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Edição de Genes/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Células HEK293 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , RNA Guia/genética , Recombinação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Transfecção/métodos , Transgenes/genética
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(28): 7685-7699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870351

RESUMO

Pathogen-host cell interactions play an important role in many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. Several pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and even the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), can cause serious breathing and brain disorders, tissue injury and inflammation, leading to high rates of mortality and resulting in great loss to human physical and mental health as well as the global economy. These infectious diseases exploit the microbial and host factors to induce serious inflammatory and immunological symptoms. Thus the development of anti-inflammatory drugs targeting bacterial/viral infection is an urgent need. In previous studies, YojI-IFNAR2, YojI-IL10RA, YojI-NRP1,YojI-SIGLEC7, and YojI-MC4R membrane-protein interactions were found to mediate E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which activated the downstream anti-inflammatory proteins NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2(NLRP2), using a proteomic chip conjugated with cell immunofluorescence labeling. However, the studies of pathogen (bacteria/virus)-host cell interactions mediated by membrane protein interactions did not extend their principles to broad biomedical applications such as 2019-nCoV infectious disease therapy. The first part of this feature article presents in-depth analysis of the cross-talk of cellular anti-inflammatory transduction signaling among interferon membrane protein receptor II (IFNAR2), interleukin-10 receptor subunit alpha (IL-10RA), NLRP2 and [Ca2+]-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G5), based on experimental results and important published studies, which lays a theoretical foundation for the high-throughput construction of the cytokine and virion solution chip. The paper then moves on to the construction of the novel GPCR recombinant herpes virion chip and virion nano-oscillators for profiling membrane protein functions, which drove the idea of constructing the new recombinant virion and cytokine liquid chips for HTS of leading drugs. Due to the different structural properties of GPCR, IFNAR2, ACE2 and Spike of 2019-nCoV, their ligands will either bind the extracellular domain of IFNAR2/ACE2/Spike or the specific loops of the GPCR on the envelope of the recombinant herpes virions to induce dynamic charge distribution changes that lead to the variable electron transition for detection. Taken together, the combined overview of two of the most innovative and exciting developments in the immunoinflammatory field provides new insight into high-throughput construction of ultrasensitive cytokine and virion liquid chips for HTS of anti-inflammatory drugs or clinical diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases, acute or chronic inflammation (acute gouty arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), cardiovascular disease, atheromatosis, diabetes, obesity, tissue injury and tumors. It has significant value in the prevention and treatment of these serious and painful diseases. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008353, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970675

RESUMO

Diseases caused by pathogenic free-living amoebae include primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (Naegleria fowleri), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (Acanthamoeba spp.), Acanthamoeba keratitis, and Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (Balamuthia mandrillaris). Each of these are difficult to treat and have high morbidity and mortality rates due to lack of effective therapeutics. Since repurposing drugs is an ideal strategy for orphan diseases, we conducted a high throughput phenotypic screen of 12,000 compounds from the Calibr ReFRAME library. We discovered a total of 58 potent inhibitors (IC50 <1 µM) against N. fowleri (n = 19), A. castellanii (n = 12), and B. mandrillaris (n = 27) plus an additional 90 micromolar inhibitors. Of these, 113 inhibitors have never been reported to have activity against Naegleria, Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia. Rapid onset of action is important for new anti-amoeba drugs and we identified 19 compounds that inhibit N. fowleri in vitro within 24 hours (halofuginone, NVP-HSP990, fumagillin, bardoxolone, belaronib, and BPH-942, solithromycin, nitracrine, quisinostat, pabinostat, pracinostat, dacinostat, fimepinostat, sanguinarium, radicicol, acriflavine, REP3132, BC-3205 and PF-4287881). These compounds inhibit N. fowleri in vitro faster than any of the drugs currently used for chemotherapy. The results of these studies demonstrate the utility of phenotypic screens for discovery of new drugs for pathogenic free-living amoebae, including Acanthamoeba for the first time. Given that many of the repurposed drugs have known mechanisms of action, these compounds can be used to validate new targets for structure-based drug design.


