Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 509
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007923, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805050

RESUMO

The enteric protozoa Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, which is one of the most common parasitic diseases in developed and developing countries. Entamoeba nuttalli is the genetically closest species to E. histolytica in current phylogenetic analyses of Entamoeba species, and is prevalent in wild macaques. Therefore, E. nuttalli may be a key organism in which to investigate molecules required for infection of human or non-human primates. To explore the molecular signatures of host-parasite interactions, we conducted de novo assembly of the E. nuttalli genome, utilizing self-correction of PacBio long reads and polishing corrected reads using Illumina short reads, followed by comparative genomic analysis with two other mammalian and a reptilian Entamoeba species. The final draft assembly of E. nuttalli included 395 contigs with a total length of approximately 23 Mb, and 9,647 predicted genes, of which 6,940 were conserved with E. histolytica. In addition, we found an E. histolytica-specific repeat known as ERE2 in the E. nuttalli genome. GO-term enrichment analysis of mammalian host-related molecules indicated diversification of transmembrane proteins, including AIG1 family and BspA-like proteins that may be involved in the host-parasite interaction. Furthermore, we identified an E. nuttalli-specific protein that contained 42 repeats of an octapeptide ([G,E]KPTDTPS). This protein was shown to be localized on the cell surface using immunofluorescence. Since many repeat-containing proteins in parasites play important roles in interactions with host cells, this unique octapeptide repeat-containing protein may be involved in colonization of E. nuttalli in the intestine of macaques. Overall, our draft assembly provides a valuable resource for studying Entamoeba evolution and host-parasite selection.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Genoma de Protozoário , Animais , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/veterinária , Macaca , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 838, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helminthic and protozoan infections are common, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. Although an association between parasite carriage and markers of poor growth have been shown in some studies, systematic reviews have suggested only a modest impact of clearing carriage. The prevalence of these pathogens and the effect that they have on growth in preschool children has never been investigated in Malawi. METHODS: One hundred ninety-three children aged 0-72 months were randomly recruited from rural villages in the Mangochi district of Malawi. Formol-ether concentration was performed on stool and the samples examined with a light microscope. Anthropometric data was taken for each child and the haemoglobin measured with a point of care test. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2 years 4 months. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 37.3%. Protozoa were found in 28.5% of children, while helminths were found in 8.8%. The most commonly found organisms were Giardia lambia (12.4%), Entamoeba coli (10.4%) and Hookworm species (3.6%). Stunting was seen in 47.8% of children, 12.9% were underweight and 5.0% were wasted. No significant association was found between markers of poor growth and infection with any intestinal parasite. CONCLUSIONS: We found that prevalence of helminth infection was low in preschool children living in the Mangochi district compared to international standards. However a significant proportion of the preschool population are infected with protozoa, particularly Giardia lambia. In this cohort, despite a significant prevalence of stunting, helminth infection was not significantly associated with any markers of poor growth. The significance of protozoal carriage and contribution to growth restriction in this context creates further avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107739, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437436

