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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 42(6): 2586-2597, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1150039

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: uno de los métodos más frecuentes utilizados por los investigadores para evaluar distintos aspectos relacionados con la docencia, es el uso de cuestionarios. Pero para garantizar la utilidad y significado de los resultados obtenidos, no basta con la simple creación de una lista de preguntas y respuestas separadas por ítems, sino que el instrumento utilizado debe poseer una alta consistencia interna, es decir debe estar bien diseñado según los criterios estándar de calidad. Objetivo: evaluar la validez y la fiabilidad de un instrumento que mide el uso de las TIC en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio cuantitativo en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas, en el período de enero -mayo del 2019, para evaluar la actitud, el nivel de conocimiento y uso que realizan de las TIC los profesores de la universidad. Resultados: los resultados muestran la alta consistencia interna de cada una de las secciones pertenecientes al instrumento lo que demostraron la validez y fiabilidad del mismo. Conclusiones: resultó ser un instrumento que responde a las necesidades de la investigación y debe aplicarse sin eliminar ninguno de sus ítems, pues todos demuestran su alto valor de consistencia interna y discriminación (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: the use of questionnaires is one of the most frequently methods used by researchers to assess different characteristics related to teaching. But to guarantee the usefulness and meaning of the results obtained, it is not enough the simple creation of a list of questions and answers separated by items, but the instrument used must have a high internal consistency that is, it must be well designed according to the standard quality criteria. Objective: to assess the validity and reliability of an instrument that measures the use of ICTs at Matanzas University of Medical Sciences. Materials and methods: a quantitative study was carried out at Matanzas University of Medical Sciences, in the period January-May 2019, to assess the aptitude, level of knowledge and use of ICTs made by the professors of the university. Results: the results show the high internal consistency of each of the sections belonging to the instrument, which shows its validity and reliability. Conclusions: without a doubt, it is an instrument answering the needs of the research and must be applied without eliminating any of its items, as all of them demonstrate their high value of internal consistency and discrimination (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Tecnologia da Informação/normas , Ensino/educação , Ensino/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Tecnologia da Informação/tendências
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e41988, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103393

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos docentes do curso de Graduação em Enfermagem acerca do desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico dos alunos, a partir da utilização de estratégias de ensino e suas implicações no processo ensino aprendizagem. Método: estudo exploratório, descritivo, de cunho qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa 16 docentes de um curso de graduação em Enfermagem e Obstetrícia. Os dados foram produzidos por meio de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado e categorizados pela técnica de análise temática, sendo aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: evidenciaram-se três categorias: pensamento crítico como interpretação subjetiva, estratégias de ensino utilizadas pelos docentes no curso de graduação em enfermagem, e desafios e facilidades para o desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico no curso de graduação em enfermagem. Conclusão: os docentes mantiveram opiniões positivas e pontuaram que o pensamento crítico é construído ao longo da vida do ser humano, sendo considerado inerente à construção das suas habilidades e capacidades profissionais.


Objective: to examine perceptions of undergraduate Nursing teachers of their students' development of critical thinking, based on the use of teaching strategies and their implications in the teaching-learning process. Method: sixteen professors from an undergraduate course in Nursing and Obstetrics participated in this exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study. Data were produced through interviews to a semi-structured script and categorized by the thematic analysis technique, The study was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: three categories were identified: critical thinking as subjective interpretation, teaching strategies the teachers used in the undergraduate Nursing course, and what hinders and helps the development critical thinking on the undergraduate Nursing course. Conclusion: teachers held positive opinions and pointed out that critical thinking is built over the course of life and is considered inherent to constructing professional skills and abilities.


Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de los docentes de enfermería de pregrado sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico de sus alumnos, basándose en el uso de estrategias de enseñanza y sus implicaciones en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Método: dieciséis profesores de un curso de pregrado en Enfermería y Obstetricia participaron en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y cualitativo. Los datos fueron producidos a través de entrevistas a un guion semiestructurado y clasificados por la técnica de análisis temático. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: se identificaron tres categorías: pensamiento crítico como interpretación subjetiva, estrategias de enseñanza que los maestros utilizaron en el curso de pregrado en Enfermería, y lo que dificulta y ayuda al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico en el curso de pregrado en Enfermería. Conclusión: los maestros sostuvieron opiniones positivas y señalaron que el pensamiento crítico se construye a lo largo de la vida y se considera inherente a la construcción de habilidades y destrezas profesionales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensino/educação , Pensamento , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aprendizagem
4.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(80): 563-576, dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198573

RESUMO

El objetivo del estudio consistió en comprobar el poder predictivo de los estilos de enseñanza docente sobre el apoyo a la autonomía y las competencias clave en estudiantes adolescentes en clases de educación física. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 475 estudiantes (M = 15.43, DT = 1.13) de ocho centros de una gran provincia española a los que se les midió la percepción de los estilos docentes, el apoyo a la autonomía y las competencias clave. Tras los análisis de regresión lineal por pasos, los estilos de enseñanza activos (individualizadores, participativos y socializadores, cognitivos y creativos) predijeron de forma significativa y positiva el apoyo a la autonomía y las competencias clave con una varianza explicada de 44% y 17%, respectivamente. Como conclusión general, el estudio muestra la relación entre los estilos de enseñanza docentes, el apoyo a la autonomía y el desarrollo de las competencias clave


The objective of the study was to verify the predictive power of teaching styles on autonomy support and key competences in adolescent students in physical education classes. The sample consisted of 475 students (M = 15.43, SD = 1.13) from eight centers of a large Spanish province, which were measured the perception of teaching styles, support for autonomy and key competences. After stepwise linear regression analyzes, active teaching styles (individualizing, participatory and socializing, cognitive and creative) predicted in a significant and positive way support for autonomy and key competences with an explained variance of 44% and 17%, respectively. The active teaching styles positively predict both the support for teacher autonomy and the acquisition of key competences by students in physical education. In conclusion, this study shows a relationship between teaching styles, autonomy support and key competences development


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Ensino/educação , Percepção , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Análise de Dados , Análise Fatorial , Modelos Lineares , Exercício Físico/psicologia
5.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(6): 307-309, dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198785

RESUMO

Buscando antecedentes y pioneros de la pedagogía médica en España, se recupera la figura y obra del médico y docente catalán Francesc Salvà I Campillo (1751-1828) mediante la revisión historiográfica de libros sobre enseñanza de la medicina, que no libros de texto ni monografías especializadas, escritos por Salvà, un personaje polifacético e ilustrado. Se muestran las concepciones pedagógicas del autor sobre la 'enseñanza del arte de curar' basada en el estudio de casos. Sus escritos a modo de ensayos muestran una gran preocupación por la mejora de la enseñanza de la medicina en Cataluña y en el resto de España. Además, son de una lectura amena y atañen a aspectos hoy en día todavía de gran actualidad: la financiación de los estudios médicos, el enfoque práctico de la enseñanza y la importancia de la higiene para la mejora de las condiciones de vida de un proletariado industrial entonces emergente en Cataluña. Francesc Salvà I Campillo bien puede considerarse el precursor de la pedagogía médica española con una indudable influencia posterior a lo largo del siglo XIX


Looking for background and pioneers of medical education in Spain, the figure and work of the Catalonian doctor and teacher Francesc Salvà I Campillo (1751-1828) is recovered, through a historiographical review of books on teaching of medicine, but no textbooks nor specialized monographs, written by Salvà, a multifaceted and enlightened character. The author's pedagogical conceptions about the 'teaching of the art of healing' based on case studies are shown. His writings as essays show great concern for the improvement of the teaching of medicine in Catalonia and in the rest of Spain. In addition, they are of a pleasant reading on aspects that still concern high-date issues today: the financing of medical studies, the practical approach to teaching and the importance of hygiene for improving the living conditions of a proletariat from the industrial sector then emerging in Catalonia. Francesc Salvà I Campillo may well be considered the forerunner of Spanish medical education with an undoubted subsequent influence throughout the 19th century


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Educação Médica/história , Educação Médica/métodos , Historiografia , Ensino/história , Espanha , Ensino/educação
6.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 132-139, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129139

