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1.
Perspect Med Educ ; 8(6): 322-338, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Two developing forces have achieved prominence in medical education: the advent of competency-based assessments and a growing commitment to expand access to medicine for a broader range of learners with a wider array of preparation. Remediation is intended to support all learners to achieve sufficient competence. Therefore, it is timely to provide practical guidelines for remediation in medical education that clarify best practices, practices to avoid, and areas requiring further research, in order to guide work with both individual struggling learners and development of training program policies. METHODS: Collectively, we generated an initial list of Do's, Don'ts, and Don't Knows for remediation in medical education, which was then iteratively refined through discussions and additional evidence-gathering. The final guidelines were then graded for the strength of the evidence by consensus. RESULTS: We present 26 guidelines: two groupings of Do's (systems-level interventions and recommendations for individual learners), along with short lists of Don'ts and Don't Knows, and our interpretation of the strength of current evidence for each guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Remediation is a high-stakes, highly complex process involving learners, faculty, systems, and societal factors. Our synthesis resulted in a list of guidelines that summarize the current state of educational theory and empirical evidence that can improve remediation processes at individual and institutional levels. Important unanswered questions remain; ongoing research can further improve remediation practices to ensure the appropriate support for learners, institutions, and society.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Guias como Assunto/normas , Ensino de Recuperação/normas , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Competência Profissional/normas , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos
2.
Acad Med ; 94(12): 1891-1894, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348065

RESUMO

Residency program directors and teaching faculty invest an enormous amount of time, energy, and resources in providing underperforming at-risk learners with remedial teaching. A remediation program was created and centralized at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in 2006 and 2012, respectively, that consolidated expertise in and resources for learner assessment and individualized teaching for struggling learners, particularly those placed on probation or receiving letters of warning (called focused review letters) from their residency programs. Since the implementation of the program, the authors have observed a decrease in the number of residents being placed on probation, and, of those on probation, more are graduating and obtaining board certification. In this Article, the authors aim to describe the development and outcomes of the program and to explore possible reasons for the improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Ensino de Recuperação/organização & administração , Colorado , Humanos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos
3.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 296-317, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This quasi-experimental study reported the results of a structured literacy intervention programme designed for secondary school students of Year 7 to Year 9 with dyslexia. Students of the intervention group (n = 116) participated in 40-week sessions of small-size, classroom-based, and split-group intervention setting with 45-min daily lesson on both Chinese and English language compared with students in the control group who received normal classroom instructions (n = 98). RESULTS: Students in the intervention group outperformed the control groups in self-regulated learning scales, which indicated that there was positive change in students' behavioural and cognitive outcomes in learning. Although students demonstrated gains in phonetic skills, posttest results in academic achievement did not exhibit significant improvement when compared with their control group peers. CONCLUSION: The findings provided some encouraging evidence of the effectiveness of intervention programme. Students that demonstrated gains in phonetic skills and improvement in behavioural and cognitive aspects required continuous intervention lessons to become a self-regulated learner, who would be self-motivated to improve methods of learning and adopt strategies for attaining academic goals. The study contributed to the literature by presenting one of the very first school-based, small-size, classroom-based, and split-group intervention programme for secondary school dyslexic students, which included teachers and students training on English and Chinese intervention content (phonological and literacy content), teaching curriculum integrated with school curriculum, and coteaching with school teachers in the mainstream classrooms, whereas most of the existing intervention programmes used pull-out approach involving the first language only.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Alfabetização/psicologia , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Adolescente , Currículo , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Fonética , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2019(166): 145-189, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240805

RESUMO

This paper reviews findings from four research syntheses that report the effects of academic language and/or reading interventions on language and reading outcomes for English learners who have or are at risk for learning difficulties. Studies included in the syntheses varied in research design and addressed multiple areas of reading and language. There was disagreement between syntheses as to the extent of research evidence in favor of particular instructional practices. For ELs with learning difficulties in kindergarten and first grade, however, there was strong consensus that multiple-component reading instruction that includes phonological awareness and phonics instruction is associated with improved word reading outcomes. It may also be beneficial to provide oral language, vocabulary, and reading comprehension instruction; nevertheless, there is a need for future research on instructional interventions that aim to improve reading comprehension outcomes for this population.


