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2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238990, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925981

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the main characteristics of a "good teacher" through the use of questionnaires designed to assess teaching skills and competences, considering the point of view of teachers, principals, and students. In total, 82 teachers, 14 principals, and 625 middle-school students from 5 public schools in São Paulo state participated in this study. Two questionnaires were applied, one designed for teachers and principals and the other for students. First, teachers and principals completed their specific questionnaire, after which the other questionnaire was applied to the students. Both questionnaires contained multiple choice questions related to eight distinct subsections. The questions were answered through the use of a Likert scale, varying from 1 ("totally disagree") to 5 ("totally agree"). The comparisons of the frequency of responses among all questionnaire subsections between teachers and principals were analyzed using a Chi-Square and the z-test, with P-values adjusted to the Bonferroni method. The statistical significance level was set as P < 0.05. The subsection "class atmosphere" presented the highest percentage of response "totally agree", closely followed by "professional engagement". Significant differences (P < 0.05) in responses were observed between teachers and principals for "teaching planning and practice", "use of time and material resources to develop classes", and "professional engagement" domains. In summary, it was demonstrated that some teaching characteristics might be more important than others, with some of these characteristics exhibiting significant differences between groups. Nevertheless, it is crucial to emphasize that all assessed educational domains may be recognized as critical teaching qualities, as all of them presented high levels of "totally agree" responses.


Assuntos
Professores Escolares/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Ensino/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Professores Escolares/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Yi Chuan ; 42(8): 810-816, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952116

RESUMO

Medical Genetics is an important research content of basic medicine and closely related to clinical medicine. Medical Genetics can not only lay a solid theoretical foundation for understanding medical problems for medical students, but also provide them an indispensable technical means for clinical medical practice. In order to improve students' understanding and mastery of the core content of Medical Genetics and cultivate senior medical talents with innovative spirit and independent thinking abilities, the PBL (problem-based learning) teaching method was introduced in the teaching of medical genetics for students enrolled in the eight-year medical education program. By integrating formative evaluation and teaching feedback mechanism into PBL teaching, we have achieved good teaching effects. In this paper, we will discuss the importance and necessity of formative evaluation and teaching feedback in PBL teaching, introduce the PBL teaching plan, teaching process and teaching effect of Medical Genetics in our school, share our thoughts on PBL teaching mode, and provide new ideas for the teaching reform of Medical Genetics.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Genética Médica , Ensino , Educação Médica/normas , Genética Médica/educação , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/normas
4.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 203, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuing medical education (CME) is essential to developing and maintaining high quality primary care. Traditionally, CME is delivered face-to-face, but due to geographical distances, and pressure of work in Bangladesh, general practitioners (GPs) are unable to relocate for several days to attend training. Using chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as an exemplar, we aimed to assess the feasibility of blended learning (combination of face-to-face and online) for GPs, and explore trainees' and trainers' perspectives towards the blended learning approach. METHODS: We used a mixed-methods design. We trained 49 GPs in two groups via blended (n = 25) and traditional face-to-face approach (n = 24) and assessed their post-course knowledge and skills. The COPD Physician Practice Assessment Questionnaire (COPD-PPAQ) was administered before and one-month post-course. Verbatim transcriptions of focus group discussions with 18 course attendees and interviews with three course trainers were translated into English and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Forty GPs completed the course (Blended: 19; Traditional: 21). The knowledge and skills post course, and the improvement in self-reported adherence to COPD guidelines was similar in both groups. Most participants preferred blended learning as it was more convenient than taking time out of their busy work life, and for many the online learning optimised the benefits of the subsequent face-to-face sessions. Suggested improvements included online interactivity with tutors, improved user friendliness of the e-learning platform, and timing face-to-face classes over weekends to avoid time-out of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Quality improvement requires a multifaceted approach, but adequate knowledge and skills are core components. Blended learning is feasible and, with a few caveats, is an acceptable option to GPs in Bangladesh. This is timely, given that online learning with limited face-to-face contact is likely to become the norm in the on-going COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Educação a Distância/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Ensino , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Educação Médica Continuada/tendências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Modelos Educacionais , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensino/normas , Ensino/tendências
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991616