RESUMO

Introducción: en 2014, tras más de 10 años de comenzada la Carrera de Medicina en el Instituto Universitario Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (IUHIBA), en la comunidad educativa se comenzó a plantear la necesidad de realizar un cambio curricular con el objetivo de lograr la enseñanza de habilidades complejas en forma integrada para generar un aprendizaje significativo y un mayor desarrollo de competencias. El cambio curricular comenzó a implementarse en 2018. Propósitos: describir la experiencia de diseño de las actividades de enseñanza en un currículo integrado. Desarrollo: para el diseño de las actividades de cada módulo (de un cuatrimestre de duración) se conformaron grupos planificadores multidisciplinarios. El objetivo principal de la planificación fue que los estudiantes comenzaran a desarrollar las habilidades necesarias para poder llevar adelante las actividades profesionales (EPAs: Entrustable Professional Activities) al final de la carrera. Los escenarios donde transcurren las actividades del Ciclo Inicial son las sesiones de aprendizaje basado en problemas, los laboratorios para el desarrollo de habilidades, las charlas plenarias y la atención primaria orientada a la comunidad. Fueron definidas EPAs para desarrollarse en el Ciclo Inicial, que guiaron la planificación en diálogo con los contenidos seleccionados para el cuatrimestre. Para poder realizar un diseño integrado se estableció la relación de cada actividad con las de los módulos precedentes, retomando y complejizando los contenidos para que el diseño fuera espiralado. Conclusiones: el mayor desafío de esta experiencia radicó en que debimos sumergirnos en un nuevo paradigma. El principal logro como grupo planificador fue hacer propia esta nueva forma de enseñanza: basada en el alumno, en problemas, integrada, espiralada. Evaluaremos los resultados tras su implementación y rediseñaremos las actividades, de ser necesario. (AU)


Introduction: in 2014, after 10 years of the establishment of the School of Medicine at the Instituto Universitario Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (IUHIBA), the educational community identified the need to make a curricular change to teach complex skills in an integrated way to generate meaningful learning and further development of skills. The new curriculum was implemented in 2018. Purposes: to describe our experience in designing teaching activities for an integrated curriculum. Development: multidisciplinary planning groups were formed to design the activities of each four-month module. The main objective was for students to develop the skills necessary to carry out professional activities (EPAs: Entrustable Professional Activities) by the time of graduation. The "Initial Cycle" activities took place in four scenarios: (i) problem-based learning; (ii) skills lab (iii) forum discussions; and (iv) communityoriented education. The EPAs that would be acquired in the Initial Cycle were selected. Those EPAs, together with the contents selected for the semester guided the planning groups. To ensure an integrated design, the relationships of each module with the preceding one were established. We adopted a spiral design where we returned to the same topics at a deeper level and with more complexity. Conclusions: the greatest challenge was that this experience involved a paradigm change. Our main achievement was to adopt a new form of teaching that was student and problem based, within an integrated and spiral curriculum. We plan to evaluate the results after implementation and redesign the activities, if necessary. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensino/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Argentina , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Técnicas de Planejamento , Competência Clínica , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/tendências , Currículo/tendências , Capacitação Profissional
9.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 177-186, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195105

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enseñanza de la oncología en el pregrado de medicina resulta todavía insuficiente, y esto se manifiesta durante la interacción de los estudiantes en espacios de promoción de salud tanto en la comunidad como en la audiencia sanitaria. OBJETIVO: Implementar un curso electivo para la realización de audiencias sanitarias sobre cáncer por estudiantes de medicina. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio cuasi-experimental de tipo pre-prueba y post-prueba, en Ciego de Ávila, de enero de 2016 a febrero de 2017, en cuatro etapas: caracterización, diseño, valoración y evaluación de efectividad. En la caracterización se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 120 estudiantes de medicina de tercero, cuarto y quinto año. Se diseñó el curso electivo y se valoró por 15 expertos, a través de la metodología Delphi. Para evaluar la efectividad se trabajó con 30 estudiantes de cuarto año de medicina, quienes recibieron el curso y emitieron su criterio sobre el mismo. RESULTADOS: Los estudiantes se sentían motivados por aprender sobre el tema e incorporarse a la ejecución de audiencias sanitarias. Refirieron no poseer los conocimientos necesarios, identificando el plan de estudio y la falta de cursos electivos como limitaciones para su aprendizaje. El curso electivo se concibió como un curso de siete módulos temáticos y fue valorado positivamente por expertos. Tras su aplicación, en la post-prueba la nota media fue de 4,41 puntos, frente a 3,06 en la pre-prueba. CONCLUSIONES: El curso electivo logró satisfacer necesidades de aprendizaje, alcanzó pertinencia e impacto y posibilitó que los estudiantes de medicina se incorporaran a la ejecución de audiencias sanitarias


