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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The underrepresentation of women in academic medicine at senior level and in leadership positions is well documented. Biomedical Research Centres (BRC), partnerships between leading National Health Service (NHS) organisations and universities, conduct world class translational research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in the UK. Since 2011 BRCs are required to demonstrate significant progress in gender equity (GE) to be eligible to apply for funding. However, the evidence base for monitoring GE specifically in BRC settings is underdeveloped. This is the first survey tool designed to rank and identify new GE markers specific to the NIHR BRCs. METHODS: An online survey distributed to senior leadership, clinical and non-clinical researchers, trainees, administrative and other professionals affiliated to the NIHR Oxford BRC (N = 683). Participants ranked 13 markers of GE on a five point Likert scale by importance. Data were summarised using frequencies and descriptive statistics. Interrelationships between markers and underlying latent dimensions (factors) were determined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: The response rate was 36% (243 respondents). Respondents were more frequently female (55%, n = 133), aged 41-50 years (33%, n = 81), investigators (33%, n = 81) affiliated to the BRC for 2-7 years (39.5%, n = 96). Overall participants ranked 'BRC senior leadership roles' and 'organisational policies on gender equity', to be the most important markers of GE. 58% (n = 141) and 57% (n = 139) respectively. Female participants ranked 'organisational policies' (64.7%, n = 86/133) and 'recruitment and retention' (60.9%, n = 81/133) most highly, whereas male participants ranked 'leadership development' (52.1%, n = 50/96) and 'BRC senior leadership roles' (50%, n = 48/96) as most important. Factor analyses identified two distinct latent dimensions: "organisational markers" and "individual markers" of GE in BRCs. CONCLUSIONS: A two-factor model of markers of achievement for GE with "organisational" and "individual" dimensions was identified. Implementation and sustainability of gender equity requires commitment at senior leadership and organisational policy level.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Sexismo , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Direitos da Mulher/organização & administração , Direitos da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492028

RESUMO

Tenure-track faculty members in the United States are evaluated on their performance in both research and teaching. In spite of accusations of bias and invalidity, student evaluations of teaching have dominated teaching evaluation at U.S. universities. However, studies on the topic have tended to be limited to particular institutional and disciplinary contexts. Moreover, in spite of the idealistic assumption that research and teaching are mutually beneficial, few studies have examined the link between research performance and student evaluations of teaching. In this study, we conduct a large scale exploratory analysis of the factors associated with student evaluations of teachers, controlling for heterogeneous institutional and disciplinary contexts. We source public student evaluations of teaching from RateMyProfessor.com and information regarding career and contemporary research performance indicators from the company Academic Analytics. The factors most associated with higher student ratings were the attractiveness of the faculty and the student's interest in the class; the factors most associated with lower student ratings were course difficulty and whether student comments mentioned an accent or a teaching assistant. Moreover, faculty tended to be rated more highly when they were young, male, White, in the Humanities, and held a rank of full professor. We observed little to no evidence of any relationship, positive or negative, between student evaluations of teaching and research performance. These results shed light on what factors relate to student evaluations of teaching across diverse contexts and contribute to the continuing discussion teaching evaluation and faculty assessment.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Estudantes , Ensino/normas , Universidades/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/normas , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20200380, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rising clinical demand and changes to Radiologists' job plans mean it is becoming ever more difficult for Radiologists to teach medical students.The aim of this study was to assess the current role of Radiologists in undergraduate medical education in Scotland. METHODS: Consultant Radiologists working across all 14 Scottish Health Boards were invited by email to participate in an anonymous short online survey. The survey ran for 6 weeks from November 2019. One reminder email was sent a week before the survey closed. RESULTS: 102 responses were recorded, representing 34% of the total whole time equivalent Radiologists in Scotland. All agreed Radiology should be taught to medical students. Over 70% (n = 73) taught medical students, most often during supporting professional activity time. 76 percent of Radiologists who did not teach expressed a desire to do so. The most common barrier to teaching was not having enough time in their job plan. Scottish Radiologists delivered a median of 10 h (IQR 0-22) a year of teaching to medical students. Thematic analysis of free comments revealed staffing/time constraints severely limiting ability to teach. CONCLUSION: This is the first national survey to assess the current role of Radiologists in teaching medical students. While most are teaching or want to teach, there is a large drop-off between current Scottish and previously reported UK median teaching hours. Engagement from Universities, Royal College of Radiologists and Health Boards is urgently needed to reverse this trend. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This is the first national survey into the current role of Radiologists in undergraduate medical education. There is a large drop-off between current Scottish and previously reported UK median teaching hours.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Escócia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
4.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(1): Doc4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270018