Assuntos
Deficiências da Aprendizagem/reabilitação , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
6.
Sch Psychol ; 34(5): 521-530, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045406

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Incremental Rehearsal (IR) and traditional drill (TD) on retention of multiplication facts with 29 students in third and fourth grades with low mathematical skills. Results indicated that IR led to significantly more facts being retained, and was essentially equal to TD for efficiency as measured by number of facts retained per instructional minute. Memory scores accounted for 34% of the variance beyond mathematics calculation scores in retention of multiplication facts for the TD condition, but only 2% of the variance for the IR condition. Thus, retention of multiplication facts seems largely influenced by a student's memory skills when using less effective instructional techniques such as TD, while approaches like IR are likely effective regardless of memory skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conceitos Matemáticos , Matemática/educação , Prática Psicológica , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 318-331, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124262

RESUMO

Rehabilitation procedures recommended for developmental dyslexia (DD) are still not fully defined, and only few studies directly compare different types of training. This study compared a training (Reading Trainer) working on the reading impairment with one (Run the RAN) working on the rapid automatized naming (RAN) impairment, one of the main cognitive deficits associated with DD. Two groups of DD children (N = 45) equivalent for age, sex, full IQ, and reading speed were trained either by Reading Trainer (n = 21) or by Run the RAN (n = 24); both trainings required an intensive home exercise, lasting 3 months. Both trainings showed significant improvements in reading speed and accuracy of passages and words. Bypassing the use of alphanumeric stimuli, but empowering the cognitive processes underlying reading, training RAN may be a valid tool in children with reading difficulties opening new perspectives for children with severe impairments or, even, at risk of reading difficulties.


Assuntos
Dislexia/reabilitação , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Telerreabilitação/métodos , Criança , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Dyslexia ; 25(3): 227-245, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020760

RESUMO

Early intervention is known to reduce reading disabilities; however, treatment response is variable, and some students have persistent deficits that require intensive supports. This study examined the immediate and 1-year outcomes of an individualized and intensive reading program for third grade students, which was delivered throughout the school day for an average of 189 hr of instruction over 3 months. These students' performances were compared with two comparison groups, including poor readers who received small group supports and good readers who did not have additional reading instruction. The intensive group showed an improvement in word recognition and decoding fluency immediately after the program and 1 year later, and there was a decrease in significant reading impairments from 62% before intervention to 35% at follow-up. Furthermore, baseline reading, spelling, phonological awareness, and rapid naming skills were predictive of persistent reading deficits at a later time point. Although improvements in reading skills were shown, a significant gap between poor and good readers persisted in the third and fourth grades. This study illustrates the importance of a tertiary intensive reading program, but also the need for continuing supports.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/terapia , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Conscientização , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
9.
Gac. méd. espirit ; 21(1)Ene-Abr 2019. Tablas
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-998509

RESUMO

Fundamento: El desarrollo de la independencia cognoscitiva en los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina puede contribuir a la formación de un profesional más independiente y capaz de enfrentar situaciones en su contexto de actuación, en estrecha relación con el perfil del profesional.Objetivo: Diagnosticar las insuficiencias en el desarrollo de la independencia cognoscitiva de los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Sancti Spíritus.Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Sancti Spíritus, se tomó como población a los profesores que imparten la asignatura Anatomía Patológica y a 38 estudiantes de 2.do año de la carrera de Medicina del curso 2015-2016. Se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico, empírico y estadístico con procedimientos matemáticos, para medir la variable actuación de estudiantes y profesores se utilizó la escala de Siempre, Algunas Veces y Nunca para estudiantes y de nada, poco, En Alguna Medida, Bastante y Mucho para los profesores(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina , Desempenho Acadêmico , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
10.
J Learn Disabil ; 52(1): 45-58, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771184

RESUMO

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week). When we combined performance of students in both MWR conditions, intervention students significantly outperformed controls on proximal measures of affix reading and MWR, as well as standardized measures of decoding, spelling, and text comprehension. Furthermore, there was a noted interaction between English learner status and treatment on spelling performance. There were no statistically significant main effects between the MWR groups on proximal or standardized measures of interest. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to MWR instruction for students with persistent reading difficulties and considerations for future research related to the malleability of motivation.


Assuntos
Dislexia/psicologia , Dislexia/reabilitação , Motivação , Psicoterapia/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Leitura , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Learn Disabil ; 52(1): 31-44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792081

RESUMO

We examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve word reading and reading comprehension in fourth- and fifth-grade students with significant reading problems. Using a randomized control trial design, we compare the fourth- and fifth-grade reading outcomes of students with severe reading difficulties who were provided a researcher-developed treatment with reading outcomes of students in a business-as-usual (BAU) comparison condition. A total of 280 fourth- and fifth-grade students were randomly assigned within school in a 1:1 ratio to either the BAU comparison condition ( n = 139) or the treatment condition ( n = 141). Treatment students were provided small-group tutoring for 30 to 45 minutes for an average of 68 lessons (mean hours of instruction = 44.4, SD = 11.2). Treatment students performed statistically significantly higher than BAU students on a word reading measure (effect size [ES] = 0. 58) and a measure of reading fluency (ES = 0.46). Though not statistically significant, effect sizes for students in the treatment condition were consistently higher than BAU students for decoding measures (ES = 0.06, 0.08), and mixed for comprehension (ES = -0.02, 0.14).