RESUMO

A solid understanding of basic sciences is a prerequisite for successful completion of medical education. Therefore, it is essential to improve the quality of teaching and to ensure the applicability of basic sciences. Based on practical experiences and previous research, we developed an innovative step-by-step concept, called ENHANCE, for the implementation or revision of teaching units, especially for basic sciences. We used comparative self-assessment gains, a questionnaire to assess teaching quality as well as end-of-semester evaluations (students' satisfaction and open-ended questions) to evaluate the ENHANCE concept. It was found that ENHANCE-based teaching units were related to increased students' satisfaction, high attendance rates and that restructuring the course curriculum yielded in a positive assessment of teaching effectiveness. The revised courses were rated as the very best of all classes in several semesters. Qualitative data showed that students particularly appreciated the level of comprehension and how helpful the courses were for the understanding and preparation of the regular curriculum.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ciência/educação , Ensino/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(6): 553-557, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ENT presentations are prevalent in clinical practice but feature little in undergraduate curricula. Consequently, most medical graduates are not confident managing common ENT conditions. In 2014, the first evidence-based ENT undergraduate curriculum was published to guide medical schools. OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent that current UK medical school learning outcomes correlate with the syllabus of the ENT undergraduate curriculum. METHOD: Two students from each participating medical school independently reviewed all ENT-related curriculum documents to determine whether learning outcomes from the suggested curriculum were met. RESULTS: Sixteen of 34 curricula were reviewed. Only a minority of medical schools delivered teaching on laryngectomy or tracheostomy, nasal packing or cautery, and ENT medications or surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: There is wide variability in ENT undergraduate education in UK medical schools. Careful consideration of which topics are prioritised, and the teaching modalities utilised, is essential. In addition, ENT learning opportunities for undergraduates outside of the medical school curriculum should be augmented.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Otolaringologia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/educação , Cauterização/métodos , Cauterização/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laringectomia/educação , Laringectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/normas , Traqueostomia/educação , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 177-186, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195105

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enseñanza de la oncología en el pregrado de medicina resulta todavía insuficiente, y esto se manifiesta durante la interacción de los estudiantes en espacios de promoción de salud tanto en la comunidad como en la audiencia sanitaria. OBJETIVO: Implementar un curso electivo para la realización de audiencias sanitarias sobre cáncer por estudiantes de medicina. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó un estudio cuasi-experimental de tipo pre-prueba y post-prueba, en Ciego de Ávila, de enero de 2016 a febrero de 2017, en cuatro etapas: caracterización, diseño, valoración y evaluación de efectividad. En la caracterización se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 120 estudiantes de medicina de tercero, cuarto y quinto año. Se diseñó el curso electivo y se valoró por 15 expertos, a través de la metodología Delphi. Para evaluar la efectividad se trabajó con 30 estudiantes de cuarto año de medicina, quienes recibieron el curso y emitieron su criterio sobre el mismo. RESULTADOS: Los estudiantes se sentían motivados por aprender sobre el tema e incorporarse a la ejecución de audiencias sanitarias. Refirieron no poseer los conocimientos necesarios, identificando el plan de estudio y la falta de cursos electivos como limitaciones para su aprendizaje. El curso electivo se concibió como un curso de siete módulos temáticos y fue valorado positivamente por expertos. Tras su aplicación, en la post-prueba la nota media fue de 4,41 puntos, frente a 3,06 en la pre-prueba. CONCLUSIONES: El curso electivo logró satisfacer necesidades de aprendizaje, alcanzó pertinencia e impacto y posibilitó que los estudiantes de medicina se incorporaran a la ejecución de audiencias sanitarias


INTRODUCTION: The teaching of oncology to medical undergraduates is still insufficient. This is manifested during the interaction of the students in spaces of promotion of health in the community. OBJECTIVE: To implement an elective course for performing of health audits on cancer for students of Medicine. METHODOLOGY: A quasi-experimental study was carried out in Ciego de Ávila, from January 2016 to February 2017, in four stages: characterisation, design, valuation, and evaluation of effectiveness. As regards the characterisation, a descriptive study was carried out on 120 third, fourth, and fifth year medical students. The elective course was designed and evaluated by 15 experts, using Delphi methodology. The effectiveness evaluation was carried out as quasi-experiment with 30 fourth year students who received the course and provided their opinions on it. RESULTS: The students were motivated to learn about the topic and to incorporate it into the execution of health audits. They referred to not to possessing the necessary knowledge, identifying the study plan and the lack elective courses for their learning. The elective course was conceived as a course of seven thematic modules, and it was positively valued by experts. After its application, searches obtained a mean of 4.41 points compared with 3.06 before application. CONCLUSIONS: The elective course was able to satisfy learning needs. It achieved relevancy and impact, and it helps students to incorporate it into to the execution of health audits