RESUMO

Introduction: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in everyday clinical practice is a prerequisite for good patient care but currently this is not sufficiently anchored in the education of health care professionals. Project description: A course on child protection in the interprofessional and international domain was established at the Medical School, University of Freiburg. In this course, students of medicine, nursing science and social work acquire skills for successful interprofessional cooperation. Its participants learn across professional and national borders, not only with but also from and about each other. In this way, they deepen their insights into international IPC through a key topic that is relevant to many disciplines. The course is run as a one-day campus day. This paper presents the course setup and evaluation results. Methods: The evaluation was carried out online and in writing in a before and after format using the Freiburg Questionnaire for Interprofessional Learning Evaluation (FILE) in addition to oral feedback. Learning objectives for IPC and child protection were formulated and the participants were asked about their subjective achievements. Results: From summer semester (SuSe) 2017 to SuSe 2018, 39 participants took part in the course. It was rated as m=1.5 (using German school grades where 1=very good, 6=unsatisfactory). In 18 of the 26 FILE items, participants report a self-assessed increase in knowledge or skills/abilities. This growth in learning coincides with the learning objectives set. Discussion & conclusion: From the perspective of the participants, the course teaches interprofessional competencies in an international setting and is seen as an informative course offer. The continuation or expansion of such courses as a supplement to purely single-country interprofessional courses is desirable.


Assuntos
Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Internacionalidade , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/tendências , Currículo/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Mil Med ; 185(Suppl 1): 404-412, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) may benefit individuals with difficulty participating in physical exercise. The objective was to explore the effects of WBVT on circulating stem/progenitor cell (CPC) and cytokine levels. METHODS: Healthy male subjects each performed three activities randomly on separate days: (1) standing platform vibration, (2) repetitive leg squat exercise; and (3) in combination. Pre- and post-activity blood samples were drawn. Cell populations were characterized using flow cytometry. Biomarkers were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: CPC levels increased significantly 21% with exercise alone (1465 ± 202-1770 ± 221 cells/mL; P = 0.017) and 33% with vibration alone in younger participants (1918 ± 341-2559 ± 496; P = 0.02). Angiogenic CPCs increased 39% during combined activity in younger (633 ± 128-882 ± 181; P = 0.05). Non-angiogenic CPCs increased 42% with vibration alone in younger (1181 ± 222-1677 ± 342; P = 0.04), but 32% with exercise alone in older participants (801 ± 251-1053 ± 325; P = 0.05). With vibration alone, anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 increased significantly (P < 0.03), although inflammatory interleukin-6 decreased (P = 0.056); tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.01) and vascular endothelial growth factor levels increased (P < 0.005), which are synergistically pro-angiogenic. CONCLUSIONS: WBVT may have positive vascular and anti-inflammatory effects. WBVT could augment or serve as an exercise surrogate in warfighters and others who cannot fully participate in exercise programs, having important implications in military health.


Assuntos
Inflamação/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/tendências , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
6.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 38: e2018189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop, implement and evaluate an online virtual learning environment (VLE) on pediatric rheumatology, aimed at pediatric residents, analyzing its effectiveness and satisfaction rates. METHODS: A total of 92 first and second year pediatric residents at two pediatric reference centers were invited to participate in the study. Residents were randomized into a case group (that answered the pre-course test, attended the six virtual pediatric rheumatology modules, and then responded to the post-course test and a satisfaction questionnaire) and a control group (that only answered the pre-course test and, after 4 weeks, the post-course test). RESULTS: Forty-seven residents (51%) completed their participation. In the case group (n=24), the mean percentage of correct answers was 14% higher on the post-course test (p<0.001). The number of correct answers was larger in the case group than in the control one (n=23) in the post-course test (p=0.045). In the assessment of satisfaction with VLE use, residents considered the site easy to navigate (91%), suitable as a learning tool (91%), and attractive in design (79%). They reported poor prior knowledge in pediatric rheumatology (91%) and agreed that there was good learning with the methodology (75%). CONCLUSIONS: The virtual learning environment in pediatric rheumatology proved to be an effective teaching tool with high satisfaction rates, providing pediatrician residents with adequate knowledge regarding the initial assessment and management of children with rheumatic diseases.