RESUMO

Intestinal protozoans found in ancient human samples have been studied primarily by microscopy and immunodiagnostic assays. However, such methods are not suitable for the detection of zoonotic genotypes. The objectives of the present study were to utilize immunoenzimatic assays for coproantigen detection of Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in sixty ancient human and animal samples collected from 14 archaeological sites in South America, and to carry out a critical analysis of G. duodenalis according to results obtained from three diagnostic methodologies: microscopy, immunodiagnostic tests (immunoenzymatic and immunofluorescence), and molecular biology (PCR and sequencing). More than half (31/60) of the samples analyzed using immunoenzymatic tests were positive for at least one of the intestinal protozoans, with 46.6% (28/60) corresponding to G. duodenalis, 26.6% (16/60) to Cryptosporidium sp., and 5% (3/60) to E. histolytica/E. dispar. Cryptosporidium sp. and G. duodenalis coinfection was observed in 15% (9/60) of the samples, whereas all three protozoans were found in 5% (3/60) of samples. In the Northeast Region of Brazil, by immunoenzymatic tests there is evidence that G. duodenlais and Cryptosporidium sp. have infected humans and rodents for at least 7150 years. However, for G. duodenalis, the results from the three diagnostic tests were discordant. Specifically, despite the efficiency of the molecular biology assay in the experimental models, G. duodenalis DNA could not be amplified from the ancient samples. These results raise the following question: Are all ancient samples positive for coproantigen of G. duodenalis by immunoenzymatic tests truly positive? This scenario highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the immunoenzymatic method in the archaeological context.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/normas , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/imunologia , Entamoeba/genética , Entamoeba/imunologia , Entamoeba histolytica/genética , Entamoeba histolytica/imunologia , Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/imunologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Roedores , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , América do Sul
4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218681, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291262

RESUMO

Rural children are one of the populations that are most vulnerable to gastrointestinal parasite infections. Such diseases decrease the quality of life and result in growth and cognitive delays in the long term. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the frequency of intestinal parasite infections among rural schoolchildren in the municipality of Apulo, Colombia. A total of 97 stool samples from children aged between 5 and 15 years were collected and examined via direct light microscopy. Microscopic examination was repeated with sediments obtained using a fecal parasite concentrator, and the Kato-Katz test was performed. Frequency of intestinal parasite infection was 100%. Endolimax nana (77.35%), Blastocystis sp. (71.1%), Giardia intestinalis (39.1%), Entamoeba coli (25.7%), and the Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii complex (9.2%) were the most prevalent protozoa. Trichuris trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (12.3%), followed by Enterobius vermicularis (6.15%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.1%). Among the analyzed associated factors, consumption of untreated water increased the risk of acquiring pathogenic intestinal parasites. Finally, because G. intestinalis was the most prevalent pathogenic protozoan, molecular analysis was conducted to establish genetic assemblages and subassemblages of Giardia through sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, and beta-giardin genes. A total of 14 G. intestinalis-positive samples were genotyped, which revealed the presence of subassemblages AI (n = 1), AII (n = 7), BIII (n = 2), BIV (n = 2), and BIII/BIV (n = 1) as well as a mixed subassemblage AII + BIII (n = 1). Our results indicate that gastrointestinal parasite infections in the tested population were mainly caused by suboptimal water quality. Moreover, molecular typing of G. intestinalis suggested contamination of water by animal- and human-derived cysts.


Assuntos
Água Potável/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/classificação , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Endolimax/classificação , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Enterobius/classificação , Enterobius/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/classificação , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/transmissão , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Trichuris/classificação , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
5.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(2): 70-73, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204458

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of present study was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients, who were referred to Parasitology Laboratory in Van Yüzüncü Yil University, Faculty of Medicine during an 11-year period. Methods: Stool samples of 69633 individuals admitted to the outpatient clinics in the hospital were initially evaluated with native-Lugol, and then by flotation, sedimentation, trichrome staining, modified acid-fast staining and ELISA methods. Results: Twenty-four parasite species were identified in parasite-positive patients. At least one or more parasite species were found in 34.1% of all patients. The most commonly observed parasite was Blastocystis hominis (26.5%). Among pathogen parasites, Giardia intestinalis (G. intestinalis) was detected in 9.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) was detected in 2.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in 0.8%, Cystoisospora belli in 0.004%, Fasciola hepatica in 0.04%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum in 0.001%, Strongyloides stercoralis in 0.001% and hookworm in 0.001% of the patients. Conclusion: It was determined that, pathogen parasites such as G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides were still observed at high rates in Van province, especially in children, and the problem of parasitosis is still continuing, although the prevalence of parasites has declined when compared to the previous years.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Dicrocelíase/epidemiologia , Dicrocoelium/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
6.
J Parasitol ; 105(3): 480-483, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251704