INTRODUCTION: The teaching of oncology to medical undergraduates is still insufficient. This is manifested during the interaction of the students in spaces of promotion of health in the community. OBJECTIVE: To implement an elective course for performing of health audits on cancer for students of Medicine. METHODOLOGY: A quasi-experimental study was carried out in Ciego de Ávila, from January 2016 to February 2017, in four stages: characterisation, design, valuation, and evaluation of effectiveness. As regards the characterisation, a descriptive study was carried out on 120 third, fourth, and fifth year medical students. The elective course was designed and evaluated by 15 experts, using Delphi methodology. The effectiveness evaluation was carried out as quasi-experiment with 30 fourth year students who received the course and provided their opinions on it. RESULTS: The students were motivated to learn about the topic and to incorporate it into the execution of health audits. They referred to not to possessing the necessary knowledge, identifying the study plan and the lack elective courses for their learning. The elective course was conceived as a course of seven thematic modules, and it was positively valued by experts. After its application, searches obtained a mean of 4.41 points compared with 3.06 before application. CONCLUSIONS: The elective course was able to satisfy learning needs. It achieved relevancy and impact, and it helps students to incorporate it into to the execution of health audits


Assuntos
Humanos , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Ensino/educação , Ensino/normas , Oncologia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional , Competência Clínica , Técnica Delfos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) accounts for the majority of antibiotic prescriptions in primary care, although an antibiotic therapy is rarely indicated. Non-clinical factors, such as time pressure and the perceived patient expectations are considered to be reasons for prescribing antibiotics in cases where they are not indicated. The improper use of antibiotics, however, can promote resistance and cause serious side effects. The aim of the study was to clarify whether the antibiotic prescription rate for infections of the upper respiratory tract can be lowered by means of a short (2 x 2.25h) communication training based on the MAAS-Global-D for primary care physicians. METHODS: In total, 1554 primary care physicians were invited to participate in the study. The control group was formed from observational data. To estimate intervention effects we applied a combination of difference-in-difference (DiD) and statistical matching based on entropy balancing. We estimated a corresponding multi-level logistic regression model for the antibiotic prescribing decision of German primary care physicians for URTIs. RESULTS: Univariate estimates detected an 11-percentage-point reduction of prescriptions for the intervention group after the training. For the control group, a reduction of 4.7% was detected. The difference between both groups in the difference between the periods was -6.5% and statistically significant. The estimated effects were nearly identical to the effects estimated for the multi-level logistic regression model with applied matching. Furthermore, for the treatment of young women, the impact of the training on the reduction of antibiotic prescription was significantly stronger. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that communication skills, implemented through a short communication training with the MAAS-Global-D-training, lead to a more prudent prescribing behavior of antibiotics for URTIs. Thereby, the MAAS-Global-D-training could not only avoid unnecessary side effects but could also help reducing the emergence of drug resistant bacteria. As a consequence of our study we suggest that communication training based on the MAAS-Global-D should be applied in the postgraduate training scheme of primary care physicians.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Médicos de Atenção Primária/educação , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prescrições , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Ensino/educação
11.
Health Info Libr J ; 37(2): 163-167, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243699

RESUMO

Academic librarians with teaching responsibility have traditionally delivered training in discovering and organising information. However, in recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on supporting researchers through all stages of the research lifecycle. While librarians are ideally placed to provide training in writing for publication and presentation of research, very few in the United Kingdom appear to be doing so. However, there are clear benefits to teaching these subjects. Based on feedback from faculty on user needs, the University of Cambridge Medical Library's training programme was expanded to include training and support in the publication and presentation of research outputs. This article recounts the process by which the new courses were developed, and the techniques used by the library's teaching staff to gain understanding of conventions and requirements of forms of written communication with which they were unfamiliar. It also evaluates the impact of the new courses, discusses next steps and provides advice for other librarians wishing to develop similar courses. D.I.