Assuntos
Amebíase/tratamento farmacológico , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Acanthamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Balamuthia mandrillaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Naegleria fowleri/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4059, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792628

RESUMO

Virus neutralization remains the gold standard for determining antibody efficacy. Therefore, a high-throughput assay to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies is urgently needed for COVID-19 serodiagnosis, convalescent plasma therapy, and vaccine development. Here, we report on a fluorescence-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay that detects SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patient specimens and yields comparable results to plaque reduction neutralizing assay, the gold standard of serological testing. The fluorescence-based neutralization assay is specific to measure COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies without cross reacting with patient specimens with other viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. Collectively, our approach offers a rapid platform that can be scaled to screen people for antibody protection from COVID-19, a key parameter necessary to safely reopen local communities.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Células Vero , Ensaio de Placa Viral
8.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104583, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791382

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused millions of confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide and hundreds of thousands of deaths in less than 6 months. Mitigation measures including social distancing were implemented to control disease spread, however, thousands of new cases continue to be diagnosed daily. To resume some suspended social activities, early diagnosis and contact tracing are essential. To meet this required diagnostic and screening capacity, high throughput diagnostic assays are needed. The NeuMoDx™ SARS-CoV-2 assay, performed on a NeuMoDx molecular system, is a rapid, fully automated, qualitative real-time RT-PCR diagnostic test with throughput of up to 288 tests in an 8 -h shift. The assay received emergency use authorization from the FDA and is used in some large testing centers in the US. This paper describes the analytical and clinical performance of the assay at three centers: Johns Hopkins Hospital, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, and the Wadsworth Center.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Automação Laboratorial , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16839-16847, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641515

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based liquid biopsies provide unique opportunities for cancer diagnostics, treatment selection, and response monitoring, but even with advanced microfluidic technologies for rare cell detection the very low number of CTCs in standard 10-mL peripheral blood samples limits their clinical utility. Clinical leukapheresis can concentrate mononuclear cells from almost the entire blood volume, but such large numbers and concentrations of cells are incompatible with current rare cell enrichment technologies. Here, we describe an ultrahigh-throughput microfluidic chip, LPCTC-iChip, that rapidly sorts through an entire leukapheresis product of over 6 billion nucleated cells, increasing CTC isolation capacity by two orders of magnitude (86% recovery with 105 enrichment). Using soft iron-filled channels to act as magnetic microlenses, we intensify the field gradient within sorting channels. Increasing magnetic fields applied to inertially focused streams of cells effectively deplete massive numbers of magnetically labeled leukocytes within microfluidic channels. The negative depletion of antibody-tagged leukocytes enables isolation of potentially viable CTCs without bias for expression of specific tumor epitopes, making this platform applicable to all solid tumors. Thus, the initial enrichment by routine leukapheresis of mononuclear cells from very large blood volumes, followed by rapid flow, high-gradient magnetic sorting of untagged CTCs, provides a technology for noninvasive isolation of cancer cells in sufficient numbers for multiple clinical and experimental applications.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/classificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Separação Celular/instrumentação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Leucaférese/métodos , Campos Magnéticos , Microfluídica/instrumentação
10.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104474, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-throughput assays for the SARS-CoV-2 virus are critical to increasing test capacity and slowing the spread of COVID-19. Abbott Molecular developed and received emergency use authorization (EUA) to deploy the new RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay, run on the automated m2000sp/rt system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate analytical and clinical performance of the RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay compared to the SARS-CoV-2 CDC-based laboratory developed test (LDT) in clinical use by the University of Washington Clinical Virology Laboratory (UW Virology). METHODS: RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay limit of detection (LOD) was evaluated by testing two dilution panels of 60 replicates each. Cross-reactivity was evaluated by testing 24 clinical samples positive for various non‒SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses. Clinical performance was evaluated using 30 positive and 30 negative SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples previously tested using the UW Virology SARS-CoV-2 LDT. RESULTS: Exceeding the 100 copies/mL LOD reported in the RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay EUA product insert, 19 of 20 replicates were detected at 50 copies/mL and 16 of 20 replicates were detected at 25 copies/mL. All clinical samples positive for 24 non‒SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses were SARS-CoV-2 negative on the RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay. The assay had high sensitivity (93%) and specificity (100%) for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. Two positive samples that tested negative with the RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay had cycle numbers of 35.94 or greater and required dilution prior to testing. One of these samples was also inconclusive on the SARS-CoV-2 LDT. CONCLUSION: The RealTime SARS-CoV-2 assay is acceptable for clinical use. With the high-throughput, fully automated m2000 system, this assay will accelerate the pace of SARS-CoV-2 testing.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Pandemias , RNA Viral/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Washington
11.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104480, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505777