RESUMO

Stool ova and parasite examination using concentration methods remains the gold standard for the investigation of digestive parasitosis. Recently, single-use filtration devices have been marketed for stool concentration sedimentation methods such as MIF or Bailenger, which improve the analytical quality by avoiding contact with feces. In this study, the Parasep® device was adapted to the Faust technique flotation method. In addition, the performance between conventional techniques (MIF concentration and Faust) and techniques using this device was evaluated on 25 formalin-preserved stools and 3 fresh stools. With the Parasep device, the main parasites (protozoa or helminths) were isolated, and the technical requirements such as hygiene control for the operator and realization according to good laboratory practice were improved due to the filtration device.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Animais , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/parasitologia , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia
7.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(2): 423-425, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal parasites are considered amongst the most important threats to veterinary and human health worldwide. The transmission of these parasitic diseases usually involves the accidental ingestion of oocysts, cysts, eggs, and larvae, whose detection is generally achieved by classical coproparasitological methods, based on sedimentation and/or flotation techniques. These procedures might be inefficient or display a low sensitivity when performed on food matrices. This study aimed to assess the value of the FLOTAC technique for the detection of different parasitic stages of gastrointestinal parasites of domestic animals in fresh lettuce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples (n = 100) were purchased from public markets located in the metropolitan region of Recife (Brazil). RESULTS: A total of 79% scored positive for eggs and/or cysts of gastrointestinal parasites. Protozoa and nematodes were detected in 32% (32/100) and 64% (64/100) of samples, respectively, with cysts of the genus Entamoeba (32%) and eggs of nematodes of the order Strongylida (30%) being the most frequently diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: The findings herein reported demonstrate that the FLOTAC technique can be successfully applied for recovering food-borne parasites of medical and veterinary concern in food matrices.


Assuntos
Alface/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 410, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumption of unwashed, raw or unhygienically prepared fruits and vegetables act as potential source for the spread of various parasitic diseases. Moreover, the level of contamination and species of contaminant parasites vary from place to place because of variations in environmental and human factors. Therefore local determination of the level of contamination and associated factors is important for efficient intervention of infections acquired via those food items. METHODS: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among purchased vegetables in selected markets of Arba Minch town from January to March, 2018. A structured questionnaire was used to capture data about factors associated with parasitic contamination of vegetables in the marketing phase. Selected vegetables were purchased and processed for examination of parasitic contamination using direct wet mount, iodine wet mount and modified zeihl Neelson staining following standard protocols. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS: Among 347 vegetable samples examined, 87(25.1%) were contaminated with at least one parasite species. Tomato (35.0%) was the most commonly contaminated vegetable while green pepper (10.6%) was the least contaminated one. Entameoba histolytica/dispar (29, 8.4%) was the commonest parasitic contaminant detected followed by Giardia lamblia (24, 6.9%) and oocyst of Cryptosporidium species (5.8%). Vegetable type (X2 = 13.5; p = 0.009) and source of vegetables (X2 = 24.1; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with parasitic contamination of vegetables. CONCLUSION: Parasitic contamination rate among marketed vegetables in the present study is significantly considerable. Entameoba histolytica /dispar was the most frequently detected parasite. We recommend to the local public health sector to establish a system for continuous monitoring of contamination of vegetables sold at local markets.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/parasitologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Cryptosporidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Etiópia , Frutas/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 183, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) are large herbivorous aquatic mammals living in limited areas of South, Central and North America. As with other aquatic mammals, Antillean manatees can be infected by a variety of protozoan and metazoan parasites, some of them with zoonotic potential, which affect not only their welfare but also population health status. Therefore, we conducted the first epidemiological survey in Colombian free-ranging Antillean manatees to estimate their actual gastrointestinal parasite status. RESULTS: In total, 69 faecal samples were collected from free-ranging individual manatees during ecology field studies in the rivers Carare and San Juan and in two associated wetlands in the Andean region of Colombia. Parasite diversity encompassed six different endoparasite species. The highest prevalence was found for protozoan infections with Eimeria nodulosa (47.8%) and Eimeria manatus-like species (type A, B; 43.4%), followed by Entamoeba sp. (14.49%) and Giardia sp. (1.4%) infections. In addition, infections with the trematode Chiorchis fabaceus were detected at a high prevalence (33.3%). Molecular characterization of sirenian Eimeria species led to the distinction of three species, E. nodulosa and two E. manatus-like species (type A, B). Phylogenetic analyses indicated a host-specific adaptation of sirenian Eimeria species as previously reported for Eimeria species from other mammalian hosts. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first record of Antillean manatee infection with Giardia and Entamoeba species in Colombia, representing two important anthropozoonotic parasite genera. This survey should serve as a baseline investigation for future monitoring on parasitic zoonoses in this mammal and encourage for investigations on their impact on both public health and wild manatee welfare.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Trichechus manatus/parasitologia , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Rios/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961821

