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1.
Indian J Pediatr ; 87(2): 94-98, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the proportion of children of age 5 to 7 y at risk of specific learning disability (SLD) and to analyse the socio-demographic risk factors. METHODS: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted in six schools in Puducherry. Four hundred eighty students were enrolled and study was conducted in a triphasic approach. Phase I- Screening by teachers using SLD-SQ (Specific Leaning Disability - Screening Questionnaire); Phase II- Vision, hearing, and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) assessment were done in students screened positive with SLD-SQ and those with vision or hearing impairment and subnormal intelligence were excluded; Phase III- Remaining children were subjected to NIMHANS SLD index (Level I profile). RESULTS: Of the 480 enrolled students 109 were screened positive with SLD-SQ. Twelve students were excluded in Phase II. Remaining 97 evaluated were evaluated with NIMHANS SLD index and 36 (7.5%) were screened positive. Boys (9.6%) were significantly more affected than girls (4.9%). Similarly, risk was significantly higher in students of government schools (12.1%) than private schools (2.2%). Ignoring punctuation and capitals was the commonest problem in SLD-SQ whereas, dysgraphia was most common in NIMHANS index. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows though SLD is highly prevalent and remains undiagnosed due to lack of awareness among teachers and parents. Since early intervention leads to better outcomes, Universal screening should be made mandatory and remedial teaching centres made available, accessible and economical.


Assuntos
Dislexia/diagnóstico , Ensino de Recuperação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dislexia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
REVISA (Online) ; 9(3): 529-538, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122987

RESUMO

Objetivo: relatar uma experiência didática envolvendo diálogo entre a Universidade e a Escola Pública, por meio da aplicação da oficina pedagógica denominada "Brincando de Geneticista: descobrindo o DNA". Método: A oficina direcionada para alunos da Educação Básica foi realizada na Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, durante a Semana Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do ano de 2019. A atividade pedagógica foi fundamentada na extração de material genético. Foram utilizados materiais de baixo custo e fácil acesso. Resultados: 80 estudantes Ensino Fundamental II participaram da oficina. Os alunos foram divididos em pequenos grupos, possibilitando maior interação entre estudantes e professor. A oficina de caráter participativo possibilitou que os estudantes pudessem compreender a importância da genética para a vida, além de estimular a interação dos escolares com a Universidade. Ademais, foi observado que muitos escolares apresentam dificuldades para transpor e contextualizar assuntos relacionados a conteúdos celulares e moleculares. Conclusão: No presente trabalho, o uso dessa abordagem didática ampliou a receptividade dos alunos aos conteúdos trabalhados, facilitou o diálogo aluno-professor e se mostrou uma ótima ferramenta de interface entre universidade e escola básica.


Objective: to report a didactic experience involving dialogue between the University and the Public School, through the application of the pedagogical workshop called "Playing Geneticist: discovering the DNA". Method: The workshop directed to students of Basic Education was held at the State University of Feira de Santana, during the National Week of Science and Technology of the year 2019. The pedagogical activity was based on the extraction of genetic material. Low-cost and easy-to-access materials were used. Results: 80 elementary school students participated in the workshop. The students were divided into small groups (12 to 15 students), allowing greater interaction between students and the teacher. The participatory workshop enabled students to understand the importance of genetics for life, in addition to stimulating the interaction of students with the University. Furthermore, it was observed that many students have difficulties in transposing and contextualizing issues related to cellular and molecular content. Conclusion: In the present work, the use of this didactic approach increased the students' receptivity to the contents worked on, facilitated the student-teacher dialogue and proved to be a great interface tool between university and basic school.


Objetivo: reportar una experiencia didáctica que involucra el diálogo entre la Universidad y la Escuela Pública, a través de la aplicación del taller pedagógico llamado "Jugando Genetista: descubriendo el ADN". Método: El taller dirigido a estudiantes de Educación Básica se realizó en la Universidad Estatal de Feira de Santana, durante la Semana Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología del año 2019. La actividad pedagógica se basó en la extracción de material genético. Se utilizaron materiales de bajo costo y de fácil acceso. Resultados: 80 estudiantes de primaria participaron en el taller. Los alumnos se dividieron en pequeños grupos (de 12 a 15 alumnos), lo que permitió una mayor interacción entre los alumnos y el profesor. El taller participativo permitió a los estudiantes comprender la importancia de la genética para la vida, además de estimular la interacción de los estudiantes con la Universidad. Además, se observó que muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para transponer y contextualizar cuestiones relacionadas con el contenido celular y molecular. Conclusión: En el presente trabajo, el uso de este enfoque didáctico aumentó la receptividad de los estudiantes a los contenidos trabajados, facilitó el diálogo estudiante-maestro y demostró ser una gran herramienta de interfaz entre la universidad y la escuela básica.