Assuntos
Pediatras/educação , Reumatologia/educação , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Dyslexia ; 26(3): 323-340, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903668

RESUMO

Main idea and summary are essential elements of reading comprehension. We report results from Grades 4 and 5 student performance on two years of state-mandated standardized reading testing which indicate that students perform statistically significantly lower on main idea and summary questions on the tests than any other question category. In this study, teacher competency was measured in a main idea task and teacher surveys were used to understand what instructional practices and materials they use to teach reading comprehension. Descriptive analyses indicate that teachers have a moderate competency for writing main ideas and many use instructional practices that are not supported by empirical evidence or reviewed by the What Works Clearinghouse. Thus, teacher knowledge and instructional practices may be malleable factors that contribute to student outcomes.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Leitura , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 42: 102695, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978843

RESUMO

This study aims to compare the effects of PechaKucha and traditional PowerPoint presentations on the learning performance of nursing students. This randomized controlled trial study was conducted in March 2016 at a nursing school in Ankara, Turkey. The participants were randomly distributed to the intervention group, which received a lecture using the PechaKucha presentation method (n = 66), and to the control group, which received a lecture using the traditional PowerPoint presentation (n = 68). The subject, "Knee Prosthesis and Nursing Approaches," was given to both groups in different classrooms at the same time. The efficiency of the presentation methods was evaluated by a test on the content of the lecture. Satisfaction levels of the participants were evaluated by using the Visual Analogue Scale. There was no statistically significant relationship between the average test results of the groups. The satisfaction levels of the participants in the intervention group was higher than the control group (p < 0.01). This study showed that, although there was no difference between groups in terms of information, the PechaKucha technique can be used for topics that nurse educators want to draw particular attention to.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Educação em Enfermagem/normas , Educação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia
9.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(690): e71-e77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current funding arrangements for undergraduate medical student placements in general practice are widely regarded as outdated, inequitable, and in need of urgent review. AIM: To undertake a detailed costing exercise to inform the setting of a national English tariff for undergraduate medical student placements in general practice. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cost-collection survey in teaching practices across all regions of England between January 2017 and February 2017. METHOD: A cost-collection template was sent to 50 selected teaching practices across all 25 medical schools in England following the development of a cost-collection tool and an initial pilot study. Detailed guidance on completion was provided for practices. Data were analysed by the Department of Health and Social Care. RESULTS: A total of 49 practices submitted data. The mean cost per half-day student placement in general practice was 111 GBP, 95% confidence interval = 100 to 121 (146 USD), with small differences between students in different years of study. Based on 10 sessions per student per week this equated to around 1100 GBP (1460 USD) per student placement week. CONCLUSION: The costs of undergraduate placements in general practice are considerably greater than funding available at time of writing, and broadly comparable with secondary care funding in the same period. The actual cost of placing a medical student full time in general practice for a 37-week academic year is 40 700 GBP (53 640 USD) compared with the average payment rate of only 22 000 GBP (28 990 USD) per year at the time this study was undertaken.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/economia , Medicina Geral/educação , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Custos e Análise de Custo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Inglaterra , Feminino , Medicina Geral/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina
10.
Acad Med ; 95(1): 104-110, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the methods of inpatient consult communication, given new communication modalities; to explore residents' and fellows' perspectives on the ideal consult and how this consult could affect their teaching, learning, and patient safety; and to identify barriers to and strategies for optimizing consultations. METHOD: Using qualitative grounded theory, the authors conducted semistructured focus groups with pediatric residents and fellows at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford University from October 2016 to September 2017, using questions developed by expert consensus to address study objectives. Sessions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Two authors independently coded the transcripts and reconciled codes to develop categories and themes using constant comparison. The third author validated the codes, categories, and themes. To ensure trustworthiness, participants edited the themes for accuracy. RESULTS: Twenty-seven residents and 16 fellows participated in 7 focus groups (3 with residents, 4 with fellows). Four themes emerged: (1) Many forms of communication are successfully used for initial inpatient consult recommendations (in person, phone, text messages, notes in electronic medical records); (2) residents and fellows prefer in-person communication for consults, believing it leads to improved teaching, learning, and patient safety; (3) multiple strategies can optimize consults regardless of communication modality; and (4) how residents frame the initial consult affects the interaction and can increase fellow engagement, which leads to more fellow teaching, residents' improved understanding, and better patient care. CONCLUSIONS: Residents and fellows believe that structured initial consults conducted in person improve teaching, learning, and patient care. Several strategies exist to optimize this process.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Comunicação no Hospital/tendências , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Pediatria , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(4): 720-726, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Basic life support (BLS) and the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED) improve survival from cardiac arrest. The gold standard for teaching BLS/AED is yet to be identified. The aim of this study was to compare the learning outcome of an instructor-led demonstration with a formal lecture for introducing BLS/AED skills. We hypothesized that a demonstration was superior to a lecture. METHODS: First year-medical students were randomised to either a demonstration or a lecture using PowerPoint® Presentation for skill introduction during European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED courses. Participants were skill-tested after training and required to perform all skills correctly to pass the test. Finally, all participants were asked to state their preferred teaching method. RESULTS: Overall, 247 participants were included in the analysis (demonstration group: 124, lecture group: 123). Pass rate was 63% in both groups, p = 1.00. Both groups performed median compression rates within guidelines recommendations, p = 0.09. Mean compression depth was 55 mm (10 mm) in the demonstration group compared with 52 mm (10 mm) in the lecture group, p = 0.05. Median tidal volume was 265 (192, 447) ml and 405 (262, 578) ml, p < 0.001, respectively. The lecture group was 3 s faster at initiating BLS, p < 0.001. In total, 226 (91%) participants preferred demonstration on a manikin for introducing BLS/AED. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in pass rate when comparing a demonstration with a lecture for introducing BLS/AED. The lecture group was slightly faster at initiating BLS. Most participants preferred a demonstration as introduction.