RESUMO

Reptiles are becoming popular pets in many parts of the world. They are also known to harbor numerous gastrointestinal parasites. We used faecal smears to examine 748 stool samples from 14 different agamid lizard species. In addition, we used coproantigen ELISA tests (11 samples) and immunofluorescence assays (IFA) (19 samples) to detect reptile Cryptosporidium infections. In 28 cases, veterinarians requested therapy to treat oxyurid- and/or Isospora amphiboluri-infections and resent fecal samples after proposed therapy and anti-parasitic treatments had been applied. We also performed complete dissections of 24 deceased agamas in order to specify protozoan and helminth parasite infections. Overall, the examined fecal samples contained 6 different taxa. Oxyurids (Pharyngodonidae) were the most prevalent nematodes (41.2%), followed by I. amphiboluri (17.0%), Entamoeba spp. (0.8%), Choleoeimeria spp. (0.5%), Trichomonas spp. (0.3%), Cryptosporidium spp. (0.3%) and Strongyloides-like nematodes (0.1%). I. amphiboluri infections were significantly more prevalent (Chi-square test: χ2 = 21,5, df = 1, P < 0.001) in juvenile agamid lizards (31.9%) than in adults (14.2%). One of 11 (9.1%) coproantigen ELISA-examined samples was positive for Cryptosporidium. In 10.5% of the samples we found oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Thirteen (54.2%) of necropsied agamid lizards were infected with endoparasites and it is likely that three (12.5%) of them died due to severe parasitic infections. 74.0% of the samples that were submitted after therapy had been applied were negative. The high prevalences and pathological findings of several clinical parasitoses observed in these exotic reptiles calls for more detailed investigations on agamid gastrointestinal parasite fauna.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Iguanas/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Oxyurida/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Trichomonas/isolamento & purificação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961822

RESUMO

Prevalence and species composition of intestinal parasites were evaluated in dogs affected by high-grade multicentric lymphoma and undergoing chemotherapy and in control healthy dogs. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was 33.3%. In lymphoma dogs, the prevalence of protozoa infections (46.7%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of helminth infections (6.7%) and Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Neospora caninum, Cystoisospora ohioensis-complex, Entamoeba sp. and Spirocerca lupi were identified. In the control group, only 3/15 dogs (20%) were found positive and no statistically significant differences emerged regarding helminth (hookworms and Toxocara canis) and protozoa (G. duodenalis) infections. Results from this study may suggest a potential higher prevalence of opportunistic intestinal protozoa, including some potentially zoonotic species, in dogs affected by high-grade multicentric lymphoma, emphasizing the need to monitor lymphoma-affected dogs for these protozoa, especially those undergoing chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Linfoma/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Itália/epidemiologia , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(2): 298-302, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741127