Assuntos
Ensino de Recuperação , Universidades , DNA , Ensino Fundamental e Médio
3.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 17(2): 7-34, jul.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043041

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) El artículo busca comprender las percepciones que estudiantes, docentes y directivos tienen respecto de los aspectos que inciden en la retención de adolescentes atendidos en «escuelas de segunda oportunidad¼ en Santiago de Chile. La información proviene de 56 entrevistas semiestructuradas, aplicadas a tales actores en los Centros de Educación Integrada de Jóvenes y Adultos seleccionados. Las entrevistas fueron sometidas a un análisis narrativo etnográfico y, para su codificación, se utilizó el software Atlas.ti. Los actores identificaron como las condicionantes más importantes la contextualización en la exigencia académica y evaluativa, el acompañamiento afectivo a estudiantes y que la escuela sea acogedora. Finalmente, se vislumbra la necesidad de revisar los procesos de reinserción escolar para ungrupo no menor de niños y jóvenes que no se adaptan a condiciones «normales¼. Palabras clave: Chile, educación alternativa, educación compensatoria, joven sin escolaridad, retención, abandono escolar (Tesauro de Ciencias Sociales de la Unesco).


Abstract (analytical) The purpose of this article is to understand the perceptions that students, teachers and principals have regarding the aspects that affect the educational retention of adolescents who attend "second chance schools" in Santiago, Chile. The information collected for the study comes from 56 semi-structured interviews with students, teachers and principals in each of the selected Integrated Education Centers for Young People and Adults. The transcripts of the interviews were subject to an ethnographic narrative analysis and, for the codification and construction of categories the Atlas.ti software was used with all materials. The actors identified the most important determinants to promote educational retention and avoid students dropping out of school: the academic demands of students; affective accompaniment for students; and that the school is a welcoming. Place Finally, the authors identified the need to review the school reintegration processes for children and adolescents who do not adapt to "normal" conditions in the schools. Keywords: Chile, alternative education, compensatory education, youth not in school, retention, school drop-outs.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo do artigo é compreender as percepções que os alunos, professores e diretores têm sobre os aspectos que afetam a retenção de adolescentes atendidos em "escolas de segunda oportunidade" em Santiago, no Chile. A informação vem de 56 entrevistas semi-estruturadas, aplicadas a estudantes, professores e representantes da equipe de gestão em cada um dos Centros de Educação Integrada para Jovens e Adultos selecionados. As entrevistas foram submetidas a uma análise narrativa etnográfica e, para a codificação e construção de categorias, utilizou-se o software Atlas TI. Os atores identificaram como as condições mais importantes para incentivar a retenção e evitar o abandono precoce: a exigência acadêmica e avaliativa, o acompanhamento afetivo aos alunos e o acolhimento da escola. Finalmente, é necessário rever os processos de reinserção escolar para um grupo de crianças e jovens que não se adaptam às condições "normais". Palavras-chave: Chile, educação alternativa, educação compensatória, jovens sem escolaridade, retenção, abandono escolar.


