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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18514, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will assess the effects of the project-based learning (PBL) for participants undergoing clinical oncology teaching (COT). METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive literature records will be identified from the electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Springer, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All electronic databases will be searched from their inceptions up to the present. Any relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of PBL in participants receiving COT will be considered for inclusion. Study quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RevMan 5.3 software will be utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will assess the effects of PBL in participants receiving COT through assessing the primary outcomes of psychological disorders, student satisfaction, and student feedback, and secondary outcomes of examination scores, excellence rates, course examination pass rates, and clinical knowledge or skills. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will summarize the latest evidence on the effects of PBL in participants receiving in COT. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019150433.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Oncologia/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/normas
4.
Med Educ Online ; 24(1): 1666538, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526248

RESUMO

With the increasing use of technology in education, online learning has become a common teaching method. How effective online learning is for undergraduate medical education remains unknown. This article's aim is to evaluate whether online learning when compared to offline learning can improve learning outcomes of undergraduate medical students. Five databases and four key journals of medical education were searched using 10 terms and their Boolean combinations during 2000-2017. The extracted articles on undergraduates' knowledge and skill outcomes were synthesized using a random effects model for the meta-analysis.16 out of 3,700 published articles were identified. The meta-analyses affirmed a statistically significant difference between online and offline learning for knowledge and skill outcomes based on post-test scores (SMD = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.20; p < 0.0001; n = 15). The only comparison result based on retention test scores was also statistically significant (SMD = 4.64; 95% CI: 3.19, 6.09; p < 0.00001). The meta-analyses discovered no significant difference when using pre- and post-test score gains (SMD = 3.03; 95% CI: -0.13, 4.13; p = 0.07; n = 3). There is no evidence that offline learning works better. And compared to offline learning, online learning has advantages to enhance undergraduates' knowledge and skills, therefore, can be considered as a potential method in undergraduate medical teaching.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Ensino/normas , Humanos , Internet , Estudantes de Medicina
6.
Nurse Educ Today ; 80: 67-77, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Skill competence is essential for nursing students and flipped-classroom teaching has become increasingly popular in China's nursing education. However, no studies have yet specifically examined the effect of a flipped classroom versus a traditional classroom on their skill competence. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, VIP, Superstar, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception until 9 June 2018. REVIEW METHODS: We screened the studies according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the quality. Then, a meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were eligible after reviewing 484 citations. The flipped classroom increased the students' skills score compared with the traditional teaching method (standardised mean difference = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.27, p = 0.000). Additionally, it improved the cooperative spirit and sense of teamwork (effect size = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-2.06), practical ability (effect size = 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 0.93-2.01), enjoyment of the course (effect size = 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.81-1.97), expression and communication (effect size = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.69-2.12), the curriculum's effects (effect size = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.64), interest in participation (effect size = 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.28-1.87), ability to think and analyse problems (effect size = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-2.00), and resolution and resilience (effect size = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-1.94). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the flipped classroom is more effective for the nursing students' skill competence than traditional teaching in China. However, due to heterogeneity and bias risk, a large sample and high-quality studies are needed in future to confirm its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ensino/normas , China , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
10.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 38: 40-44, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176242