RESUMO

Enteric disease in pigs is usually of multifactorial etiology, including infectious and non-infectious factors. In many cases of endemic diarrhea in weaner-to-finisher pigs, the combination of 2 or more microorganisms leads to aggravation of intestinal lesions and, consequently, clinical signs. We autopsied a 4-mo-old fattening pig with diarrhea and diagnosed severe fibrinonecrotizing typhlocolitis. Numerous spiral-shaped bacteria and amoeba-like PAS-positive protozoa were observed in the cecal and colonic mucosa and submucosa. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae was detected by PCR from colonic content. By in situ hybridization, large numbers of Entamoeba polecki were found within the lamina propria and submucosa; moderate numbers of Blastocystis sp. and scattered trichomonads were present in intestinal content. In addition, Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium spp., Blastocystis sp., and Trichomonas sp. were also detected by PCR.


Assuntos
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/veterinária , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Animais , Ceco/patologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/etiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Colo/patologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/patologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patologia , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726303

RESUMO

Protozoa have long been considered undesirable residents of the human gut, but recent findings suggest that some of them may positively affect the gut ecosystem. To better understand the role and ecological dynamics of these commensal and potentially beneficial protozoan symbionts, we need efficient methods to detect them, as well as accurate estimates of their prevalence across human populations. Metagenomics provides such an opportunity, allowing simultaneous detection of multiple symbionts in a single analytical procedure. In this study, we collected fecal samples of 68 individuals from three Cameroonian populations with different subsistence modes and compared metagenomics-based and targeted methods of detection for two common protozoan genera: Blastocystis and Entamoeba. In addition, we analyzed our data along with publicly available fecal metagenomes from various worldwide populations to explore the prevalence and association patterns of ten protozoan genera. Regarding the detection method, microscopy was much less sensitive than metagenomics for Entamoeba, whereas qPCR was at least as sensitive as metagenomics for Blastocystis sp. However, metagenomics was more likely to detect co-colonizations by multiple subtypes. Out of the ten examined genera in 127 individuals from Cameroon, Tanzania, Peru, Italy or USA, only three (Blastocystis, Entamoeba and Enteromonas) had an overall prevalence exceeding 10%. All three genera were more common in less industrialized populations and their prevalence differed between continents and subsistence modes, albeit not in a straightforward manner. The majority (72.5%) of colonized individuals carried at least two protozoan species, indicating that mixed-species colonizations are common. In addition, we detected only positive and no negative association patterns between different protozoa. Despite the pitfalls of the metagenomic approach, ranging from the availability of good-quality sequencing data to the lack of standard analytical procedures, we demonstrated its utility in simultaneous detection of multiple protozoan genera, and especially its ability to efficiently detect mixed-species colonizations. Our study corroborates and expands prevalence results previously obtained for Blastocystis sp. and provides novel data for Entamoeba spp. and several other protozoan genera. Furthermore, it indicates that multiple protozoa are common residents of the healthy human gut worldwide.


Assuntos
Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , Camarões/epidemiologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Países Desenvolvidos , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(2): 228-231, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entamoeba spp. is one of the most common enteric parasites of humans and animals. PURPOSE: However, little information is available regarding prevalence and genotypes of Entamoeba spp. in wild Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis). METHODS: In the present study, a total of 458 fecal samples from wild rhesus macaque in Taihangshan mountains area between September 2015 and November 2016, were collected and examined for the presence of six Entamoeba species by PCR amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Entamoeba spp. infection was 89.96% (412/458). Four species of Entamoeba detected in our survey were E. chattoni (88.43%), E. hartmanni (79.91%), E. coil (69.87%) and E. dispar (58.30%), and among these, 398 (84.93%) were mixed infections. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates were clustered into four known genotypes. CONCLUSION: The present study firstly provides important information about the prevalence and diversity of Entamoeba species infecting wild Taihangshan macaques in China. Enough attention should be paid to monitor the potential interspecies transmission in the region.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/veterinária , Macaca mulatta/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genes de RNAr , Genótipo , Prevalência
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(2): 311-313, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526733

RESUMO

Amoebic trophozoites were identified in the cervicovaginal smear of a U.S. patient without travel history at the time of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. Subsequent morphologic analysis and DNA sequencing identified a mixed cervicovaginal colonization of the female genital tract with both Entamoeba gingivalis and Entamoeba polecki in association with Actinomyces species bacteria. This highlights to the potential for colonization of the genital tract with E. gingivalis, particularly in association with IUD placement, and represents the first report of E. polecki in this context.