Assuntos
Compreensão , Dislexia/reabilitação , Leitura , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Criança , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Sch Psychol ; 34(2): 201-211, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284890

RESUMO

In the present study, we sought to examine response trajectories to brief (11-week) school-based homework interventions and factors that may help schools predict responses. Participants included 222 middle-school students (72% boys; Mage = 12.00 years, SD = 1.02) who had been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and had received either a contingency-management or skills-based intervention for homework problems. Both interventions included 16 20-min student meetings with a school counselor and two parent meetings. Trajectories of response for ratings of homework problems and assignment completion were examined from baseline to a 6-month follow-up using growth-mixture models. Baseline variables routinely measured in school settings, including grade-point average (GPA), math and reading achievement, and externalizing and internalizing symptoms, were examined as predictors of treatment-response trajectories. The majority of students (68-81%) showed positive treatment response across outcomes. However, trajectories of students who did not respond to intervention were identified for each outcome. Baseline GPA significantly predicted trajectories for all outcomes and achievement scores significantly predicted trajectories of teacher-reported homework performance and parent-reported homework problems, such that youth with relatively higher baseline GPAs and achievement were most likely to respond. In contrast, neither externalizing nor internalizing symptoms were significant predictors of response trajectories. Schools can use GPA and academic-achievement data to determine whether brief school-based interventions for homework problems are likely to succeed. Students with ADHD who display severe academic impairment (i.e., GPA lower than 2.0 at baseline) may benefit from a more long-term, intensive intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/reabilitação , Aconselhamento/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(9): 6762, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559502

RESUMO

Objective. To describe a successful remediation for an Acute Care Medicine advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in a student with multiple learning deficits. Methods. A literature review of pharmacy and medical experiential remediation was conducted to identify best practices to implement prior to designing the remediation for our student case. Based on this search and experience as preceptors, a three-phase remediation was designed: one week for assessment, two weeks for development of learning skills and strategies and six weeks for an on-campus APPE. Success of the remediation was determined by student performance, as defined by the APPE preceptor, in all relevant 2013 Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) educational outcomes. Results. Baseline assessment indicated that the student was below minimal competency in six of 13 relevant 2013 CAPE educational outcomes. Upon completion of the three-part remediation, the student repeated the Acute Care Medicine APPE, achieving better than minimal competency in all 13 outcomes. The student demonstrated significant improvement in nine of 13 CAPE educational outcomes. Conclusion. This student case provides a novel and successful blueprint for remediation of APPE. However, more evidence-based literature is needed to guide educators in experiential remediation.


Assuntos
Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/normas , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Preceptoria/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Farmácia
14.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 82(6): 6297, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181668

RESUMO

Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a post-examination, one-on-one instructor remediation process on student performance in a pharmacy biochemistry course by measuring the degree of score improvement on a subsequent examination. Methods. Students who scored below 70% on any examination were encouraged to meet with the course coordinator. A typical remediation session lasts about 30 minutes, and covers academic preparation, study habits, concept understanding, application, critical thinking, time management, and stress control. Scores in two consecutive examinations were compared between students who underwent remediation and those who did not. All scores were adjusted for level of difficulty. Results. At-risk students with relatively lower scores are more likely to seek remediation. After receiving a score below 70%, students perform better on the next examination regardless of remediation. However, the remediation process results in a statistically significant 43% increase in the degree of improvement in student performance on the next examination. Conclusion. A post-examination, one-on-one remediation is effective in enhancing student performance in the biochemistry course. As this course is one of the two with the highest failure rates in the PharmD program, current intervention might improve student retention.


Assuntos
Bioquímica/educação , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Desempenho Acadêmico , Humanos , Estudantes de Farmácia
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 120, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855302

RESUMO

This position paper discusses on-going academic remediation challenges within the field of medical education. More specifically, we identify three common contemporary problems and propose four recommendations to strengthen remediation efforts. Selecting or determining what type of remediation is needed for a particular student is akin to analyzing a Gordian knot with individual, institutional and systemic contributors. More emphasis, including multi-institutional projects and research funding is needed. Recommendations regarding language use and marketing of such programs are given.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Ensino de Recuperação/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina , Humanos
16.
Cuad. psiquiatr. psicoter. niño adolesc ; 2(65,cong): 39-46, ene.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Francês | IBECS | ID: ibc-173941