Assuntos
Ressuscitação/educação , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Desfibriladores , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Manequins , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 70(1): 64-67, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For all doctors, including occupational physicians (OPs), research and teaching are considered core requirements of medical education and continuing professional development. Academic skills are also vital to evidence-based practice and advancement of occupational health (OH) as a specialty. In recent years, attention has focussed on the declining UK OH academic base and the research- practice gap, and increased practitioner participation in research is encouraged. AIMS: To establish a baseline of research and teaching activity among UK OPs, identify related barriers and inform strategies to overcome them. METHODS: An online survey including specific career profile questions derived from consensus following expert panel discussions. It formed part of a larger Delphi study on UK OH research priorities. RESULTS: We received 213 responses, about 18% of 1207 practising UK OPs. Of these, 162 (76%) undertook research at some career-point, of which 44 (27%) were currently research-active. Similarly, 154 (72%) undertook teaching at some career-point, of which 99 (64%) were currently teaching-active. Of those who had never undertaken research (n = 51) or teaching (n = 59), 40 and 42% were interested in doing so, respectively. Key barriers were lack of time and opportunity, the former particularly for respondents practising in industry, where 'commercial' demands take priority, rather than healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes a benchmark of academic activity among UK OPs and identifies related barriers. These 'target' barriers can shape research funding priorities and education to increase participation and develop the UK OH academic base.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos do Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina do Trabalho/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
13.
Nurse Educ Today ; 85: 104229, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is always a call for educational reform and further research to improve educational programs. The continuous development of new educational approaches is a work in progress. Educational strategies like team-based learning, flipped classroom, and lottery-based token economy, were used to develop a novel teaching approach. AIM: This study had two major goals. The first goal was to introduce a novel teaching approach in professional healthcare academies. The second goal was to get an in-depth understanding, from the students' perspective, about the benefits and limitations of this new teaching approach. METHOD: The study was conducted using a qualitative, phenomenological research design. Third and fourth-year nursing students completed reflective journals to describe their personal experience with the new teaching approach at the end of the semester. The students' responses were analyzed and coded using Kember's four-category coding schema for reflective writing, to extract themes using thematic analysis. FINDINGS: Seventy-five students completed and returned their reflective journals. The analysis showed various challenges and facilitators/benefits of the students' experiences. The themes that emerged from the analysis were: lack of exposure vs. a sense of achievement; lack of teamwork skills vs. role fulfillment; working with new people vs. conflict resolution; variation vs. collaboration/creativity; time management vs. constructive competition; wasting resources vs. flexibility, and proactivity/active engagement. These themes summarized why the new teaching approach worked and what barriers students faced with the new assembly. CONCLUSION: Results from the current study demonstrated the great potential of the new teaching approach. Recommendations for future research were also discussed.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 42: 102671, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846906