Assuntos
Actinomyces/genética , Actinomicose/diagnóstico , Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Actinomyces/classificação , Actinomyces/isolamento & purificação , Actinomicose/parasitologia , Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Coinfecção , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/microbiologia , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/parasitologia , Teste de Papanicolaou , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(1): 81-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398142

RESUMO

Microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been approved by the World Health Organization as the method of choice for the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica. Of the 106 stool samples collected from the Esmeraldas and Pichincha provinces of Ecuador, all (100%) were positive for E. histolytica/Entamoeba dispar by light microscopy, whereas using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) DNA amplification, 74 (69.8%) were positive for E. dispar and only three (2.8%) were positive for E. histolytica. Some 29 (27.4%) samples were negative for the presence of either E. histolytica or E. dispar, this may be due the presence of Entamoeba mosksvskii, which is morphologically identical to E. histolytica/E. dispar and not specifically targeted by the RT-PCR used. These results indicate the necessity of reevaluating the epidemiology of amebiasis in Ecuador as the prominent species found are nonpathogenic.


Assuntos
Entamoeba histolytica/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Equador/epidemiologia , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba histolytica/patogenicidade , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Microscopia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006892, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amebiasis is a protozoal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, while the morphologically indistinguishable E. dispar is considered as non-pathogenic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are necessary to differentiate both species. The most common clinical presentations of E. histolytica disease are amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess, but asymptomatic infection is also possible. We assessed the frequency and pattern of clinical symptoms and microscopic features in travelers/migrants associated with E. histolytica intestinal infection and compared them to those found in individuals with E. dispar infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study at the travel clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium on travelers/migrants found from 2006 to 2016 positive for Entamoeba histolytica/dispar through antigen detection and/or through microscopy confirmed by PCR. All files of individuals with a positive PCR for E. histolytica (= cases) and a random selection of an equal number of Entamoeba dispar carriers (= controls) were reviewed. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios (LRs) of clinical symptoms (blood in stool, mucus in stool, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever or any of these 5 symptoms) and of microscopic features (presence of trophozoites in direct and in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool smears) to discriminate between E. histolytica and E. dispar infection. RESULTS: Of all stool samples positive for Entamoeba histolytica/dispar for which PCR was performed (n = 810), 30 (3.7%) were true E. histolytica infections, of which 39% were asymptomatic. Sensitivity, specificity and positive LRs were 30%, 100% and 300 (p 0.007) for presence of blood in stool; 22%, 100% and 222 (p 0.03) for mucus in stool; 44%, 90% and 4.7 (p 0.009) for cramps and 14%, 97% and 4.8 (p = 0.02) for trophozoites in direct smears. For watery diarrhea, fever and for trophozoites in SAF fixated smears results were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: E. histolytica infection was demonstrated in a small proportion of travelers/migrants with evidence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar infection. In this group, history of blood and mucus in stool and cramps had good to strong confirming power (LR+) for actual E. histolytica infection. Trophozoites were also predictive for true E. histolytica infection but in direct smears only.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/diagnóstico , Migrantes , Viagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Bélgica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/patologia , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(4): 819-825, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367755