RESUMO

L'évaluation des difficultés d'apprentissage chez l'enfant doit non seulement considérer les dimensions neurodéveloppementales comme facteurs explicatifs des troubles, mais également prendre en considération les dimensions psychoaffective et contextuelle. Une vision unifiée et intégrée des facteurs impactant les apprentissages est nécessaire pour permettre la mise en place de mesures adaptées et investies par les acteurs en jeu : l'enfant,la famille et l'école. Notre modèle d'évaluation PACIdA propose un regard intégré sur cette problématique


The assessment of learning difficulties in children should consider not only neurodevelopmental dimensions as explanatory factors for the disorders, but also take into account psycho-affective and contextual dimensions. An unified and integrated vision of the factors impacting learning is necessary to allow the implementation of measures which are adapted and invested by involved actors: the child, the family and the school. Our PACIdA evaluation model offers an integrated look at this issue


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/terapia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 88, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fostering personal identity formation and professional development among undergraduate medical students is challenging. Based on situated learning, experiential learning and role-modelling frameworks, a six-week course was developed to remediate lapses in professionalism among undergraduate medical students. This study aims to explore the students' perceptions of their personal identity formation and professional development following completion of the course. METHODS: This qualitative study, adopting a phenomenological design, uses the participants' reflective diaries as primary data sources. In the pilot course, field work, role-model shadowing and discussions with resource personnel were conducted. A total of 14 students were asked to provide written self-reflections. Consistent, multi-source feedback was provided throughout the course. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify the key processes of personal and professional development among the students during remediation. RESULTS: Three main themes were revealed. First, students highlighted the strength of small group activities in helping them 'internalise the essential concepts'. Second, the role-model shadowing supported their understanding of 'what kind of medical doctors they would become'. Third, the field work allowed them to identify 'what the "noble values" are and how to implement them in daily practice'. CONCLUSION: By implementing multimodal activities, the course has high potential in supporting personal identity formation and professional development among undergraduate pre-clinical medical students, as well as remediating their lapses in professionalism. However, there are challenges in implementing the model among a larger student population and in documenting the long-term impact of the course.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/ética , Profissionalismo , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Mentores , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Projetos Piloto , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
18.
J Learn Disabil ; 51(6): 612-624, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779424

RESUMO

Many students at risk for or identified with reading disabilities need intensive reading interventions. This meta-analysis provides an update to the Wanzek and Vaughn synthesis on intensive early reading interventions. Effects from 25 reading intervention studies are analyzed to examine the overall effect of intensive early reading interventions as well as relationships between intervention and student characteristics related to outcomes. The weighted mean effect size (ES) estimate (ES = 0.39), with a mean effect size adjusted for publication bias (ES = 0.28), both significantly different from zero, suggested intensive early reading interventions resulted in positive outcomes for early struggling readers in kindergarten through third grades. There was no statistically significant or meaningful heterogeneity in the study-wise effect sizes. Exploratory examination of time in intervention, instructional group size, initial reading achievement, and date of publication are provided.


Assuntos
Dislexia/reabilitação , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Humanos
19.
Dyslexia ; 24(2): 128-139, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635836

RESUMO

The present study aims to examine Greek public primary school teachers' attitudes and intention towards teaching pupils with dyslexia using a model of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Toward that aim, 304 teachers aged between 22 and 59 years old, with an average overall work experience of 16.6 years completed a TPB questionnaire which assessed their attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control, their intention, as well as other exogenous factors. The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were found to be adequate. Overall, the participating teachers report a wide range of educational interventions for pupils with dyslexia emphasizing the psychological aspects of support. They also face a number of barriers, but in general they express neutral to positive attitudes to dyslexia. Results show that attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted the teachers' intention towards teaching dyslexic pupils, thus confirming the applicability of the selected TPB model. Recommendations for teachers' training and limitations of the study are discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude , Dislexia/psicologia , Intenção , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Controle Comportamental , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Dyslexia ; 24(2): 140-155, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577504

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the modality and redundancy effects in multimedia learning in children with dyslexia in order to find out whether their learning benefits from written and/or spoken text with pictures. We compared study time and knowledge gain in 26 11-year-old children with dyslexia and 38 typically reading peers in a within-subjects design. All children were presented with a series of user-paced multimedia lessons in 3 conditions: pictorial information presented with (a) written text, (b) audio, or (c) combined text and audio. We also examined whether children's learning outcomes were related to their working memory. With respect to study time, we found modality and reversed redundancy effects. Children with dyslexia spent more time learning in the text condition, compared with the audio condition and the combined text-and-audio condition. Regarding knowledge gain, no modality or redundancy effects were evidenced. Although the groups differed on working memory, it did not influence the modality or redundancy effect on study time or knowledge gain. In multimedia learning, it thus is more efficient to provide children with dyslexia with audio or with auditory support.


Assuntos
Dislexia/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Multimídia , Ensino de Recuperação/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Leitura , Redação
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