Assuntos
Bibliotecários/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/normas , Ensino/educação , Redação/normas , Humanos , Bibliotecas Médicas , Publicações/tendências , Ensino/tendências , Reino Unido
12.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(2): 67-70, mar.-abr. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194472

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La embriología es la ciencia que estudia el desarrollo morfológico desde la concepción hasta el nacimiento. Se decide realizar esta investigación para evaluar la retención de conocimientos de los estudiantes de medicina con relación a la memorización de placas histológicas en la catedra de embriología. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio descriptivo transversal cuantitativo-cualitativo de muestra no probabilística por conveniencia. Se aplica un examen a 94 estudiantes del 5.° año de la carrera de medicina, donde se evaluó el conocimiento con relación a 12 placas histológicas en el cual se pregunta: corte, estructura enfocada y estructura señalada, posteriormente respondieron una serie de preguntas cualitativas. RESULTADOS: El 100% de los estudiantes reprobaron el examen; el puntaje medio fue de 5,53 ± 6,84, con un puntaje máximo de 33 de 100. DISCUSIÓN: La enseñanza por microscopia es una técnica pedagógica muy común, pero muchas veces incide en su descontextualización científica y existe un déficit significativo al estudiar la población de manera retrospectiva, reflejándose en la cantidad de comentarios negativos, por lo que no se recomienda la evaluación memorística de placas histológicas por su baja retentiva a largo plazo


INTRODUCTION: Embryology is the science that studies morphological development from conception to birth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of knowledge of medical students in relation to memorising histology slides in the embryology department. METHODOLOGY: Quantitative-qualitative cross-sectional descriptive study of non-probabilistic convenience sample. A total of 94 fifth year medical students sat an examination in which knowledge was evaluated in relation to 12 histology slides in which they asked about the, cut, focused structure, and indicated structure. They then answered a series of qualitative questions. RESULTS: All (100%) of the students failed the exam. The mean score was 5.53 ± 6.84, with a maximum score of 33 of 100. DISCUSSION: Teaching by microscopy is a very common pedagogical technique, but it often impinges on its scientific decontextualization, and there is significant deficit when studying the population retrospectively. This is reflected in the amount of negative comments. Thus, assessing memory retention using the evaluation of histology slides is not recommended due to its long-term retention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Retenção Psicológica , Conhecimento , Embriologia/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Educação Médica/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Ensino/educação , Bioética
13.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(1): e947, ene.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093743

RESUMO

Introducción: No existen referentes en Cuba de estudios que aborden la producción científica de grupos de docentes-investigadores que imparten la pediatría como especialidad. Objetivo: Caracterizar la producción científica del claustro de profesores de la Especialidad de Pediatría de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Matanzas durante el proceso de acreditación de esta especialidad. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con los profesores que constituyeron el claustro físico de esta especialidad en el quinquenio 2014-2018, en total 43. El campo de acción se situó en las publicaciones llevadas a cabo por dichos profesores en el período citado. Para ello se revisaron los mini-currículos de los profesores y se localizaron sus publicaciones vía internet. Las principales variables estudiadas fueron: especialidad, categoría y grado científico, categoría docente e investigativa, sexo, años de experiencia docente, publicaciones, razón publicación/profesor, fuente de la publicación, tipo de artículo, temática y país. En el análisis se emplearon indicadores de productividad científica, colaboración y circulación-dispersión. Resultados: El índice de publicaciones fue de 110 trabajos y la razón número de publicaciones/profesor fue 2,55. Las publicaciones se concentraron en 21 profesores, con tres grandes productores. El índice de coautoría fue 3,77 y el patrón de colaboración que predominó fue a nivel nacional. Predominaron los artículos originales (24,5 por ciento) y las publicaciones en revistas médicas multitemáticas (36 por ciento). Conclusiones: Las publicaciones del claustro de la Especialidad de Pediatría cumplen con los requisitos de calidad del Subsistema de Evaluación y Acreditación de Especialidad de Posgrado en Cuba para la obtención del nivel de Certificado(AU)