Assuntos
Ensino de Recuperação , Evasão Escolar
4.
Codas ; 31(5): e20180074, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze how students with Language Disorders receive remedial teaching in inclusive settings in Portugal. METHODS: We developed a questionnaire based on the literature review, and applied it to 123 elementary teachers in Portugal. We performed a descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the dependent variables using parametric tests. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed that most teachers know the concept of language disorders and consider it important to the development of language when supporting students with this problem. However, over half of the respondents answered that they have no training and enough information about the acquisition and development of language, and don´t consider having sufficient knowledge to contribute to the identification of students with language disorders. Results for inferential statistics showed statistically significant differences regarding gender; length of service and district, as well as a good internal consistency in relation to the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: Results highlight the need for training and information about acquisition and development of language, and more specifically in relation to language disorders. It also showed that elementary teachers may find difficulties in intervention with students with language disorders, and particularly, to adequate strategies to their needs, particularly when developing Individualized Educational Programs for their students in a team.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Linguagem , Ensino de Recuperação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Perspect Med Educ ; 8(6): 322-338, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Two developing forces have achieved prominence in medical education: the advent of competency-based assessments and a growing commitment to expand access to medicine for a broader range of learners with a wider array of preparation. Remediation is intended to support all learners to achieve sufficient competence. Therefore, it is timely to provide practical guidelines for remediation in medical education that clarify best practices, practices to avoid, and areas requiring further research, in order to guide work with both individual struggling learners and development of training program policies. METHODS: Collectively, we generated an initial list of Do's, Don'ts, and Don't Knows for remediation in medical education, which was then iteratively refined through discussions and additional evidence-gathering. The final guidelines were then graded for the strength of the evidence by consensus. RESULTS: We present 26 guidelines: two groupings of Do's (systems-level interventions and recommendations for individual learners), along with short lists of Don'ts and Don't Knows, and our interpretation of the strength of current evidence for each guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Remediation is a high-stakes, highly complex process involving learners, faculty, systems, and societal factors. Our synthesis resulted in a list of guidelines that summarize the current state of educational theory and empirical evidence that can improve remediation processes at individual and institutional levels. Important unanswered questions remain; ongoing research can further improve remediation practices to ensure the appropriate support for learners, institutions, and society.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Guias como Assunto/normas , Ensino de Recuperação/normas , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Competência Profissional/normas , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos
6.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 32(2): 84-86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The road from prematriculation to graduation looks different for each student at each institution. To successfully complete the curriculum, students must often overcome difficulties, both academic and nonacademic. Up to 15% of 3rd-year medical students in the United States are still struggling on the major components of their clerkships and 11% in their 4th year. While there is an established need for medical school remediation, there is little evidence supporting what specifically works across the board. These deficiencies often do not go away on their own and with the need to educate all students, the guidance provided by multiple stakeholders (i.e., administration, staff, faculty, and clinicians) would be necessary to chart a course of success for these students. METHODS: The Academic and Clinical Success Committee (ACSC) at the Texas A and M University College of Medicine provides a venue to review individual students and provide input, resources, and support on a timely basis. This is a necessary ingredient in guiding the students facing academic and clinical challenges toward successful completion of graduation requirements. RESULTS: Since its incorporation, the work of the ACSC has contributed to a decrease in failures on consecutive block examinations, a decreased failure rate on Step 2 clinical skills (CS), and increased capacity to help students at risk of failing Step 1 to not do so. DISCUSSION: In this brief report, we illustrate how we developed the ACSC, the impact and levels of success it has had on students, and challenges we have faced.


Assuntos
Ensino de Recuperação , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Humanos , Texas
8.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 487-494, oct 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046230

RESUMO

The relevance of this research is based on the fact that delayed psychoverbal development is very common is very common in modern children. The problems caused by delayed psychoverbal development accompany many pathologies connected with the development of the nervous system. Therefore, the issues of providing help and training to such children are becoming increasingly relevant both in Russian and foreign pedagogy. The article looks at some aspects of the vocal training technology used in work with children who have delays in psychoverbal development in order to improve the level of their cognitive and communicative skills, develop their thinking, speech, memory and empathy and overcome psychological difficulties. Research methods include theoretical works by Russian psychologists and a pedagogical experiment in vocal training of children with health problems.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Ensino de Recuperação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Criança Excepcional/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Musicoterapia
9.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 509-520, oct 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046361

RESUMO

This paper is devoted to the pressing issue of obtaining professional education by persons with disabilities and limited health capacities in the inclusive context, which is a factor in their successful socialization. Adaptation to studying at a higher education institution is a difficult task for many students with special educational needs. The purpose of the experimental study is to look into the characteristics of adaptation to the educational process of a pedagogical university in undergraduate students with disabilities and limited health capacities, to identify the reasons for their under-performance in educational activities and to develop recommendations for overcoming them in the process of educational and methodological support. The object of the study is the process of educational adaptation of students with disabilities and limited health capacities at university. The obtained data indicate the need for educational and methodological support for the education of students and the development of methodological recommendations for adaptation of educational material and teaching methods for students with disabilities and limited health capacities, which have, in turn, been performed by the authors. In view of the results of the analysis of scientific research on the problem of teaching people with disabilities and limited health capacities at higher education institutions, as well as the features of self-organization of students of this category that have been identified during the experiment, it is necessary to build educational and methodological support for the educational process that would take these features into account. The recommendations developed by the authors regarding the adaptation of educational material and teaching methods for students and their implementation in the development of appropriate teaching material by university teachers in collaboration with specialists of the university resource teaching and methodological center will contribute to the development of self-organization skills in people with disabilities and limited health capacities and will ensure the activation of academic activity among such students, which will create the necessary conditions for their successful education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino de Recuperação , Estudantes , Materiais de Ensino , Epidemiologia Experimental , Pessoas com Deficiência/educação , Adaptação , Educação Superior , Instituições de Ensino Superior
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 532-537, oct 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046454