Assuntos
Humanos , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Ensino/educação , Ensino/normas , Oncologia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional , Competência Clínica , Técnica Delfos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502213

RESUMO

The teaching of professional roles in medical education is an interdisciplinary concern. However, surgeons require specific standards of professionalism for certain context-based situations. In addition to communication, studies require collaboration, leadership, error-/conflict-management, patient-safety and decision-making as essential competencies for surgeons. Standards for corresponding competencies are defined in special chapters of the German National Competency-based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM; chapter 8, 10). The current study asks whether these chapters are adequately taught in surgical curricula. Eight German faculties contributed to analysing mapping data considering surgical courses of undergraduate programs. All faculties used the MERlin mapping platform and agreed on procedures for data collection and processing. Sub-competency and objective coverage, as well as the achievement of the competency level were mapped. Overall counts of explicit citations were used for analysis. Collaboration within the medical team is a strongly represented topic. In contrast, interprofessional cooperation, particularly in healthcare sector issues is less represented. Patient safety and dealing with errors and complications is most emphasized for the Manager/Leader, while time management, career planning and leadership are not addressed. Overall, the involvement of surgery in teaching the competencies of the Collaborator and Manager/Leader is currently low. However, there are indications of a curricular development towards explicit teaching of these roles in surgery. Moreover, implicitly taught roles are numerous, which indicates a beginning awareness of professional roles.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Ensino/normas , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Docentes de Medicina/tendências , Alemanha , Humanos , Liderança , Aprendizagem , Segurança do Paciente , Comportamento Social , Cirurgiões/psicologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492028

RESUMO

Tenure-track faculty members in the United States are evaluated on their performance in both research and teaching. In spite of accusations of bias and invalidity, student evaluations of teaching have dominated teaching evaluation at U.S. universities. However, studies on the topic have tended to be limited to particular institutional and disciplinary contexts. Moreover, in spite of the idealistic assumption that research and teaching are mutually beneficial, few studies have examined the link between research performance and student evaluations of teaching. In this study, we conduct a large scale exploratory analysis of the factors associated with student evaluations of teachers, controlling for heterogeneous institutional and disciplinary contexts. We source public student evaluations of teaching from RateMyProfessor.com and information regarding career and contemporary research performance indicators from the company Academic Analytics. The factors most associated with higher student ratings were the attractiveness of the faculty and the student's interest in the class; the factors most associated with lower student ratings were course difficulty and whether student comments mentioned an accent or a teaching assistant. Moreover, faculty tended to be rated more highly when they were young, male, White, in the Humanities, and held a rank of full professor. We observed little to no evidence of any relationship, positive or negative, between student evaluations of teaching and research performance. These results shed light on what factors relate to student evaluations of teaching across diverse contexts and contribute to the continuing discussion teaching evaluation and faculty assessment.


Assuntos
Docentes/normas , Estudantes , Ensino/normas , Universidades/normas , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Preconceito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa/normas , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(3): e11-e12, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375914

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that can spread from one person to person. This virus is a novel coronavirus that was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak in Wuhan, China. Iran's novel coronavirus cases reached 17,361 on 17 March, while death toll reached approximately 1,135. Its first death was officially announced on 20 February 2020 in Qom. The 2019 coronavirus pandemic has affected educational systems around the world, Also in Iran, and led to the closure of face to face courses in schools and universities. Therefore, virtual education can be seen as a turning point in education of these days in Iran.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Educação/tendências , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Distância Social , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/normas
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1194: 459-474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468563