Introduction: There are no references in Cuba of studies that deal with the scientific production of groups of teachers-researchers who taught Pediatrics as a specialty. Objective: To characterize the scientific production of Pediatrics specialty´s professors staff at the Medical Sciences University of Matanzas during the accreditation process of this specialty. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted to the 43 teachers who constituted the staff of this specialty in the five-year period from 2014 to 2018. The study was focused in the publications carried out by such professors in the above mentioned period. There were reviewed the mini-resumes of the teachers and their publications were located via internet. The main variables studied were: specialty, category and scientific degree, teaching and research category, sex, years of teaching experience, publications, ratio publication/teacher, source of the publication, type of article, thematic and country. The analysis used indicators of scientific productivity, collaboration, and movement-dispersion. Results: The index of publications was of 110 paper works and the ratio number of publications/teacher was 2.55. The publications focused on 21 teachers, with three large producers. The co-authorship index was 3.77 and the pattern of collaboration that prevailed was at the national level. Original articles (24.5 percent) and publications in multi-topic medical journals (36 percent) predominated. Conclusions: The publications of the Pediatrics specialty´s staff meet the quality requirements of the Subsystem for the Evaluation and Accreditation of Postgraduate specialties in Cuba for obtaining the certificate level(AU))


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pediatria , Ensino/educação , Indicadores de Produção Científica , Acreditação/métodos , Estudos Transversais
14.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 26(1): 89-95, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197001

RESUMO

Se investiga el efecto del pensamiento crítico sobre los sesgos cognitivos en estudiantes de pedagogía. Participaron 95 estudiantes de dos universidades chilenas, utilizándose un instrumento con dos tareas de probabilidad. Se usó diseño cuasi experimental con pretest y postest, con un grupo control y dos experimentales, uno solo con intervención en pensamiento crítico y otro además con formación en sesgos, analizándose los datos con estadísticos de confiabilidad y de diferencia de medias. Los resultados señalan que solo existe diferencia significativa en una de las dos tareas de sesgo. Se observa una diferencia entre el grupo experimental con formación en sesgos y el grupo control. Se concluye que hay dificultades para modificar los sesgos cognitivos y es necesario trabajarlos explícitamente


The effect of a critical thinking in cognitive biases aimed for pedagogy students is studied. Ninety-five students from two Chilean universities participated. The method consisted of a test with two probability tasks. A quasi-experimental design with pre and post-test was used, two experimental groups received training in critical thinking, one of them with explicit bias instruction, and it was contrasted with a control group. Data was analyzed through reliability and mean differences statistics. The results indicate differences between pre- and post-test in bias task 2; a significant difference between experimental group with bias training and control group was found. It is concluded that there is a difficulty to modify the cognitive biases and a need to work them explicitly


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Ensino/educação , Estudantes , Pensamento , Viés , Chile
15.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(1): 32-38, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855454

RESUMO

Graduate students who serve as teaching assistants are a critical part of STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) education and research at large universities in the U.S. Yet just like faculty, graduate students are not immune to the publish or perish paradigm, which can compete with one's dedication to teaching. While in recent years many STEM faculty members have become aware of how well undergraduates can assist instructors in their teaching, many, if not most, university faculty still teach in traditional settings, where graduate students are the norm and use of undergraduates is a completely unexploited opportunity. Undergraduates can serve as effective teaching assistants and may bring unique skills and experience to undergraduate instruction not held by graduate students. Undergraduate teaching assistants (UTAs) can provide additional support for reformed practices, which raise student learning. Based on cost, prior experience and success as students in same course, and shared vision with professors, a number of institutions have initiated UTA programs and reported increased student learning. The audience of this paper is faculty who are not familiar with the use of UTAs in university teaching, and the purpose is to review the literature on UTAs, contrast the contributions of UTAs and graduate teaching assistants, and examine the potential value of UTAs in undergraduate education.