RESUMO

The article deals with the organizational- methodological and content aspects of practice-oriented tasks aimed at the formation of professional competencies of future professionals who study the theory and practice of the inclusive education of children with disabilities. Practice-oriented tasks aimed at the formation of knowledge about the essence of the basic concepts used in the process of the professional activity of specialists in an inclusive educational space are presented. In addition, practice-oriented tasks aimed at the formation of the abilities to analyze and summarize educational activities in organizations engaged in educational activities and to support children with disabilities and their families are given.


Assuntos
Ensino de Recuperação , Pessoas com Deficiência/educação , Educação Baseada em Competências , Educação Profissionalizante/métodos , Políticas Públicas Antidiscriminatórias
11.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 27(4): 223-229, Oct-dic 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1087731

RESUMO

Introducción: las intervenciones educativas (IE) dirigidas al cuidador primario (CP) se tornan efectivas para la adopción de estilos de vida saludables al fomentarse el autocuidado, el cambio de conductas nocivas para la salud, la prevención y el tratamiento de síndromes agudos, así como en el aprendizaje de habilidades asociadas al cuidado. Su implementación es frecuente, sin embargo en ocasiones se omiten aspectos fundamentales en su desarrollo. Objetivo: analizar la producción científica de las IE dirigidas al CP a partir de los componentes utilizados para describir la calidad de las intervenciones educativas: estructura, proceso y resultado. Métodos: de acuerdo con los lineamientos de la declaración PRISMA se realizó una búsqueda a través bases de datos especializadas como: Pubmed, Scielo, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, Biblioteca Digital UNAM, Cochrane, Medigraphic e Imbiomed. Se utilizaron los términos DeCS: Estilo de Vida, Autocuidado, Cuidadores, Intervención Educativa y Estudio de Intervención; así como los términos MeSH: Life-style, Selfcare, Caregivers y Health Cate Educational Interventions. Se seleccionaron publicaciones sobre IE para mejorar el autocuidado y/o estilos de vida del CP, de acceso libre a texto completo, publicados desde enero 2014 a noviembre 2018 en español, inglés y portugués. Se analizaron 21 investigaciones. Resultados: el 66% de las IE no mencionan la teoría desde la que dan sustento a su acción educativa, la práctica educativa fue de tipo unidireccional controladora tecnológicamente. Se observó que el 100% de las IE son efectivas. Conclusiones: la mayor parte de las IE son efectivas, sin embargo no fue posible identificar en gran parte de estas los aspectos fundamentales para su desarrollo, replica o evaluación.


Introduction: Educational interventions (El) aimed at the primary caregiver (CP) become effective for the adoption of healthy lifestyles by promoting self-care, changing harmful behaviors for health, prevention and treatment of acute syndromes, as well as in learning skills associated with care. Its implementation is frequent, however sometimes fundamental aspects are omitted in its development. Objective: To analyze the sdentific production of Els directed to the CP based on the components used to describe the quality of educational interventions: structure, process and result. Methods: According to the guidelines of the PRISMA statement, a search was conducted through specialized databases such as: Pubmed, Scielo, Virtual Health Library, UNAM Digital Library, Cochrane, Medigraphic and Imbiomed. The DeCS terms used were: Lifestyle, Self-care, Caregivers, Educational Intervention and Intervention Study; as well as the MeSH terms: Life-style, Selfcare, Caregivers and Health Care Educational Interventions. Publications on El were selected to improve the self-care and or lifestyles of the CP, with free access to full text, published from January 2014 to November 2018 in Spanish, English and Portuguese. 21 investigations were analyzed. Results: The 66% of the El do not mention the theory from which they sustain their educational action, the educational practice was technologically controlling unidirectional type. It was observed that 100% of El are effective. Conclusions: Most of the El are effective, however it was not possible to identify in a large part of these fundamental aspects for their development, replication or evaluation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino de Recuperação , Autocuidado , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisão , Cuidadores , Estilo de Vida , México
12.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 606-610, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267901