RESUMO

Serological SARS-CoV-2 assays are urgently needed for diagnosis, contact tracing and for epidemiological studies. So far, there is limited data on how recently commercially available, high-throughput immunoassays, using different recombinant SARS-CoV-2 antigens, perform with clinical samples. Focusing on IgG and total antibodies, we demonstrate the performance of four automated immunoassays (Abbott Architect™ i2000 (N protein-based)), Roche cobas™ e 411 analyzer (N protein-based, not differentiating between IgA, IgM or IgG antibodies), LIAISON®XL platform (S1 and S2 protein-based), VIRCLIA® automation system (S1 and N protein-based) in comparison to two ELISA assays (Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 IgG (S1 protein-based) and Virotech SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA (N protein-based)) and an in-house developed plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). We tested follow up serum/plasma samples of individuals PCR-diagnosed with COVID-19. When calculating the overall sensitivity, in a time frame of 49 days after first PCR-positivity, the PRNT as gold standard, showed the highest sensitivity with 93.3% followed by the dual-target assay for the VIRCLIA® automation system with 89%. The overall sensitivity in the group of N protein-based assays ranged from 66.7 to 77.8% and in the S protein-based-assays from 71.1 to 75.6%. Five follow-up samples of three individuals were only detected in either an S and/or N protein-based assay, indicating an individual different immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and the influence of the used assay in the detection of IgG antibodies. This should be further analysed. The specificity of the examined assays was ≥ 97%. However, because of the low or unknown prevalence of SARS-CoV-2, the examined assays in this study are currently primarily eligible for epidemiological investigations, as they have limited information in individual testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Automação Laboratorial/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Life Sci ; 257: 118025, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) co-agonists have emerged as treatment options for reversing diabetes and obesity. Here, we screened the high potency receptor-biased GLP-1R agonists via a newly designed high-throughput GLP-1R extracellular domain (ECD)-based system and demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo therapeutic characters. METHODS: Twelve 9-mer peptides (named XEL1-XEL12) which were screened from a large phage-displayed peptide library were fused to the N-terminus of GIP (3-30) to generate another twelve fusion peptides, termed XEL13-24. Using the six lysine-altered XEL17 as leading sequences, eighteen fatty chain modified fusion peptides were further assessed via in vitro GLP-1R/GIPR-based cell assay. Moreover, the acute and long-acting in vivo effects of selected candidate on diabetic db/db mice and diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats were both carefully evaluated. RESULTS: XEL17 exhibited balanced activation potency on GLP-1R/GIPR in stable cell lines, and further assessment was performed to evaluate the XEL32, a fatty chain modified XEL17 derivative. Preclinical pharmacodynamic results in diabetic db/db mice demonstrated that XEL32 held outstanding insulinotropic and glucose-lowering activities. In addition, protracted antidiabetic effects of XEL32 were also proved by the hypoglycemic test and multiple oral glucose tolerance test. Furthermore, chronic treatment of XEL32 in DIO rats exhibited outstanding beneficial effects on body weight control, fat loss, food intake control, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) reduction as well as the glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: XEL32, as a novel GLP-1/GIP dual receptor agonist, may supply efficient glycemic control and weight loss.


Assuntos
Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , China , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Células HEK293 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Nat Protoc ; 15(7): 2203-2229, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541940

RESUMO

Determining enantiomeric excess (e.e.) in chiral compounds is key to development of chiral catalyst auxiliaries and chiral drugs. Here we describe a sensitive and robust fluorescence-based assay for determining e.e. in mixtures of enantiomers of 1,2- and 1,3-diols, chiral amines, amino alcohols, and amino-acid esters. The method is based on dynamic self-assembly of commercially available chiral amines, 2-formylphenylboronic acid, and chiral diols in acetonitrile to form fluorescent diastereomeric complexes. Each analyte enantiomer engenders a diastereomer with distinct fluorescence wavelength/intensity originating from enantiopure fluorescent ligands. In this assay, enantiomers of amines and amine derivatives assemble with diol-type ligands containing a binaphthol moiety (BINOL and VANOL), whereas diol enantiomers form complexes with the enantiopure amine-type fluorescent ligand tryptophanol. The differential fluorescence is utilized to determine the amount of each enantiomer in the mixture with an error of <1% e.e. This method enables high-throughput real-time evaluation of enantiomeric/diastereomeric excess (e.e./d.e.) and product yield of crude asymmetric reaction products. The procedure comprises high-throughput liquid dispensing of three components into 384-well plates and recording of fluorescence using an automated plate reader. The approach enables scaling up the screening of combinatorial libraries and, together with parallel synthesis, creates a robust platform for discovering chiral catalysts or auxiliaries for asymmetric transformations and chiral drug development. The procedure takes ~4-6 h and requires 10-20 ng of substrate per well. Our fluorescence-based assay offers distinct advantages over existing methods because it is not sensitive to the presence of common additives/impurities or unreacted/incompletely utilized reagents or catalysts.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Amino Álcoois/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Estereoisomerismo
14.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 6(1): 16, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487991