Assuntos
Biologia Molecular/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/educação , Universidades , Humanos
16.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 48(1): 8-20, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532889

RESUMO

Carbohydrates, or in strictly chemical terms, polyhydroxy-aldehydes or ketones represent enormous structural diversity in terms of the arrangement of atoms in space, resulting in hundreds of stereoisomers. Although the chemical properties of most stereoisomers may not be very different, their metabolic fate and utilization in biological systems is significantly different and known to influence the overall carbohydrate metabolism. This dictates the importance of understanding the structures of various stereochemical structures for a biochemist. At graduate level teaching, it is really a challenging task to correlate, connect, and recall all the structures. Conventional teaching methods and standard textbook illustrations seldom enable the learners and instructors to sustain the information for a prolonged period. We, in this article, present a unique approach and introduce sigma notation rules for the correlation of stereochemistry of carbohydrates in order to enhance the understanding of stereochemical structures. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 48(1):8-20, 2020.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Hexoses/química , Biologia Molecular/educação , Ensino/educação , Configuração de Carboidratos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Hexoses/metabolismo , Humanos , Estereoisomerismo , Estudantes
17.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(1): 36-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Building financial management capacity is increasingly important in low- and middle-income countries to help communities take ownership of development activities. Yet, many community members lack financial knowledge and skills. METHODS: We designed and conducted financial management trainings for 83 members from 10 community groups in rural Zambia. We conducted pre-training and post-training tests and elicited participant feedback. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews over 18 months and reviewed financial records to assess practical application of skills. RESULTS: The training significantly improved knowledge of financial concepts, especially among participants with secondary education. Participants appreciated exercises to contextualize financial concepts within daily life and liked opportunities to learn from peers in small groups. Language barriers were a particular challenge. After trainings, sites successfully adhered to the principles of financial management, discussing the benefits they experienced from practicing accountability, transparency, and accurate recordkeeping. CONCLUSION: Financial management trainings need to be tailored to the background and education level of participants. Trainings should relate financial concepts to more tangible applications and provide time for active learning. On-site mentorship should be considered for a considerable time. This training approach could be used in similar settings to improve community oversight of resources intended to strengthen developmental initiatives.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Administração Financeira , Administração de Instituições de Saúde/educação , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adulto , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Feedback Formativo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Propriedade/economia , Propriedade/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/economia , Ensino/educação , Ensino/organização & administração , Zâmbia
18.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 31: e3168, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134759

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Although Physical Education has historically been based on teaching strategies predominantly directives, it is possible speculate that less directive methodologies might contribute more effectively to learning. The aim of this study was to compare the possible implications of using different teaching styles for learning volleyball game. Thus end, 27 teenagers divided into three groups (Directive Group; Indirective group and control group) took part for an intervention program of eight meetings aimed at teaching procedural volleyball contents. Overall, the results suggest that indirective teaching styles contribute more effectively to participation decision, which causes a reflection on the need to revisit the teaching strategies used by teachers and the need for a more systemic approach to teaching games.


RESUMO Embora a Educação Física escolar tenha historicamente se baseado em estratégias de ensino predominantemente diretivas, é possível especular que metodologias menos diretivas possam contribuir de forma mais efetiva para o aprendizado. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as possíveis implicações da utilização de diferentes estilos de ensino na aprendizagem do jogo da modalidade esportiva voleibol. Para tanto, 27 adolescentes divididos em três grupos (Grupo Diretivo; Grupo Indiretivo e Grupo Controle) foram submetidos a um programa de intervenção de oito encontros voltados ao ensino de conteúdos procedimentais do voleibol. De modo geral, os resultados encontrados sugerem que estilos de ensino indiretivos contribuem de forma mais efetiva para a participação no jogo e para a tomada de decisão, o que provoca uma reflexão sobre a necessidade de se revisitar as estratégias de ensino utilizadas pelos professores e pela necessidade de uma abordagem mais sistêmica para o ensino de jogos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Ensino/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Voleibol/educação , Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes/educação , Tomada de Decisões , Professores Escolares , Aprendizagem
19.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 31: e3124, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134747