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the results of a structured remediation program for surgical residents scoring poorly on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination®. Residents scoring below the threshold (<20th percentile) were placed in a remediation program consisting of textbook-based review and mandatory weekly quizzes overseen by the program director. The effects of the program were assessed over a five-year period (2014-2018). Of 168 tests taken, 23 (13.7%) instances of scoring below the threshold occurred (average percentile 11, range 1-19). Postremediation scores in the subsequent year improved with a median (IQR) percentile increase of 29 [23.5, 46] (P < 0.001). Two residents scored below the threshold twice; all others continued to score above the threshold. Participation in a structured remediation program results in dramatic improvement in American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination® performance, and a single occurrence of poor performance does not necessarily lead to a permanent handicap in academic performance.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Ensino de Recuperação/organização & administração , Adulto , Currículo , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
13.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 296-317, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This quasi-experimental study reported the results of a structured literacy intervention programme designed for secondary school students of Year 7 to Year 9 with dyslexia. Students of the intervention group (n = 116) participated in 40-week sessions of small-size, classroom-based, and split-group intervention setting with 45-min daily lesson on both Chinese and English language compared with students in the control group who received normal classroom instructions (n = 98). RESULTS: Students in the intervention group outperformed the control groups in self-regulated learning scales, which indicated that there was positive change in students' behavioural and cognitive outcomes in learning. Although students demonstrated gains in phonetic skills, posttest results in academic achievement did not exhibit significant improvement when compared with their control group peers. CONCLUSION: The findings provided some encouraging evidence of the effectiveness of intervention programme. Students that demonstrated gains in phonetic skills and improvement in behavioural and cognitive aspects required continuous intervention lessons to become a self-regulated learner, who would be self-motivated to improve methods of learning and adopt strategies for attaining academic goals. The study contributed to the literature by presenting one of the very first school-based, small-size, classroom-based, and split-group intervention programme for secondary school dyslexic students, which included teachers and students training on English and Chinese intervention content (phonological and literacy content), teaching curriculum integrated with school curriculum, and coteaching with school teachers in the mainstream classrooms, whereas most of the existing intervention programmes used pull-out approach involving the first language only.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Alfabetização/psicologia , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Adolescente , Currículo , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Fonética , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Acad Med ; 94(12): 1891-1894, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348065

RESUMO

Residency program directors and teaching faculty invest an enormous amount of time, energy, and resources in providing underperforming at-risk learners with remedial teaching. A remediation program was created and centralized at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in 2006 and 2012, respectively, that consolidated expertise in and resources for learner assessment and individualized teaching for struggling learners, particularly those placed on probation or receiving letters of warning (called focused review letters) from their residency programs. Since the implementation of the program, the authors have observed a decrease in the number of residents being placed on probation, and, of those on probation, more are graduating and obtaining board certification. In this Article, the authors aim to describe the development and outcomes of the program and to explore possible reasons for the improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Ensino de Recuperação/organização & administração , Colorado , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos
16.
J Postgrad Med ; 65(3): 152-159, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169134

RESUMO

Aims: The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the economic burden of specific learning disability (SpLD) by estimating its direct, indirect, and intangible costs. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables on the economic burden. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional single-arm descriptive study. Setting: Learning disability clinic in a public medical college in Mumbai. Subjects and Methods: The study cases (aged ≥8 years) were recruited by non-probability sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the parent/guardian to collect data related to direct and indirect costs. Intangible costs data were collected by documenting the willingness-to-pay value using the contingent valuation technique. Statistical Analysis Used: A quantile regression model was used to assess the impact of predictor variables on the costs. Results: The direct, indirect, and intangible costs due to SpLD were Indian Rupees (INR) 5,936,053, 29,261,220, and 42,295,000, respectively. Indirect costs comprised 83.1% of the total costs. Expenditure on tuitions and remedial education comprised 61.61% and 64.39% of the indirect and direct costs, respectively. The average annual learning disability clinic costs were INR 2,169,888. The average annual total costs per student were INR 90,773. Longer duration of poor school performance was predictive of higher direct, indirect, and total costs; and higher socioeconomic status was predictive of lower intangible costs. Conclusion: SpLD is a cost-intensive disability (intangible > indirect > direct costs). Tuitions, which are not the therapy for SpLD, are the most costly component of indirect costs. Remedial education is the most costly component of direct costs.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Educação Especial/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/economia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Ensino de Recuperação/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2019(166): 145-189, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240805

