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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933180, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a broad classification of disease characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract in the absence of a stimulatory cause. Given the ability of eosinophilic gastroenteritis to affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, it can present in a variety of ways, from chronic intermittent pain to mechanical obstruction. We present a rare case in which eosinophilic gastroenteritis of the jejunum led to small bowel diverticulosis and volvulus, requiring surgery. CASE REPORT An 83-year-old woman with a history of chronic abdominal pain, nausea, and early satiety presented to our clinic after a thorough gastrointestinal workup and radiologic diagnosis of partial midgut volvulus. She underwent an exploratory laparotomy and was found to have normal rotational anatomy with prominent small bowel diverticulosis. A section of 70 cm of proximal jejunum was resected, encompassing all visible diverticula, and a primary anastomosis was performed. The patient recovered without complication. She was seen at follow-up with complete resolution of her presenting symptoms. CONCLUSIONS We propose that this patient's pathology was caused by chronic intermittent obstructions related to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, leading to repeated periods of increased intraluminal pressure and severe small bowel diverticulosis. This case highlights the importance of maintaining an index of suspicion for small bowel diverticulosis in the setting of chronic eosinophilic gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Divertículo , Enterite , Eosinofilia , Volvo Intestinal , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Divertículo/complicações , Divertículo/diagnóstico , Divertículo/cirurgia , Enterite/complicações , Enterite/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/complicações , Feminino , Gastrite , Humanos , Volvo Intestinal/complicações , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico
2.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 396, 2021 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lupus enteritis (LEn) is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Timely diagnosis and treatment of LEn are necessary to prevent the most serious consequences - intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, and death. We compared the clinical features of SLE patients with and without LEn. METHODS: The clinical data of LEn inpatients at Suining Central Hospital from July 2012 to June 2020 were examined. These LEn patients were matched (1:2 ratio) with concurrently hospitalized SLE patients who did not have LEn. The two groups were compared using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared SLE inpatients with LEn (n = 43) and SLE inpatients without LEn (n = 86) at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression showed that ascites (odds ratio [OR]: 9.961, 95%CI: 2.215-44.802, P = 0.003), hydronephrosis (OR: 28.060, 95%CI: 2.303-341.962, P = 0.009), leukopenia (OR: 5.890, 95%CI: 1.813-19.135, P = 0.003), reduced complement C3 level (OR: 4.791, 95%CI: 1.605-14.300, P = 0.005), and elevated immunoglobin (Ig)A level (OR: 4.040, 95%CI: 1.307-12.487, P = 0.015) were independently associated with LEn. Within the LEn group, abdominal pain was the most common abdominal symptom (88.4%), and increased mesenteric fat attenuation (74.4%) and bowel wall thickening (58.1%) were the most common computed tomography (CT) findings. Most LEn patients (88.4%) required high-dose glucocorticoid therapy (≥ 80 mg methylprednisolone/day), and cyclophosphamide was the most commonly used immunosuppressant (62.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptom of LEn. Abdominal CT provides important information for detection and diagnosis of LEn. Ascites, hydronephrosis, leukopenia, hypocomplementemia (C3), and increased IgA were independently associated with LEn.


Assuntos
Enterite , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Dor Abdominal , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 345, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is rising utilization of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) for a growing number of metastatic malignancies. While gastrointestinal side effects of ICI are common, isolated ICI-induced enteritis leading to small bowel hemorrhage is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man with a previously resected right colon adenocarcinoma on atezolizumab and recently treated Clostridioides difficile presented with acute on chronic abdominal pain and non-bloody diarrhea. A CT scan revealed enteritis of the duodenum and jejunum without colitis. Initial endoscopic work-up revealed many clean-based non-bleeding duodenal ulcers to the third portion of the duodenum and normal rectosigmoid mucosa. The patient initially improved on steroids but was readmitted on day after discharge with hematochezia and hemorrhagic shock. Repeat CT showed improvement in enteritis; however, repeat push enteroscopy revealed multiple duodenal and jejunal ulcers, two with visible vessels requiring endoscopic intervention. He continued to have significant hemorrhage requiring transfusions despite IV methylprednisolone. Conventional angiogram revealed multiple sites of active extravasation, and he underwent small bowel resection and subsequent IR embolization due to persistent bleeding. He was then started on infliximab 10 mg/kg with resolution of his small bowel hemorrhage and diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: Severe isolated ICI-enteritis is rare and can lead to clinically significant gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Patients with severe ICI-enteritis on endoscopy should be carefully monitored for steroid refractory disease for consideration of step-up therapy such as infliximab.