RESUMO

Education and training about Basic Life Support is necessary for different medical groups such as nurses. Different teaching methods have been developed to preserve essential medical information, knowledge and skills. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of concept map-based and lecture-based teaching methods on the level of nursing students' learning in Basic Life Support. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2015 on 57 nursing students from a nursing school in Tehran. Students were selected by census and then divided into lecture (n = 29) and concept map groups (n = 28) by random allocation. The effect of education on knowledge (before, immediately after, one week after and one month after session) and practice (before and immediately after session) was studied. No significant differences were found between the mean scores of knowledge and practice before intervention (P > 0.05). After intervention the mean scores of knowledge were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05) but mean scores of practice were significantly higher in the concept map group (P = 0.03). In achieving skill and practice goals, it seems that the concept map-based teaching method was more effective than the lecture method.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Análise de Variância , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Palliat Care ; 18(1): 44, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The needs of care based on palliative principles are stressed for all people with progressive and/or life-limiting conditions, regardless of age and the place in which care is provided. Person-centred palliative care strives to make the whole person visible and prioritizes the satisfaction of spiritual, existential, social, and psychological needs to the same extent as physical needs. However, person-centred palliative care for older persons in nursing homes seems to be sparse, possibly because staff in nursing homes do not have sufficient knowledge, skills, and training in managing symptoms and other aspects of palliative care. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate whether an educational intervention had any effect on the staff's perception of providing person-centred palliative care for older persons in nursing homes. METHODS: A knowledge-based palliative care intervention consisting of five 2-h seminars during a 6-month period was implemented at 20 nursing homes in Sweden. In total, 365 staff members were participated, 167 in the intervention group and 198 in the control group. Data were collected using two questionnaires, the Person-centred Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT) and the Person-Centred Climate Questionnaire (PCQ-S), answered before (baseline) and 3 months after (follow-up) the educational intervention was completed. Descriptive, comparative, and univariate logistical regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Both the intervention group and the control group revealed high median scores in all subscales at baseline, except for the subscale amount of organizational and environmental support in the P-CAT. The staff's high rating level of person-centred care before the intervention provides limited space for further improvements at follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows that staff perceived that managers' and the organization's amount of support to them in their everyday work was the only area for improvement in order to maintain person-centred care. The experiences among staff are crucial knowledge in understanding how palliative care can be made person-centred in spite of often limited resources in nursing homes. The dose and intensity of education activities of the intervention model need to be tested in future research to develop the most effective implementation model. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02708498 . Date of registration 26 February 2016.


Assuntos
Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Ensino/psicologia
12.
J Dent Educ ; 83(10): 1151-1157, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235502

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the educational methods and tools used to teach tooth prognosis and treatment complexity determination in U.S. predoctoral dental programs. In 2018, an online survey was emailed to the academic deans of all 66 accredited U.S. dental schools. Of these, 42 schools responded (63.6%), and 36 schools completed the entire survey (54.5%). The methods reported for teaching tooth prognosis and case complexity determination varied widely among the participating schools. Among the respondents, 25% reported using the American Association of Endodontists' Endodontic Case Difficulty Assessment, while 10% reported having no specific method for teaching prognosis. The most common method for teaching overall treatment complexity was the Prosthodontic Diagnostic Index, which was used by 24% of the respondents. However, another 24% reported that their school did not have a specific method for teaching treatment complexity. Large percentages of the respondents reported that students sometimes or often made wrong tooth prognosis and case complexity determination (90% and 92%, respectively). The most prominent feedback provided by the respondents based on their experience was the importance of faculty standardization, the understanding of students' inexperience, and the need for an interdisciplinary approach. The majority of these respondents reported that their schools had specific methods of teaching prognosis and case complexity determination. However, there was a wide range of teaching practices related to the contents and levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Educação em Odontologia/normas , Ensino/normas , Odontopatias/diagnóstico , Odontopatias/terapia , Currículo , Humanos , Prognóstico , Faculdades de Odontologia/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 216, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving universal health care coverage will require greater investment in primary health care, particularly in rural and underserved populations in low and middle-income countries. South Africa has invested in training black students from disadvantaged backgrounds in Cuba and large numbers of these Cuban-trained students are now returning for final year and internship training in South Africa. There is controversy about the scheme, the quality and relevance of training received and the place of Cuban-trained doctors in the health care system. Exploring the experiences of Cuban- and South African-trained students, recent graduates and medical school faculty may help understand and resolve the current controversy. METHODS: Using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion were held with deans of medical schools, senior faculty, and Cuban-trained and South African-trained students and recent graduates. An online structured questionnaire, adapted from the USA medical student survey, was developed and administered to Cuban- and South African-trained students and recent graduates. RESULTS: South African students trained in Cuba have had beneficial experiences which orientate them towards primary health care and prevention. Their subsequent training in South Africa is intended to fill skill gaps related to TB, HIV and major trauma. However this training is ad hoc and variable in duration and demoralizing for some students. Cuban-trained students have stronger aspirations than those trained in South Africa to work in rural and underserved communities from which many of them are drawn. CONCLUSION: Attempts to assimilate returning Cuban-trained students will require a reframing of the current negative narrative by focusing on positive aspects of their training, orientation towards primary care and public health, and their aspirations to work in rural and under-served urban areas. Cuban-trained doctors could be part of the solution to South Africa's health workforce problems.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros , Internato e Residência/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Ensino/normas , Cuba , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Médicos Graduados Estrangeiros/normas , Humanos , África do Sul
14.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(3): Doc23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211218