RESUMO

Problem solving is one of the most important goals of mathematics teaching. Several researches, such as the one attached to this dissertation, demonstrate that the problems of mathematics and their resolution are ultimately a problem for the majority of students. The very low performance for pupils in our 15-year-old country in the PISA international competition, coupled with references to problem solving research, demonstrates the weakness of our country's education system to bridge the gap between school reality and everyday problems or original problems. In contrast to the unpleasant results of the mathematical problem solving research, several theories in the science of mathematics teaching describe problem solving methods, such as Polya's method of questioning, which help the student develop the thinking skills he/she has, his/her metacognostic abilities, and above all he/she can raise a level of knowledge in relation to what he/she is before dealing with problem solving. Key findings of the research are that there is no absolute link between pupils' skills in solving original problems and answers to the problems of school reality. However, the questionnaire method we applied in the second phase of the survey has shown to deliver. The students found the value of the method in solving a problem by correcting errors or shortcomings and eventually answering correctly. Methods and research on them, however, present the way to acquiring mathematical knowledge through problems. For safer conclusions, we expect as a learning community the results of research in cognitive science and neuroscience around problem solving. The last two areas of educational research, cognitive science and neuro-education, are expected to provide answers for the transition of knowledge from one level to another.


Assuntos
Matemática , Resolução de Problemas , Ensino , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Ensino/normas , Pensamento
13.
Rural Remote Health ; 20(2): 6000, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456441

RESUMO

The current novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has effected a significant change in the way industry-based and tertiary health professions education (HPE) can occur. Advice for strict, widespread social distancing has catalysed the transformation of course delivery into fully online design across nations. This is problematic for HPE, which has traditionally relied on face-to-face learner interaction, in the form of skills laboratories, simulation training and industry-based clinical placements. The transition to online-only course delivery has brought with it a need to address particular issues regarding the construction and delivery of quality curricula and education activities. It is in this context that regional, rural and remote health professionals and academics can provide invaluable insights into the use of technology to overcome the tyranny of distance, promote high-quality online HPE and enable the ongoing development of communities of practice. This article is the first in a series addressing the risks and opportunities in the current transition to online HPE, providing practical solutions for educators who are now unable to embrace more traditional face-to-face HPE delivery methods and activities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Internet , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem , Pandemias , Papel Profissional , Ensino/normas
14.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(2): 84-91, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194474

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe controversia sobre el efecto clima de aprendizaje sobre el aprendizaje estudiantil autodirigido. Este estudio pretende comparar este efecto entre 2 enfoques de enseñanza en cirugía. MÉTODOS: Mediante cuestionarios previamente validados, se evaluaron las percepciones estudiantiles sobre el clima y las capacidades de aprendizaje autodirigido en un enfoque de enseñanza interactivo (aula invertida) y uno tradicional (clases magistrales). Se calcularon las correlaciones intervariables en cada grupo y luego se realizaron comparaciones entre los 2 grupos. RESULTADOS: Un total de 75 estudiantes (aula invertida) y de 74 estudiantes (clases magistrales), autodiligenciaron los cuestionarios al final de cada curso de cirugía. El clima de aprendizaje fue superior en el aula invertida, sin embargo, las percepciones de aprendizaje autodirigido fueron similares en ambos grupos. Todas las correlaciones entre los puntajes de los 2cuestionarios, globalmente y por dominio, fueron superiores en el aula invertida, respecto a la clase magistral (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: El aula invertida fomenta un clima de aprendizaje superior, con respecto a la clase magistral, que se relaciona positivamente con el aprendizaje autodirigido en estudiantes de cirugía. No obstante, las capacidades de aprendizaje autodirigido son similares en ambos enfoques y ofrecen oportunidades de evaluar otros factores en el contexto


INTRODUCTION: The effect of learning climate effect on self-directed student learning remains controversial. This study aims to compare this effect between 2teaching approaches in surgery. METHODS: Using previously validated questionnaires, student perceptions about climate and self-directed learning were evaluated in an interactive teaching approach (inverted classroom) and a traditional approach (lecture). The inter-variable correlations in each group were calculated and then between both groups. RESULTS: A total of 75 students (inverted classroom) and 74 students (lecture) self-completed questionnaires at the end of surgery course. Although the learning climate was higher in the inverted classroom, the perceptions of self-directed learning were similar in both groups. All correlations, between the scores of the 2 questionnaires, overall, and by domain, were higher in the inverted classroom, compared with lectures (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The inverted classroom fosters a higher learning climate, with respect to the lecture, which is positively related to self-directed learning in surgical undergraduates. However, self-directed learning skills were similar in both approaches, and offer opportunities to evaluate other factors in this context


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Autoaprendizagem como Assunto , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Ensino/normas , Educação Baseada em Competências/organização & administração , Instrução por Computador/normas , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Modelos Educacionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança
15.
GMS J Med Educ ; 37(1): Doc4, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270018