RESUMO

Drug combinations can expand therapeutic options and address cancer's resistance. However, the combinatorial space is enormous precluding its systematic exploration. Therefore, synergy prediction strategies are essential. We here present an approach to prioritise drug combinations in high-throughput screens and to stratify synergistic responses. At the core of our approach is the observation that the likelihood of synergy increases when targeting proteins with either strong functional similarity or dissimilarity. We estimate the similarity applying a multitask machine learning approach to basal gene expression and response to single drugs. We tested 7 protein target pairs (representing 29 combinations) and predicted their synergies in 33 breast cancer cell lines. In addition, we experimentally validated predicted synergy of the BRAF/insulin receptor combination (Dabrafenib/BMS-754807) in 48 colorectal cancer cell lines. We anticipate that our approaches can be used for prioritization of drug combinations in large scale screenings, and to maximize the efficacy of drugs already known to induce synergy, ultimately enabling patient stratification.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Oximas/farmacologia
15.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538917

RESUMO

Islet autoantibodies (IAbs) are widely used in type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosis and prediction. Four major IAbs to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase-65 (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) are equally important in disease prediction. Presently, up to 40% of patients diagnosed with T1D go on to develop other autoimmune disorders. Unfortunately, current screening methods using a single autoantibody for measurement are laborious and inefficient for large scale screening studies. We recently developed a simple multiplexed electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay to address these current issues. The assay combines all 7 autoantibody tests into one well. Each well includes three IAbs (IAA, GADA, and IA-2A), autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOA) and thyroid globulin (ThGA) to detect autoimmune thyroid disease, autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TGA) for celiac disease, and autoantibodies to interferon alpha (IFNαA) for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1 (APS-1); all of which screen for T1D and other relevant autoimmune diseases, simultaneously. The multiplex ECL assay is based on the single ECL assay platform, but instead uses the multiplex plate combining multiple autoantibody assays, up to 10, into a single well. The main difference from the single ECL assay is that each antibody-antigen complex formed in the fluid-phase is restrained onto a specific spot on each well through a linker system on the multiplex plate. The 7-Plex ECL assay, in the present study, is validated against standard radio-binding assays (RBA) and single ECL assays, using a large cohort of newly diagnosed T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls, resulting in excellent assay sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510483

RESUMO

The powerful tools available to edit yeast genomes have made this microbe a valuable platform for engineering. While it is now possible to construct libraries of millions of genetically distinct strains, screening for a desired phenotype remains a significant obstacle. With existing screening techniques, there is a tradeoff between information output and throughput, with high-throughput screening typically being performed on one product of interest. Therefore, we present an approach to accelerate strain screening by adapting single cell RNA sequencing to isogenic picoliter colonies of genetically engineered yeast strains. To address the unique challenges of performing RNA sequencing on yeast cells, we culture isogenic yeast colonies within hydrogels and spheroplast prior to performing RNA sequencing. The RNA sequencing data can be used to infer yeast phenotypes and sort out engineered pathways. The scalability of our method addresses a critical obstruction in microbial engineering.


Assuntos
Engenharia Genética/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , RNA Fúngico/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Esferoplastos/genética , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1854-1869, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our recent work demonstrates that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is an important regulator of smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. SMC-specific PTEN deletion promotes spontaneous vascular remodeling and PTEN loss correlates with increased atherosclerotic lesion severity in human coronary arteries. In mice, PTEN overexpression reduces plaque area and preserves SMC contractile protein expression in atherosclerosis and blunts Ang II (angiotensin II)-induced pathological vascular remodeling, suggesting that pharmacological PTEN upregulation could be a novel therapeutic approach to treat vascular disease. Approach and Results: To identify novel PTEN activators, we conducted a high-throughput screen using a fluorescence based PTEN promoter-reporter assay. After screening ≈3400 compounds, 11 hit compounds were chosen based on level of activity and mechanism of action. Following in vitro confirmation, we focused on 5-azacytidine, a DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase-1) inhibitor, for further analysis. In addition to PTEN upregulation, 5-azacytidine treatment increased expression of genes associated with a differentiated SMC phenotype. 5-Azacytidine treatment also maintained contractile gene expression and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression after PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) stimulation, suggesting 5-azacytidine blocks PDGF-induced SMC de-differentiation. However, these protective effects were lost in PTEN-deficient SMCs. These findings were confirmed in vivo using carotid ligation in SMC-specific PTEN knockout mice treated with 5-azacytidine. In wild type controls, 5-azacytidine reduced neointimal formation and inflammation while maintaining contractile protein expression. In contrast, 5-azacytidine was ineffective in PTEN knockout mice, indicating that the protective effects of 5-azacytidine are mediated through SMC PTEN upregulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates 5-azacytidine upregulates PTEN expression in SMCs, promoting maintenance of SMC differentiation and reducing pathological vascular remodeling in a PTEN-dependent manner.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 111-123, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533946