RESUMO

We believe that medical lectures can be improved by considering techniques from comedy. Foremost, lecturers should educate their audiences. This works well, if lecturers have fun and entertain. In preparing the presentation, they should develop a storyline, try to surprise their audience, prepare to employ unexpected objects and carry out several test runs. During the presentation, lecturers should dare to use self-irony, appeal to students' emotions, be factual and precise, serve the audience, keep it short and provide memorable opening and closing statements. Medical lectures should be both informative and entertaining.


Assuntos
Ensino/normas , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Humanos , Ensino/psicologia
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 125, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to provide faculty-wide undergraduate ultrasound training in times of scarce resources, many medical faculties employ trained peer-student tutors to oversee the hands-on training. However, data to guide the training of ultrasound peer-student tutors are scarce. We conducted a prospective quasi-randomized study to assess the gain in theoretical knowledge and practical scanning skills of peer-student tutors who were trained with a course only, an internship only, or the combination of a course and an internship. METHODS: A total of 44 peer-student tutors were trained by a one-week course only (C-Group, n = 21), by an internship only (I-Group, n = 10) or by a course and an internship (CI-Group, n = 13). Prior to and after the completion of the training the peer-student tutors completed an MC-test (theoretical knowledge) and an OSCE (practical scanning skills). RESULTS: With all three education concepts, the peer-student tutors had significant and comparable gains in theoretical knowledge (C-group + 90%, I-group + 61.5%, CI-group + 114.0%) and practical scanning skills (C-group + 112.0%, I-group + 155.0% and CI-group + 123.5%), all p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Peer-student tutors, who were trained with a course or an internship or a course and internship improved their theoretical knowledge and their practical scanning skills significantly and to a comparable degree.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Medicina Interna/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/normas , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Difusão de Inovações , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais , Grupo Associado , Estudos Prospectivos , Técnicas Psicológicas , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 119, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In order to foster positive student experiences in the clinical learning environment, we wanted to better understand which teaching practices they regard highly. METHODS: In 2016, the authors undertook a paper 'exemplar' survey (ES) of all fifth year medical students at one tertiary teaching site. Students had experienced all assigned clinical rotations over a two year period. Following a 66% response rate, we identified two clear exemplar clinical areas (ECAs). Over 2016-7, six focus groups with multidisciplinary staff members from these clinical areas were held, with the aim to identify, discuss and understand their specific teaching practices in more detail. RESULTS: The authors present descriptions of positive student experiences and related staff practices, in five themes. Themes emerged around foundational logistic and personal factors: central to student and staff data is that 'welcome' on a daily, and ongoing basis, can be foundational to learning. Central to ECA staff data are universal practices by which all staff purposefully work to develop a functional staff-student relationship and play a part in organising/teaching students. Students and ECA staff groups both understood teacher values to be central to student learning and that cultivating a student's values is one of their major educational tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The framework formed by this thematic analysis is useful, clear and transferrable to other clinical teaching contexts. It also aligns with current thinking about best supporting student learning and cultivating student values as part of developing professionalism. Instigating such practices might help to optimise clinical teaching. We also tentatively suggest that such practices might help where resources are scarce, and perhaps also help ameliorate student bullying.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Pessoal de Educação/normas , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/normas , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091292

RESUMO

Student evaluations of teaching are widely believed to contain gender bias. In this study, we conduct a randomized experiment with the student evaluations of teaching in four classes with large enrollments, two taught by male instructors and two taught by female instructors. In each of the courses, students were randomly assigned to either receive the standard evaluation instrument or the same instrument with language intended to reduce gender bias. Students in the anti-bias language condition had significantly higher rankings of female instructors than students in the standard treatment. There were no differences between treatment groups for male instructors. These results indicate that a relatively simple intervention in language can potentially mitigate gender bias in student evaluation of teaching.