RESUMO

Clinical supervision is a strategy supporting nurses, midwives and other healthcare professionals in the provision of quality healthcare. Clinical supervision involves regular, protected time for reflection. Adequately prepared supervisors are essential, however there is limited knowledge about education/training programs and even less about those that are not discipline-specific. This paper 1) describes an eight-day foundational program, Clinical Supervision for Role Development Training as situated within the Spurr Supervisor Training Model and, 2) presents the results from routinely collected evaluation data. Simple descriptive analysis and latent content analysis were used to analyse data from 226 participants who filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Participants reported increased knowledge (87.5%), skills (87%) and confidence to apply the techniques learnt (85.5%); 95% found practice sessions to be useful, and expectations of the training had been met. Qualitative data supported the positive quantitative results. The program was positively assessed by participants, irrespective of professional discipline. The pragmatic nature of the training and the safe learning environment was considered important to the development of skills and confidence as a supervisor. A more robust evaluation process and prospective, longitudinal research is needed to better understand the expectations and learning experience of participants, and implementation in the healthcare environment.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Administradoras/educação , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Ensino/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Humanos , Supervisão de Enfermagem/tendências , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 12(1): 65-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem in Canada and pharmacists are ideally positioned to help patients adhere to their regimens. There is an urgent need for pharmacy schools to ensure graduates receive training in this area. In this paper, we describe a medication taking simulation activity for first year pharmacy students using a multi-method approach to evaluation. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students were provided with placebo capsules and instructed to take one capsule twice per day for two weeks, complete the Beliefs About Medications Questionnaire (BMQ) before the activity, and provide a pill count and reflection on their experiences afterwards. Quantitative analysis involved calculation of percent adherence from pill counts and establishing beliefs about medications from BMQ scores. Perceptions of the teaching activity were determined using qualitative inductive content analysis of a sub-set of student reflections. FINDINGS: All 224 students participated and complete pill count and BMQ data was obtained from 190 students (85%). Applying a cut-off of 80% to categorize adherence status, 51.8% of students were adherent. BMQ analyses indicated collective student uncertainty in three BMQ sub-scales (specific-necessity, specific-concern, and general-overuse) and a significant difference between adherent and non-adherent students in the specific-necessity sub-scale. Qualitative analyses of a set of student reflections resulted in two major themes: (1) developing empathy and (2) learning about adherence. SUMMARY: This activity provided opportunities for students to experience the challenges involved in medication-taking from the patient's perspective and to realize the pharmacist's role to facilitate medication adherence.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Canadá , Currículo/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 12(1): 84-87, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To gauge the potential effect of mode of content delivery on overall student success in a pharmaceutical sciences course in a doctor of pharmacy program. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Principles of Drug Action I (PDAI) is a first-year pharmaceutical science course typically taught by multiple faculty, and each utilizes their own approach to deliver course content. Over a seven year period, the course naturally separated into blocks. Block-1 was taught using a traditional lecture-based approach while Block-2 varied between either a lecture-based or a flipped-classroom format. Student success was evaluated by exam at the end of each block. FINDINGS: For the four years in which Block-2 was taught by lecture, the number of exam failures was similar to Block-1. For each of the three years Block-2 was taught via the flipped-classroom format, the number of exam failures was approximately half that of Block-1. While grades for the lecture-based Block-1 trended downward over the seven-year evaluation period, average exam grades overall were similar between Block-1 and Block-2 each year regardless of teaching modality. SUMMARY: Retrospective analysis of this novel blocked approach within PDAI provided a means of internally evaluating the potential effect of teaching format on overall student performance. The results described here support previous studies that indicate that the flipped-classroom approach can reduce course failures. These findings also show that flipped-classroom teaching may have a greater impact on improving learning in lower-performing students.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/educação , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Currículo/normas , Currículo/tendências , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudantes de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 301-309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Difficulty in recruiting and retaining community preceptors for medical student education has been described in the literature. Yet little, if any, information is known about community outpatient preceptors who have stopped or decreased teaching time with students. This study aimed to examine these preceptors' perspectives about this phenomenon. METHOD: Using a phenomenology framework, this multi-institutional qualitative study used semistructured interviews with community pediatric preceptors who had stopped or reduced teaching time with medical students. Interviews were conducted between October 2017 and January 2018 and transcribed verbatim. Interviews explored factors for engaging in teaching, or decreasing or ceasing teaching, that would enable future teaching. An initial code book was developed and refined as data were analyzed to generate themes. RESULTS: Twenty-seven community pediatricians affiliated with 10 institutions participated. Thirty-seven codes resulted in 4 organizing themes: evolution of health care, personal barriers, educational system, and ideal situations to recruit and retain preceptors, each with subthemes. CONCLUSIONS: From the viewpoints of physicians who had decreased or stopped teaching students, this study more deeply explores previously described reasons contributing to the decline of community preceptors, adds newly described barriers, and offers strategies to help counter this phenomenon based on preceptors' perceptions. These findings appear to be manifestations of deeper issues including the professional identify of clinical educators. Understanding the barriers and strategies and how they relate to preceptors themselves should better inform education leaders to more effectively halt the decline of community precepting and enhance the clinical precepting environment for medical students.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária/educação , Pediatras , Preceptoria/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Natl Med J India ; 32(1): 29-31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823938