RESUMO

Introduction: Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) in everyday clinical practice is a prerequisite for good patient care but currently this is not sufficiently anchored in the education of health care professionals. Project description: A course on child protection in the interprofessional and international domain was established at the Medical School, University of Freiburg. In this course, students of medicine, nursing science and social work acquire skills for successful interprofessional cooperation. Its participants learn across professional and national borders, not only with but also from and about each other. In this way, they deepen their insights into international IPC through a key topic that is relevant to many disciplines. The course is run as a one-day campus day. This paper presents the course setup and evaluation results. Methods: The evaluation was carried out online and in writing in a before and after format using the Freiburg Questionnaire for Interprofessional Learning Evaluation (FILE) in addition to oral feedback. Learning objectives for IPC and child protection were formulated and the participants were asked about their subjective achievements. Results: From summer semester (SuSe) 2017 to SuSe 2018, 39 participants took part in the course. It was rated as m=1.5 (using German school grades where 1=very good, 6=unsatisfactory). In 18 of the 26 FILE items, participants report a self-assessed increase in knowledge or skills/abilities. This growth in learning coincides with the learning objectives set. Discussion & conclusion: From the perspective of the participants, the course teaches interprofessional competencies in an international setting and is seen as an informative course offer. The continuation or expansion of such courses as a supplement to purely single-country interprofessional courses is desirable.


Assuntos
Serviços de Proteção Infantil/métodos , Internacionalidade , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/tendências , Currículo/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Ars pharm ; 61(1): 33-37, ene.-mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188572

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analizar el extenso Reglamento de estudios de 1852, donde se legisla todo lo relativo a la enseñanza secundaria y universitaria de España, decantándonos por lo legislado para la enseñanza en la Facultades de Farmacia y Medicina. MÉTODO: El desarrollo de este trabajo es fruto de otro mucho más amplio. En general, se han consultado los Archivos Históricos de Madrid y Sevilla, 39 libros, 60 citas de internet, 3 números de Colección legislativa de España, y numerosísimas Gaceta de Madrid de los años comprendidos entre 1845 y 1931; y revisado 5 Boletín Oficial de Estado. RESULTADOS: En el siglo XIX, antes de decretarse el Reglamento de Estudios de 1852, siendo Bravo Murillo Presidente del Gobierno, se aprobaron una serie de Reformas, Proyectos, Planes, Reglamentos, etc., hasta un total de 17. El Reglamento de Estudios de 1852 consta de 10 secciones, 36 títulos, siete capítulos y 420 artículos, donde se legislan sobre el gobierno general de la instrucción pública, los distritos universitarios, el régimen interior y económico, el curso literario y métodos de enseñanza, el profesorado público, los alumnos, con sus derechos y obligaciones y los establecimientos privados, para finalizar hablando del traje académico y las insignias. CONCLUSIONES: El Reglamento de estudios de 1852 significó un paso adelante en la organización de la enseñanza de aquella época y, muy particularmente, de la enseñanza universitaria. En más de 400 artículos se legisla prácticamente todo, desde el Rector, que recobra su poder, hasta los bedeles, pasando por catedráticos, profesorado, alumnos, etc


OBJECTIVES: Analyze the extensive Regulation of studies of 1852, where everything related to secondary and university education in Spain is legislated, choosing the legislated for teaching in the Faculties of Pharmacy and Medicine. METHOD: In general, we have consulted the Historical Archives of Madrid and Seville; 39 books; 60 internet appointments; 3 issues of the "Colección legislativa de España"; and numerous "Gaceta de Madrid" of the years between 1845 and 1931; and revised 5 "Boletín Oficial de Estado". RESULTS: In the 19 th century, before the Regulation of Studies of 1852 was enacted, with Bravo Murillo as President of the Government, a series of Reforms, Projects, Plans, Regulations, etc. were approved, up to a total of 17. The Study Regulations of 1852 consist of 10 sections, 36 titles, seven chapters and 420 articles. The Regulation legislates on the general government of public instruction, the university districts, the internal and economic regime, the literary course and teaching methods, the public teaching staff, the students, with their rights and obligations and the private establishments, the academic dress and the badges. CONCLUSIONS: The Study Regulations of 1852 represented a step forward in the organization of education at that time and, very particularly, in university education. In more than 400 articles almost everything is legislated: the Rector to the bedeles, also professors, lecturers, students, etc