RESUMO

This paper reviews findings from four research syntheses that report the effects of academic language and/or reading interventions on language and reading outcomes for English learners who have or are at risk for learning difficulties. Studies included in the syntheses varied in research design and addressed multiple areas of reading and language. There was disagreement between syntheses as to the extent of research evidence in favor of particular instructional practices. For ELs with learning difficulties in kindergarten and first grade, however, there was strong consensus that multiple-component reading instruction that includes phonological awareness and phonics instruction is associated with improved word reading outcomes. It may also be beneficial to provide oral language, vocabulary, and reading comprehension instruction; nevertheless, there is a need for future research on instructional interventions that aim to improve reading comprehension outcomes for this population.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem/reabilitação , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
18.
Sch Psychol ; 34(5): 566-575, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246062

RESUMO

The empirical literature on academic intervention has increasingly promoted comparative research, moving the field forward in addressing the question, "What works best?" Poncy et al. (2015), Skinner (2008, 2010), and Skinner, Fletcher, and Henington (1996) have suggested that researchers enhance traditional evaluations of learning (behavior change) by using learning rates (behavior change over instructional time [IT]). The precise documentation or control of IT allows researchers to address confounds commonly found in comparative intervention research, most notably variability in intervention duration. The current article demonstrates how recent developments within the field of single-case analysis creates an opportunity to address Skinner's (2008, 2010), Skinner et al. (1996), and Poncy et al. (2015) IT within the context of comparative intervention research. Specifically, a rationale and tutorial on several coding schemes for the generalized linear model is presented that can be used to isolate the effect of IT. The use of these analyses is demonstrated across design frameworks and when considering individual participants, studies, and research synthesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Modelos Educacionais , Modelos Estatísticos , Ensino de Recuperação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudantes , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(4): 165-173, jun 2019. fig
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026686

RESUMO

Problem and aim. Deviant behavior is not only an alarming phenomenon but also a multitude of social, pedagogic and psychological problems that threaten the society and that became particularly relevant for the young adolescents with intellectual disability. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to reveal the specifics of correctional and developmental work with such children that would provide appropriate interpersonal interaction in the adolescence and the further positive socialization. Methods. The presented study was conducted in three stages (exploratory-preparatory, experimental and control-generalizing stages) with the use of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. Results and discussion. The results showed that the predominant from of the deviant behavior was hostility and violence, as well as a tendency for addictive behavior. Diagnostics of the dominant indices of hostility and aggressiveness demonstrated that the aggressiveness index dominated in the majority of adolescents. The majority of adolescents had a very high or high level of indirect hostility and assault, along with suspicion. The correctional program provides correctional effect for the adolescents with low and medium level of proneness to the deviant behavior


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Ensino de Recuperação/tendências , Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Hostilidade , Relações Interpessoais , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas/métodos
20.
Med Educ ; 53(8): 824-832, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134687

RESUMO

CONTEXT: This study explores the reliability of tools designed to rate the type of remediable medical student offences, their severity, and the quality of student insight in response to the remediation, and tests the relationships between these three constructs. METHODS: Data were collected via retrospective appraisal of remediation files from the 2009-2016 incoming classes of McMaster University's medical programme. Across two studies, 12 faculty members categorised the offences by type (academic or professionalism), and rated severity and insight by way of single anchored Likert scales. In Study 1, Krippendorff's alpha and independent, two-way, consistency type, average measures (k = 6), random-effects inter-rater reliability analyses were conducted to assess the inter-rater reliability of ratings of the measures. In Study 2, independent samples t-tests were conducted for the severity and insight measures as a function of offence type. Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationship between severity and insight as a function of offence type. RESULTS: High inter-rater reliability was found with respect to the type of offence (α = 0.86), severity (0.92) and student insight (0.88). Mean (±standard deviation) ratings of severity are significantly higher for professionalism (4.37 ± 1.20) than academic offences (2.89 ± 1.25), t(73) = -5.3, p < 0.001, |d| = 1.21, whereas the opposite is true for ratings of insight, (professionalism, 3.19 ± 1.37; academic, 4.48 ± 1.01), t(73) = 4.6, p < 0.001, |d| = 1.07. Ratings of severity and insight are moderately negatively correlated for both academic (r = -0.64, p < 0.001, n = 38) and professionalism offences (r = -0.57, p < 0.001, n = 37). CONCLUSIONS: Professionalism offences are perceived as more severe and are associated with lower insight than academic offences, pointing to the difficulty that learners face in assessing the constitution of a professionalism offence. This illustrates a need for deeper consideration about remedial strategies for lapses in professionalism.


Assuntos
Disciplina no Trabalho , Profissionalismo/educação , Ensino de Recuperação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
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