RESUMO

Background: The Medical Council of India has recommended microteaching for training medical graduates to improve their teaching efficiency. We assessed the effectiveness of microteaching on teaching skills of resident doctors through objective and subjective methods. Methods: We obtained data from three microteaching sessions in which 10 resident doctors participated. Seven core teaching skills of the participants were compared between two training sessions using the paired t-test. Only 4 residents who had participated in the training sessions appeared for the semester examination. We compared the performance of the 'trained' residents (π = 4) with the 'naïve' residents (n = 6) who were getting exposed to microteaching for the first time during the semester examination using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Participants scored significantly high in the second training session compared to the first one. All the participants perceived the training sessions to have a positive effect on their teaching skills. In the semester examination, 'trained' residents performed significantly better than their 'naïve' counterparts. Conclusions: Microteaching not only improved the teaching skills of the residents but also helped them perform well in their semester examination held 10 months later. Our results indicate that microteaching can be an effective teacher training technique for residents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Internato e Residência/métodos , Ensino/organização & administração , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 11(12): 1287-1295, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine the educational outcomes comparing flipped classroom method versus a didactic method with active learning in two semesters of a modified team-based learning (TBL) self-care pharmacotherapy course and explore student-identified preferences for teaching modality. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Grade performance on readiness assurance processes, both individual (iRAP) and team (tRAP), and exam questions were compared in two semester-long course offerings. Additionally, students were surveyed pre- and post-course. FINDINGS: The mean iRAP scores were 81.9% for the didactic method and 80.7% for the flipped method (p = .092). The mean tRAP scores were 93.6% for both didactic and flipped methods (p = .979). Mean exam performance for content taught using didactic and flipped methods were 83.3% and 83.5%, respectively (p = .730). Pre-course respondents indicated the following preferences: didactic (27.7%), flipped (9%), combination (58.2%), no preference (5.1%). Post-course, 46.8% preferred didactic, 5.7% preferred flipped, and 47.5% preferred a combination. Respondents perceived the didactic method helped develop deeper understanding, stimulated greater interest, and improved retention; however, they felt the flipped method improved critical thinking and application. SUMMARY: There were no statistically significant differences in student outcomes comparing teaching methods while student preference for the flipped classroom decreased.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos , Ensino/normas , Currículo/tendências , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
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