RESUMO

Partial or complete loss-of-function variants in SCN5A are the most common genetic cause of the arrhythmia disorder Brugada syndrome (BrS1). However, the pathogenicity of SCN5A variants is often unknown or disputed; 80% of the 1,390 SCN5A missense variants observed in at least one individual to date are variants of uncertain significance (VUSs). The designation of VUS is a barrier to the use of sequence data in clinical care. We selected 83 variants: 10 previously studied control variants, 10 suspected benign variants, and 63 suspected Brugada syndrome-associated variants, selected on the basis of their frequency in the general population and in individuals with Brugada syndrome. We used high-throughput automated patch clamping to study the function of the 83 variants, with the goal of reclassifying variants with functional data. The ten previously studied controls had functional properties concordant with published manual patch clamp data. All 10 suspected benign variants had wild-type-like function. 22 suspected BrS variants had loss of channel function (<10% normalized peak current) and 22 variants had partial loss of function (10%-50% normalized peak current). The previously unstudied variants were initially classified as likely benign (n = 2), likely pathogenic (n = 10), or VUSs (n = 61). After the patch clamp studies, 16 variants were benign/likely benign, 45 were pathogenic/likely pathogenic, and only 12 were still VUSs. Structural modeling identified likely mechanisms for loss of function including altered thermostability and disruptions to alpha helices, disulfide bonds, or the permeation pore. High-throughput patch clamping enabled reclassification of the majority of tested VUSs in SCN5A.


Assuntos
Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): e89, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544247

RESUMO

Understanding the thermodynamics of DNA motifs is important for prediction and design of probes and primers, but melt curve analyses are low-throughput and produce inaccurate results for motifs such as bulges and mismatches. Here, we developed a new, accurate and high-throughput method for measuring DNA motif thermodynamics called TEEM (Toehold Exchange Energy Measurement). It is a refined framework of comparing two toehold exchange reactions, which are competitive strand displacement between oligonucleotides. In a single experiment, TEEM can measure over 1000 ΔG° values with standard error of roughly 0.05 kcal/mol.


Assuntos
DNA/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Termodinâmica , DNA/química , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Oligonucleotídeos/química
20.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478756

RESUMO

Lipoproteins from proteobacteria are posttranslationally modified by fatty acids derived from membrane phospholipids by the action of three integral membrane enzymes, resulting in triacylated proteins. The first step in the lipoprotein modification pathway involves the transfer of a diacylglyceryl group from phosphatidylglycerol onto the prolipoprotein, resulting in diacylglyceryl prolipoprotein. In the second step, the signal peptide of prolipoprotein is cleaved, forming an apolipoprotein, which in turn is modified by a third fatty acid derived from a phospholipid. This last step is catalyzed by apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (Lnt). The lipoprotein modification pathway is essential in most γ-proteobacteria, making it a potential target for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Described here is a sensitive assay for Lnt that is compatible with high-throughput screening of small inhibitory molecules. The enzyme and substrates are membrane-embedded molecules; therefore, the development of an in vitro test is not straightforward. This includes the purification of the active enzyme in the presence of detergent, the availability of alkyne-phospholipids and diacylglyceryl peptide substrates, and the reaction conditions in mixed micelles. Furthermore, in order to use the activity test in a high-throughput screening (HTS) setup, direct readout of the reaction product is preferred over coupled enzymatic reactions. In this fluorometric enzyme assay, the alkyne-triacylated peptide product is rendered fluorescent through a click-chemistry reaction and detected in a multiwell plate format. This method is applicable to other acyltransferases that use fatty acid-containing substrates, including phospholipids and acyl-CoA.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Química Click/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Fluorometria/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Animais , Ácidos Graxos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
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