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Educação em Farmácia/história , Educação em Farmácia/legislação & jurisprudência , Ensino/normas , Educação em Farmácia/normas , História Natural/educação , História Natural/legislação & jurisprudência
17.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 32(3): 187-189, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132455

RESUMO

Academic and health care institutions are charged with improving quality-of-care outcomes by creating culturally educated health care professionals to practice in a global health care environment. International short-term service learning experiences provide nurse practitioner students an opportunity to meet clinical competency skills aligned with course curricula. Faculty can directly observe students' clinical practice, and students broaden diagnostic reasoning skills while earning credit for clinical hours. As project and research ideas are formulated, students develop system-level thinking to implement evidence-based practices and disseminate their knowledge and experience of caring for the underserved. Students who participate in service-learning opportunities foster their awareness of cultural humility, easing transition into practice. Some academic institutions established short-term service-learning opportunities for students, and evidence supports faculty and students' sense of well-being after participation. We describe an example of a short-term, international service-learning opportunity in Haiti where students work with an interprofessional team and experience the effect of social determinants of health on delivering quality care.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/psicologia , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/métodos , Internacionalidade , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Humanos , Profissionais de Enfermagem/psicologia , Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/normas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092102

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: International medical electives, whereby undergraduates visit an institution in a country other than their own, are a common part of medical training. Visiting students are often asked to provide local teaching, which may be acceptable where the visitor is acting within the bounds of their own competency and the normal practices of both their home and host institutions. However, the extent to which teaching is an accepted student activity globally has not previously been described. This study aims to address this using an international survey approach. METHODS: A voluntary electronic survey, created using the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES) framework, was distributed across established international medical student networks. This assessed the involvement of medical students in teaching and the educator training they receive, with the intention of comparing experiences between high-income countries (HICs) and low/middle-income countries (LMICs) to gauge the engagement of both "host" and "visiting" students. RESULTS: 443 students from 61 countries completed the survey, with an equal proportion of respondents from LMICs (49.4%, 219/443) and HICs (50.6%, 224/443). Around two thirds of students reported providing teaching whilst at medical school, with most reporting teaching numerous times a year, mainly to more junior medical students. There was with no significant difference between LMICs and HICs. Around 30 per cent of all medical students reported having received no teacher training, including 40 per cent of those already providing teaching. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that students are engaged in teaching globally, with no difference between HIC and LMIC contexts. However, students are underprepared to act as educators in both settings. Providing teaching as part of an elective experience may be ethically acceptable to both host and home institutions, but needs to be supported by formal training in delivering teaching.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica , Participação dos Interessados , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino , Adulto , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Educação Médica/normas , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração , Capacitação de Professores/normas , Capacitação de Professores/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/organização & administração , Ensino/normas
20.
Nurse Educ Today ; 86: 104318, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive scoping review of the existing literature regarding the use of blended learning in undergraduate nursing education. To align the varied educational terms and definitions with the broad definition of blended learning. DESIGN: Scoping review following established methodology. DATA SOURCES: In consultation with library services, the academic literature was searched. Electronic databases searched included ERIC (OVID), Medline (OVID), PubMed, Nursing and Allied Health, and CINAHL Plus. REVIEW METHODS: A total of 189 potentially relevant nursing research articles published between the years of 2009 and 2019. Three reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 37 relevant primary articles in the nursing field to be included in the scoping review. RESULTS: Nursing content delivered using blended learning approaches were organized into 8 themes. Themes include Professional Nursing Skills; Mental Health Nursing; Bioscience; Pharmacology, Specialty Populations; Nursing Assessment; Acute Care Nursing; and the Art of Nursing. A variety of blended learning approaches are being utilized in Undergraduate nursing education, the majority of which are happening in the classroom. CONCLUSION: This scoping review presents explicit the degrees to which blended learning is referred to in the nursing education literature and expanded the definition of blended learning to encompass the terminology associated with distributed, decentralized, hybrid, and flexible learning. There is a wide, varied, and expanding number of blended learning approaches currently being utilized in nursing education to teach a wide range of nursing content and skills. An expanded scoping review focused on blended learning in psychiatric nursing, licenced practical nursing, nurse practitioners, and all graduate level nursing education programs is recommended as is additional research into the use of blended learning in the lab or clinical setting.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Ensino/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/tendências , Humanos , Ensino/tendências
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