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to determine the prevalence of non-pathogenic protozoa circulating in the human population of Slovakia. We particularly focused on the socially deprived areas with poor sanitation conditions, as they are one of the factors affecting the transmission of these infections. Within this study, 2760 people were coprologically screened for the presence of protozoan cysts. The analyzed group comprised 1173 men and 1587 women from different regions of Slovakia. The total prevalence (2.03%) of non-pathogenic protozoa species was determined. The prevalence of Entamoeba coli was 0.80%, the prevalence of Endolimax nana 0.58%, and the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis was 0.65%. The presence of non-pathogenic protozoa was more frequent in women than that in men, in all age groups. The highest incidence of Entamoeba coli was found in children aged one month - seven years (0.79%), the lowest in the age group of 19-88 years (0.66%). Endolimax nana was most frequent in 8-18 year-olds (0.95%), where the statistical significance was found (p<0.05). The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis by the age group ranged from 0.39 to 0.95%. We did not find any statistical significance (p>0.05) for Entamoeba coli, and similarly for Blastocystis hominis associated with the sex and age. Although the circulation of non-pathogenic protozoa in the human population is far from being limited to the developing countries, their occurrence is also frequent in the population of developed countries. Despite their controversial pathogenicity, they should not be neglected, particularly in the patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amebíase/epidemiologia , Amebíase/parasitologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3567-3573, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121754

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare formalin-ethyl acetate concentration and FLOTAC Pellet techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in human stool samples. The anal swab method was used for the specific detection of Enterobius vermicularis. The study was performed in children and youth from Puerto Madryn (South Argentina). A total of 174 individuals were examined using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT), the FLOTAC Pellet technique with saturated sodium chloride and zinc sulphate flotation solutions and anal swabs. The performance of copromicroscopic techniques was evaluated according to sensitivity, negative predictive value and Kappa index. Overall, 39.1% of the individuals were parasitised. The most prevalent species was Blastocystis sp. (19%) followed by E. vermicularis (17.8%), Giardia lamblia (6.3%), Entamoeba coli (5.7%), Hymenolepis nana and Endolimax nana (1.1%). The FECT was the most sensitive technique for Blastocystis sp., G. lamblia and E. coli infections, whereas FLOTAC Pellet techniques were the most sensitive for H. nana diagnosis. Anal swabs detected the highest percentage of E. vermicularis infection. This was the first time that the FLOTAC Pellet technique was used to detect intestinal parasites in humans. The FECT continues to be a reliable method for detecting protozoa and the FLOTAC Pellet technique gains importance in the diagnosis of helminths. Anal swab test remains the method of choice for the detection of E. vermicularis. However, when comparing techniques, key factors as preservation methods, preservation times and flotation solutions should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Acetatos/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Argentina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Enterobius/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Formaldeído/análise , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hymenolepis nana/isolamento & purificação , Lactente , Masculino , Parasitos , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 42(2): 113-117, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30070641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasites in patients hospitalized in a child intensive care unit. METHODS: The study was conducted on 150 patients between the ages of 2 months and 17 years between April 2016 and December 2016. Stool samples were tested by Native-Lugol, sedimentation (formol-ether solution), and acid fast method. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to obtain information about the socio-economic status of the patient, education level of the families, living conditions, and whether or not they have chronic illnesses. RESULTS: 40% of all patients were infected with one or more parasites 41.7% of girls and 38.2% of boys. In the present study, Giardia intestinalis (12.6%), Blastocystis hominis (12.6%), Entamoeba coli (7.3%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (5.3%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (2%) were detected. CONCLUSION: Statistical analysis was evaluated with the frequency of parasitism and revenue level, educational level of families, settlement area, whether there is a sewage network or not, whether animal husbandry is done or not, and source of water in home is from tap or well. The differences were not significantly. The possible reasons for the high rate of parasitosis, especially with G. intestinalis, E. coli, and B. hominis, are inadequate education, living in small houses with large numbers of people, sewage system, and lack of clean and safe drinking water.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Blastocystis hominis/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cyclospora/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA