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2.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1049-1067, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994958

RESUMO

Recorrentemente, o psicólogo-historiador se vê diante da questão, endereçada por seus pares ou alunos: por que estudar História da Psicologia? Tal questão é tão recorrente que livros-texto de História da Psicologia reservam um espaço para apresentar respostas, justificativas, a tal provocação. Diante disso, este artigo endereça uma resposta a tal questão, a partir da hipótese de que a História da Psicologia é uma ferramenta para compreensão de rupturas e permanências de fenômenos históricos vinculados aos campos Psi e, esta compreensão, nos auxilia em uma visão mais crítica do presente. Para atingir tal objetivo, são apresentados dois exemplos de questões históricas, mais ainda contemporâneas, na Psicologia brasileira: (a) a definição de campos de atuação e técnicas de atuação do psicólogo e (b) discursos e práticas normatizantes com pessoas homossexuais. Assim, a partir de tais exemplos que nos permitem ver a história na Psicologia e, também, a Psicologia na história, conclui-se que a História da Psicologia pode, sim, contribuir com uma análise mais crítica do momento presente. Para tanto, faz-se necessário a pesquisa em História da Psicologia e o ensino de sua história, para uma formação crítica do psicólogo brasileiro.(AU)


Frequently, the psychologist-historian of Psychology finds himself faced with the question, addressed by his peers or students: why should we study the History of Psychology? Textbooks on the History of Psychology reserve some sections to present such justifications to their readers, indeed. Therefore, we aim to give an answer to that question, based on the hypothesis that the History of Psychology is a tool for understanding ruptures and permanencies of Psychological phenomena in the history, and this understanding helps us to build up a more critical view of the present. In order to achieve that goal, two examples of historical issues in Brazilian Psychology ­ that are still contemporary - are presented: (a) the definition of fields of application and their techniques, and (b) normative discourses and practices with homosexual people. Thus, from such examples that allow us to see history in Psychology and also Psychology in history, we conclude that the History of Psychology would contribute for a more critical analysis of the present. Therefore, it is necessary to research in History of Psychology and to teach its history, for a critical formation of the Brazilian psychologist.(AU)


Frecuentemente, el psicólogo-historiador se ve ante la cuestión, direccionada por sus pares o alumnos: ¿por qué estudiar Historia de la Psicología? Tal cuestión es tan recurrente que libros didácticos de Historia de la Psicología reservan un espacio para presentar respuestas, justificaciones, a tal provocación. Por lo tanto, este artículo brinda una respuesta a tal cuestión, a partir de la hipótesis de que la Historia de la Psicología constituye una herramienta para la comprensión de rupturas y permanencias de fenómenos históricos vinculados a los saberes Psi y que esta comprensión nos auxilia en una visión más crítica del presente. Para alcanzar tal objetivo, se presentan dos ejemplos de cuestiones históricas, más aún contemporáneas, en la Psicología brasileña: (a) la definición de campos de actuación y técnicas de actuación del psicólogo y (b) discursos y prácticas de normativización con personas homosexuales. Así, a partir de tales ejemplos que nos permiten ver la historia en la Psicología y, también, la Psicología en la historia, se concluye que la Historia de la Psicología sí puede contribuir a un análisis más crítico del momento presente. Para ello, se hace necesaria la investigación en Historia de la Psicología y la enseñanza de su historia, para una formación crítica del psicólogo brasileño.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia/história , Psicologia/métodos , Ensino/psicologia , Psicologia
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007433, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671097

RESUMO

Teaching well is a craft like any other, and success often comes from an accumulation of small improvements rather than from any single large change. This paper describes 10 practices you can use when teaching programming (and other subjects). All are easy to adopt and have proven their value in institutional classrooms, intensive workshops, and other settings.