Assuntos
Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Linguagem , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Ensino/normas , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes
19.
Public Health Rep ; 134(4): 441-446, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Schools and programs of public health are concerned about poor student writing. We determined the proportion of epidemiology courses that required writing assignments and the presence of 6 characteristics of these assignments. METHODS: We requested syllabi, writing assignments, and grading criteria from instructors of graduate and undergraduate epidemiology courses taught during 2016 or 2017. We assessed the extent to which these assignments incorporated 6 characteristics of effective writing assignments: (1) a description of the purpose of the writing or learning goals of the assignment, (2) a document type (eg, article, grant) used in public health, (3) an identified target audience, (4) incorporation of tasks that support the writing process (eg, revision), (5) a topic related to a public health problem that requires critical thinking (1-5 scale, 5 = most authentic), and (6) clear assignment expectations (1-5 scale, 5 = clearest). RESULTS: We contacted 594 instructors from 58 institutions and received at least some evaluable materials from 59 courses at 28 institutions. Of these, 47 of 53 (89%) courses required some writing. The purpose was adequately described in 11 of 36 assignments, the required document type was appropriate in 19 of 43 assignments, an audience was identified in 6 of 37 assignments, and tasks that supported a writing process were incorporated in 19 of 40 assignments. Median (interquartile range) scores were 5 (1-5) for an authentic problem that required critical thinking and 4 (2-5) for clarity of expectations. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of writing assignments in public health programs do not reflect best practices in writing instruction and should be improved.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/normas , Epidemiologia/educação , Ensino/normas , Pensamento , Redação/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Australas Emerg Care ; 22(1): 1-7, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effective teamwork is imperative in the emergency trauma setting as trauma teams work in the uncertain and complex context of resuscitating critically injured patients. Poorly performing teams have the potential to contribute to adverse events. Efforts to improve teamwork in trauma include simulation-based multidisciplinary team training with a non-technical skills (NTS) focus. However, there is a lack of evidence linking teamwork training programs with the uptake of NTS in real life trauma resuscitations. The aim of this study was to understand trauma team members' perspectives and experiences of teamwork in real world trauma resuscitations at a Level 1 Trauma Hospital, following completion of a simulated multidisciplinary Trauma Team Training (TTT) program. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were used to explore trauma team members' experiences and perspectives of the impact of TTT on the team's performance. Trauma team members who had completed TTT were invited to participate in the study. Fifteen participants from various disciplines (nursing, medical, allied health) and specialities (emergency, intensive care, trauma, anaesthetics, allied health) were interviewed. Qualitative data were thematically analysed. RESULTS: The overarching finding was that teamwork was the essential component to facilitate a group of skilled experts to collectively perform at an optimum level in emergency trauma care. Four main themes were developed: Leader-follower synergy promotes trauma teamwork; Instability and inconsistency threaten trauma teamwork; Clear communication enhances trauma team decision-making and Team training improves trauma team performance. CONCLUSION: A quickly constructed specialty team with unstable membership, will not transform naturally into an expert trauma team. The creation and maintenance of effective trauma teams requires training strategies such as multidisciplinary simulation that target team training and team interaction. Specifically, training should focus on developing non-technical skills for resuscitation trauma teams that have to form quickly and function effectively, often having never met before. As participants were overwhelmingly female, the data generated by this study are not necessarily generalisable to male members of trauma teams.


Assuntos
Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Treinamento por Simulação , Ensino/normas , Desempenho Profissional/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , New South Wales , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Simulação de Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino/tendências , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração
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