RESUMO

RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os artigos veiculados pela imprensa periódica de ensino e de técnicas (1932-1960), cuja finalidade era prescrever o ensino da Educação Física. Possui, como fonte, a Revista de Educação Física e a Revista Educação Physica e utiliza, como pressupostos teórico-metodológicos, os estudos sobre a análise dos impressos. Os resultados sinalizam que, no interior das fontes, havia formas semelhantes de prescrever o ensino da Educação Física. Na medida em que ela se insere e se consolida nos currículos escolares, também foram elaborados meios de significá-la, tendo a atuação docente como lugar central para o fortalecimento de seu projeto de escolarização. A publicação de prescrições didático-pedagógicas evidenciou as contribuições de diferentes grupos de articulistas e instituições para sistematizar uma nova disciplina centralizada na natureza e especificidade do seu saber, oferecendo os subsídios necessários para sua permanência na escola. Esses impressos consituíram-se como dispositivos de uso didático-pedagógico, colaborando com a formação do professorado que atuaria com o ensino da Educação Física na escola.


ABSTRACT The objective of the study was to analyze the articles published by the periodical press of education and techniques (1932-1960), whose purpose was to prescribe the teaching of Physical Education. It has, as a source, the Revista de Educação Física and Revista Educação Physica, and uses, as theoretical and methodological assumptions, studies on the analysis of printed matter. The results indicate that, within the sources, there were similar ways of prescribing the teaching of Physical Education. In that, as it is inserted and consolidated in school curricula, it has also been elaborated ways of signifying it, with the teaching role as the central place to strengthen its schooling project. The publication of didactic-pedagogical prescriptions evidenced the contributions of different groups of writers and institutions to systematize a new discipline centered on the nature and specificity of their knowledge, offering the necessary subsidies for their stay in school. These printed consisted of devices of didactic-pedagogical use, collaborating with the formation of the teachers that would act with the teaching of Physical Education in the school.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Ensino/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Esportes/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Currículo , Capacitação de Professores/métodos
20.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 31: e3123, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134729

RESUMO

ABSTRACT During initial training, aspiring teachers should learn how to deal with the high cognitive, emotional and behavioral demands generated by teaching. At the same time, they need to develop and strengthen their personal belief that they will be capable of handling said challenges. In the physical education context, these demands can be even more challenging, given the environment and conditions in which classes are taught. This study aimed to analyze teacher self-efficacy belief as to teaching physical education, and its construction from situations experienced during school-based teacher training. A total of 87 future teachers (54% women; average age = 21.8) from a public university in the state of São Paulo completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001). To describe sources of teacher self-efficacy, reflective portfolios composed as the final product of a supervised internship were analyzed. The student teachers showed moderate to high self-efficacy belief, which was primarily supported by teaching experiences and verbal persuasions. The relevance of teacher self-efficacy for teacher training, particularly in physical education early training processes, is discussed.


RESUMO Na formação inicial, futuros professores deveriam aprender a como lidar com a elevada demanda cognitiva, emocional e comportamental decorrente do ensino. Ao mesmo tempo, precisam desenvolver e fortalecer a crença pessoal de que serão capazes de lidar com esses desafios. No contexto da educação física, essas demandas podem ser ainda mais desafiadoras dado o ambiente e as condições em que as aulas são ministradas. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar a crença de autoeficácia docente para ensinar educação física e sua constituição a partir das experiências vividas durante a realização das disciplinas de estágio curricular supervisionado. 87 futuros professores (54% mulheres; idade média = 21,8) de uma universidade pública do interior do estado de São Paulo responderam a um questionário sociodemográfico, escala de autoeficácia docente e de fontes de autoeficácia docente. Para descrever as fontes de autoeficácia foram analisados os portfólios reflexivos produzidos como produto final do estágio supervisionado. Os futuros professores demonstraram moderada a elevada crença de autoeficácia, que foram sustentadas basicamente por experiências diretas de ensino e persuasões verbais. A relevância da autoeficácia docente para a formação dos professores, em particular, nos processos de formação inicial em educação física são discutidas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos , Autoeficácia , Docentes/educação , Estudantes , Ensino/educação , Cultura , Capacitação de Professores
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