Assuntos
Ensino/educação , Humanos , Ensino/psicologia
4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the clinical performance of nursing students in learning scenarios with and without debriefing in a simulation center. METHOD: a longitudinal, prospective, interventional, crossover randomized study, with a quantitative approach and before-and-after type, with a population composed of 120 nursing students distributed randomly between experimental and control group. The study phases included theoretical and demonstrative practice on child immunization; first Clinical Performance Test, which served as baseline measurement; randomization; scenarios with debriefing for the experimental group and without debriefing for the control group, according to clinical performance/intervention examination; exchange of groups or crossover; third Clinical Performance Test. RESULTS: debriefing was proven to be effective in improving the performance of the students in the clinical exams, because improvement in the performance of the experimental group both in relation to the baseline measurement examination and in comparison with the control group in the post-intervention performance examination and in the third examination, after crossover (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: the use of scenarios with debriefing constitutes a strategy facilitating the teaching-learning process in the undergraduate nursing course.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/métodos , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensino/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 699-711, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469344

RESUMO

Purpose: A paucity of literature examines how doctoral students are prepared for the transition into physical education teacher education faculty roles. Given the need to understand how doctoral programs impact such preparation, we sought to investigate this process using a longitudinal approach grounded in occupational socialization theory. Method: Fourteen participants (8 males, 6 female) were interviewed during final stages of doctoral programs and their first years in faculty positions; questions focused on key socializing agents and experiences that shaped their preparation for their academic careers. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison approach entailing open and axial coding. Results: Strong advisor-advisee relationships and finding a supportive department culture during one's first faculty position were key socializing mechanisms. Participants who independently sought research experiences transitioned more smoothly into faculty roles; however, many had heavy teaching loads which conflicted with ambitions to regularly conduct research. Further, some faculty members experienced tense sociopolitical environments which hindered their productivity and confidence in current job roles. Conclusions: Our results speak to the challenges and successes that faculty members experience as they transition into the academy. Findings have implications for further research and practice to enhance the quality of doctoral education and faculty induction programs.


Assuntos
Docentes/psicologia , Educação Física e Treinamento , Socialização , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Práticas Interdisciplinares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa , Ensino/psicologia
6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 414-422, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408387

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different metacognitive interventions on knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as academic performance (i.e., exam and final grades) in three sections of an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course. All targeted classes were randomly assigned to one of three groups (reflection practice, passive acquisition of knowledge, and collaborative learning), and the interventions were implemented after exam 1. A pre- and posttest survey was administered during the semester (during week 2 and after exam 2), and exam and final course grades were collected at the end of the semester. The final sample included 129 students. A significant interaction of group and time was observed for knowledge of cognition: it increased in the reflection practice group, did not change in the collaborative learning group, and it decreased in the passive acquisition of knowledge. The interventions did not produce any significant interactions or main effects on regulation of cognition, exam scores, or final grades. Along with more research on metacognition in physiology education contexts, it is recommended to further examine the ways in which such data can be collected, as self-report measures only tell part of the story.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Metacognição , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metacognição/fisiologia
7.
Nurse Educ Today ; 81: 39-48, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurse educators are required to equip students with adequate theoretical and practical knowledge to provide effective nursing care. Limited studies have explored educators' challenges while teaching students. Existing studies are limited because of small sample, overreliance on qualitative approaches, and unreliable instruments that have not been tested. OBJECTIVES: To explore nurse educators' perspectives about their clinical and academic teaching, to develop a questionnaire to determine educators' challenges, and to develop a comprehensive understanding of educators' challenges. DESIGN: A sequential exploratory mixed-methods study. SETTINGS: Twelve nursing institutions in five cities of Pakistan. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 12 educators for interviews and 112 for the survey. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and survey for data collection and expert consultations for questionnaire development. Thematic analysis for qualitative analysis, descriptive analysis for quantitative, and joint display tables for mixed methods. RESULTS: Educators experience workload and time constraints and struggle to effectively teach students due to inadequate student-educator ratio; underdeveloped curriculum; inadequate resources; inadequate clinical teaching settings for skills, simulation labs; inadequate professional development opportunities; lack of autonomous decision making; lack of educational, management, and research support from the regulatory bodies; and lack of educational research. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse educators' issues and challenges are persistent and require support from regulatory bodies and educational authorities. There is a need to develop policies to improve teaching and learning conditions for educators, provide them with the opportunities to enhance their own learning, and opportunities to collaborate with other educators in order to better prepare student nurses.


Assuntos
Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/psicologia , Adulto , Currículo/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia
9.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 38: 40-44, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176242

RESUMO

Education and training about Basic Life Support is necessary for different medical groups such as nurses. Different teaching methods have been developed to preserve essential medical information, knowledge and skills. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of concept map-based and lecture-based teaching methods on the level of nursing students' learning in Basic Life Support. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2015 on 57 nursing students from a nursing school in Tehran. Students were selected by census and then divided into lecture (n = 29) and concept map groups (n = 28) by random allocation. The effect of education on knowledge (before, immediately after, one week after and one month after session) and practice (before and immediately after session) was studied. No significant differences were found between the mean scores of knowledge and practice before intervention (P > 0.05). After intervention the mean scores of knowledge were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05) but mean scores of practice were significantly higher in the concept map group (P = 0.03). In achieving skill and practice goals, it seems that the concept map-based teaching method was more effective than the lecture method.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Análise de Variância , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nurs Forum ; 54(3): 461-467, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183882

RESUMO

The flipped classroom continues to garner increasing interest in nursing education; however, few research studies fully document faculty experiences with its implementation. This study's purpose was to explore undergraduate nurse educators' transition from traditional teacher-centered, content-driven strategies to the flipped classroom and describe perceived successes and challenges during the process. A qualitative approach using interpretive description gave voice to a purposive sample of sixteen undergraduate nurse educators across the United States and Canada. Semistructured interviews, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, yielded a set of experiential themes. Participants revealed marked challenges as they rethought classroom design in relation to evidence-based educational principles, and met a surprising level of resistance from students and faculty colleagues. Still, faculty observations reflected increased student problem solving, self-determination and a greater correlation between teacher-made and standardized test scores. Participants advocated continued integration of flipped classrooms into nursing curricula and recommended greater collegial and administrative support from academic environments.


Assuntos
Docentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Canadá , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/tendências , Estados Unidos
11.
BMC Palliat Care ; 18(1): 44, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The needs of care based on palliative principles are stressed for all people with progressive and/or life-limiting conditions, regardless of age and the place in which care is provided. Person-centred palliative care strives to make the whole person visible and prioritizes the satisfaction of spiritual, existential, social, and psychological needs to the same extent as physical needs. However, person-centred palliative care for older persons in nursing homes seems to be sparse, possibly because staff in nursing homes do not have sufficient knowledge, skills, and training in managing symptoms and other aspects of palliative care. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate whether an educational intervention had any effect on the staff's perception of providing person-centred palliative care for older persons in nursing homes. METHODS: A knowledge-based palliative care intervention consisting of five 2-h seminars during a 6-month period was implemented at 20 nursing homes in Sweden. In total, 365 staff members were participated, 167 in the intervention group and 198 in the control group. Data were collected using two questionnaires, the Person-centred Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT) and the Person-Centred Climate Questionnaire (PCQ-S), answered before (baseline) and 3 months after (follow-up) the educational intervention was completed. Descriptive, comparative, and univariate logistical regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Both the intervention group and the control group revealed high median scores in all subscales at baseline, except for the subscale amount of organizational and environmental support in the P-CAT. The staff's high rating level of person-centred care before the intervention provides limited space for further improvements at follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows that staff perceived that managers' and the organization's amount of support to them in their everyday work was the only area for improvement in order to maintain person-centred care. The experiences among staff are crucial knowledge in understanding how palliative care can be made person-centred in spite of often limited resources in nursing homes. The dose and intensity of education activities of the intervention model need to be tested in future research to develop the most effective implementation model. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02708498 . Date of registration 26 February 2016.


Assuntos
Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Ensino/psicologia
12.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(3): Doc23, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211218

RESUMO

We believe that medical lectures can be improved by considering techniques from comedy. Foremost, lecturers should educate their audiences. This works well, if lecturers have fun and entertain. In preparing the presentation, they should develop a storyline, try to surprise their audience, prepare to employ unexpected objects and carry out several test runs. During the presentation, lecturers should dare to use self-irony, appeal to students' emotions, be factual and precise, serve the audience, keep it short and provide memorable opening and closing statements. Medical lectures should be both informative and entertaining.


Assuntos
Ensino/normas , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia , Humanos , Ensino/psicologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042765

RESUMO

We evaluate a bridging intervention for a group of young people aged 18-29, with no formal educational qualifications, who are not in employment, education or training. The bridging intervention consisted of classroom training, educational internships and mentoring. Based on Danish register data with a large number of control variables, a propensity score matching estimator was applied to assess the effectiveness of the bridging intervention. The results show that the bridging intervention was effective in increasing educational enrollment and completion for all participants. The effects of the intervention were particularly large for participants assessed to be 'not ready for education' and those diagnosed with psychiatric disorders suggesting that the bridging intervention may be especially beneficial for these subgroups.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Ensino/psicologia , Desemprego/tendências , Adulto Jovem
14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 90: 41-50, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051311

RESUMO

Children with dyslexia are often provided with audio-support to compensate for their reading problems, but this may intervene with their learning. The aim of the study was to examine modality and redundancy effects in 21 children with dyslexia, compared to 21 typically developing peers (5th grade), on study outcome (retention and transfer knowledge) and study time in user-paced learning environments and the role of their executive functions (verbal and visual working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility) on these effects. Results showed no effects on retention knowledge. Regarding transfer knowledge, a modality effect in children with dyslexia was found, and a reversed redundancy effect in typically developing children. For transfer knowledge, written text with pictures supported knowledge gain in typically developing children, but not in children with dyslexia who benefited more from auditory-presented information with pictures. Study time showed modality and reversed redundancy effects in both groups. In all children, studying in a written text with pictures condition took longer than with audio replacing the text or being added to it. Results also showed that executive functions were related to learning, but they did not differ between the groups, nor did they impact the found modality and redundancy effects. The present research thus shows that, irrespectively of children's executive functions, adding audio-support for all children, can potentially lead to more efficient learning.


Assuntos
Dislexia/psicologia , Função Executiva , Multimídia , Ensino/psicologia , Redação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Instituições Acadêmicas , Materiais de Ensino
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 152, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that a teacher-centered context could hinder undergraduates from self-regulated learning (SRL), whereas a learner-centered context could promote SRL. However, SRL development between a teacher-centered and a learner-centered context has not directly compared in undergraduate settings. Also, it is still unclear how a contextual change toward learner-centered learning could influence SRL in students, who are strongly accustomed to teacher-centered learning. METHODS: We conducted three focus groups that examined 13 Japanese medical students who left a traditional curriculum composed of didactic lectures and frequent summative tests and entered a seven-month elective course (Free Course Student Doctor or FCSD). The FCSD emphasizes student-designed individualized learning with support and formative feedback from mentors chosen by students' preference. We also conducted two focus groups that examined 7 students who remained in the teacher-centered curriculum during the same period. Students were asked to discuss their 1) motivation, 2) learning strategies, and 3) self-reflection on self-study before and during the period. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and code comparison between the two cohorts. RESULTS: The non-FCSD participants described their motivational status as being one among a crowd set by the teacher's yardstick. Their reflection focused on minimizing the gap between themselves and the teacher-set yardstick with strategies considered monotonous and homogeneous (e.g. memorization). FCSD participants described losing the teacher-set yardstick and constructing their future self-image as an alternative yardstick. They compared gaps between their present status and future self-image by self-reflection. To fill these gaps, they actively employed learning strategies used by doctors or mentors, leading to diversification of their learning strategies. CONCLUSIONS: A contextual change toward learner-centered learning could promote SRL even in students strongly accustomed to teacher-centered learning. In the learner-centered context, students began to construct their self-image, conduct self-reflection, and seek diverse learning strategies by referring to future 'self' models.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Japão , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(suppl 1): 197-203, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the reaction and behavior of nurses after training on the use of educational tool to promote heathy nutrition to children. METHOD: pilot assessment study, of descriptive and quantitative approach, carried out in 2014 with eight nurses from the rural area of Ceará, Brazil, by observing a training workshop on the use of the serial album "Alimentos regionais: promovendo a segurança alimentar na promoção da alimentação infantil saudável" [Regional food: promoting food safety through child healthy feeding]. RESULTS: the analysis of the reaction of nurses to the workshop showed that all of them (100%) were satisfied with the training. In behavior analysis, more than a half of the nurses have achieved the expected performance when implementing the illustrations of the serial album, seven of them (87.5%) being considered able to use the serial album. CONCLUSION: the training was considered effective, as all the participant nurses were satisfied and most of them considered capable of using the educational tool in promoting child healthy feeding.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Métodos de Alimentação/enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas , Ensino/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Projetos Piloto , Ensino/psicologia
18.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(2): 164-167, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998108

RESUMO

One of the "important peculiarities" of human learning (Bjork RA and Bjork EL. From Learning Processes to Cognitive Processes: Essays in Honor of William K. Estes, 1992, p. 35-67) is that certain conditions that produce forgetting-that is, impair access to some to-be-learned information studied earlier-also enhance the learning of that information when it is restudied. Such conditions include changing the environmental context from when some to-be-learned material is studied to when that material is restudied; increasing the delay from when something is studied to when it is tested or restudied; and interleaving, rather than blocking, the study or practice of the components of to-be-learned knowledge or skills. In this paper, we provide some conjectures as to why conditions that produce forgetting can also enable learning, and why a misunderstanding of this peculiarity of how humans learn can result in nonoptimal teaching and self-regulated learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Ensino/psicologia , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia
20.
Med Teach ; 41(4): 391-397, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008675

RESUMO

Aim: This perspective is part of a series of articles that are outcomes of a consensus conference, that seek to offer a comprehensive examination of the clinical learning environment (CLE), using different academic disciplines and areas of focus termed "avenues." The education dimensions of the CLE are discussed in detail in this perspective, along with critical linkages to the other avenues. Methods: Using iterative presentations, discussion and small group work, in October 2018, the consensus conference participants explored the education, psychological, sociocultural, diversity and inclusion, digital and architectural aspects of the CLE. Results: The education avenue of the CLE includes elements of teaching and learning such as the curriculum, clinical experiences, the assessment system, educational program governance, trainee selection, faculty development, and program evaluation and improvement. Within the educational domain, we focus on organizational and personal/social aspects of the CLE, including (1) curriculum design and deployment, including placement of trainees in clinical settings, organizational culture, practices and policies, and accreditation and regulatory requirements from the organizational domain (2) the education system, including assessment, program evaluation and organization and governance; and (3) elements from the personal and social domains, including peer-to-peer, trainee-faculty, and trainee-patient relationships that influence how and what postgraduate trainees learn, trainee selection, informal and hidden curricula, and trainees' perceptions of their learning environment. Conclusions: We provide suggestions for further research and recommendations for addressing challenges and facilitating improvement in the educational aspects of the CLE, along with actionable practice points.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Aprendizagem , Meio Social , Ensino/organização & administração , Competência Clínica/normas , Currículo , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Docentes/educação , Docentes/organização & administração , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Cultura Organizacional , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Ensino/psicologia , Ensino/normas
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