Assuntos
Enterite , Idoso , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Enterite/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Jejuno , Masculino
5.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112316, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474867

RESUMO

To develop a nanoparticle-based vaccine against necrotic enteritis, a chimeric antigen (rNA) consisting of the main antigens of Clostridium perfringens, NetB, and Alpha toxin, was prepared. Then, the rNA molecules were loaded onto the functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) using physical adsorption or covalent conjugation methods. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry techniques. The results revealed that the spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 90 ±â€¯12 nm and suitable surface chemistries are prepared. MSNPs-based formulations did not show any significant toxicity on the chicken embryo fibroblast cells. The results of the challenge experiments using subcutaneous or oral administration of the as-prepared formulations in the animal model showed that the as-prepared nanosystems, similar to those formulated with a commercial adjuvant (Montanide), present stronger humoral immune responses as compared to that of the free proteins. It was also indicated that the best protection is obtained in groups vaccinated with MSNPs-based nanovaccine, especially those who orally received covalently conjugated nanovaccine candidates. These results recommend that the MSNPs-based formulated chimeric proteinous vaccine candidates can be considered as an effective immunizing system for the oral vaccination of poultry against gastrointestinal infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Clostridium , Enterite , Nanopartículas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Silício
6.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 132-137, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339132

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a common disease that causes great economic loss to the broiler industry due to mortality and reduced performance. Although Clostridium perfringens (CP) is a necessary component of this disease, coccidia species are a well-defined predisposing factor that exacerbates the condition. Different Eimeria species have been reported to influence NE to different degrees. In a pair of experiments, six different Eimeria species were evaluated in the presence and absence of C. perfringens. Male broiler chicks were housed in battery cages for the duration of both experiments. Feed conversion, body weight gain, and NE mortality were reported in both experiments. Experiment 1 challenged birds with E. maxima, E. acervulina, E. tenella, E. necatrix, and E. brunetti at day 13 and subsequently inoculated birds with CP on days 18, 19, and 20. In the second experiment, E. maxima, E. acervulina, E. tenella, and E. praecox were inoculated on day 15 and challenged with CP on days 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22 of the experiment. In the first experiment, E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, and E. necatrix with the addition of CP all stimulated necrotic enteritis mortality. In the second experiment, E. praecox had minimal impact on performance during the challenge (14-23 days) while E. maxima + CP decreased body weight gain and increased mortality compared to the CP alone control. Eimeria maxima had the highest mortality (21.9%) in this experiment followed by E. acervulina (6.3%). The remaining Eimeria with added CP in the second experiment did not induce NE mortality. While the challenge with CP alone did not induce mortality, feed conversion was increased compared to the unchallenged control group. When using isolated Eimeria species in these experiments, disturbances created by E. brunetti and E. maxima resulted in the most-severe challenges. These experiments highlight the NE risk of these species of Eimeria and give insight into how other species interact with the host in a controlled CP challenge model.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Masculino , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429285

RESUMO

A 28-year-old Southeast Asian non-pregnant woman with asthma and prior cholecystectomy presented to the emergency department with acute watery diarrhoea, intermittent abdominal pain and vomiting. Apart from abdominal tenderness, the rest of the physical examination was unremarkable. She had leucocytosis, alkaline phosphatase elevation and exudative ascites. Radiological imaging ruled out biliary leak and was only significant for circumferential small and large bowel thickening. Upper endoscopy and colonoscopy showed normal duodenal and colonic mucosae. Both infectious and malignancy workup were also unremarkable. Bereft of other systemic symptoms, autoimmune pathology was initially deemed unlikely; however, autoimmune workup revealed positive antinuclear antibody, double-stranded DNA, anti-Smith antibody, antinuclear ribonucleoprotein and hypocomplementaemia. With multidisciplinary collaboration, the patient was initiated on high-dose steroids, which dramatically improved her symptoms. She was discharged home with a steroid taper, and at 3 months of follow-up with her rheumatologist, she was continued on steroids and hydroxychloroquine.


Assuntos
Enterite , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Dor Abdominal , Adulto , Ascite , Diarreia , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 40-45, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339120

RESUMO

We performed viral metagenomics analysis of Japanese quail affected with enteritis to elucidate the viral etiology. Metagenomics generated 21,066,442 sequence reads via high-throughput sequencing, with a mean length of 136 nt. Enrichment in viral sequences suggested that at least three viruses were present in quail samples. Coronavirus and picornavirus were identified and are known as pathogens causing quail enteritis that match the observed morphology. Abundant reads of coronavirus from quail samples yielded four fragment sequences exhibiting six genomes of avian coronavirus. Sequence analysis showed that this quail coronavirus was related to turkey coronavirus and chicken infectious bronchitis virus. Quail picornavirus 8177 bp in size was identified and was similar to the QPV1/HUN/01 virus detected in quails without clinical symptoms in Hungary with 84.6% nucleotide and 94.6% amino acid identity. Our results are useful for understanding the genetic diversity of quail viruses. Further studies must be performed to determine whether quail coronavirus and quail picornavirus are pathogens of the digestive tract of quails.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Coturnix/virologia , Enterite/veterinária , Metagenômica/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/virologia , Genoma Viral , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 586392, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395308

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is an important treatment for abdominal tumors. A critical side effect for this therapy is enteritis. In this review, we aim to summarize recent findings in radiation enteritis, in particular the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the development and therapy of the disease. Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in the occurrence of various diseases, such as radiation enteritis. Abdominal radiation results in changes in the composition of microbiota and reduces its diversity, which is mainly reflected in the decrease of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and increase of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Gut microbiota dysbiosis aggravates radiation enteritis, weakens intestinal epithelial barrier function, and promotes inflammatory factor expression. Pathogenic Escherichia coli induce the rearrangement and redistribution of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1 in tight junctions, a critical component in intestinal epithelial barrier. In view of the role that microbiome plays in radiation enteritis, we believe that intestinal flora could be a potential biomarker for the disease. Correction of microbiome by application of probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and antibiotics could be an effective method for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced enteritis.


Assuntos
Enterite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Disbiose , Enterite/etiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Humanos , Intestinos
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361680

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is one of the most important enteric diseases in poultry. The antibacterial activity of two different essential oil (EO) blends against C. perfringens was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the immunological response to EO treatment was assessed. In the in vitro study, the antibacterial activity of EO formulas and commonly used antibiotics was evaluated against C. perfringens using disk diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay. In the in vivo study, NE experimental infection was performed on 440 Ross broiler chicks at 19 days of age for 4 continuous days. The chicks were treated with either EOs or amoxicillin at 22 days of age for 5 continuous days. One day after the end of treatment, the birds' performance was evaluated by calculating the feed conversion ratio. Serum samples from 120 birds were collected to measure the levels of IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17. After that, all birds were slaughtered, and their small intestines were subjected to gross and histopathological evaluation. In addition, bacterial counts in the small intestines were evaluated. In the in vitro study, EOs showed higher antimicrobial activities in comparison with antibiotics against C. perfringens. In the in vivo study, birds treated with EOs showed a significant decrease in bacterial counts, a significant decrease in intestinal lesions, and a significant improvement in performance compared with untreated birds (p < 0.05). Moreover, treating birds with EOs directed the immune system toward an anti-inflammatory pathway. None of the treated birds died due to NE compared with the 10% mortality rate in untreated birds. In conclusion, EOs might be an effective and safe alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of chicken NE.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/imunologia , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/imunologia , Imunidade , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Enterite/patologia , Enterite/veterinária , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Necrose , Óleos Voláteis/química , Projetos Piloto , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2421-2433, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424163

RESUMO

The Republic of Ireland regularly reports the highest annual crude incidence rates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enteritis in the European Union, ≈10 times the average. We investigated spatiotemporal patterns of STEC enteritis in Ireland using multiple statistical tools. Overall, we georeferenced 2,755 cases of infection during January 2013-December 2017; we found >1 case notified in 2,340 (12.6%) of 18,641 Census Small Areas. We encountered the highest case numbers in children 0-5 years of age (n = 1,101, 39.6%) and associated with serogroups O26 (n = 800, 29%) and O157 (n = 638, 23.2%). Overall, we identified 17 space-time clusters, ranging from 2 (2014) to 5 (2017) clusters of sporadic infection per year; we detected recurrent clustering in 3 distinct geographic regions in the west and mid-west, all of which are primarily rural. Our findings can be used to enable targeted epidemiologic intervention and surveillance.


Assuntos
Enterite , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Criança , Enterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia
12.
Wiad Lek ; 74(7): 1722-1727, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To study peculiarities of morphological and immunohistochemical changes of stomach's mucosa in eosinophilic gastritis in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 64.1±6.0% patients with eosinophilic gastritis and 35.9±6.0% patients with lymphocytic gastritis participated in our investigation. In order to verify the diagnosis morphological and immunohistochemical diagnostics of the stomach's mucosa was performed in all children. To assess morphological changes in tissues the specimens were colored with hematoxylin, eosin and picrofuchsin by van Gieson's. Indirect streptavidin-peroxydase staining method was used for immunohistochemical investigation and the following indexes were assessed: proliferating cell nuclear antigen - PCNA, Bcl - 2, Вax, Collagen Type ІV, TGFß and NF-κß. RESULTS: Results: Comparative analysis of morphologic investigation has demonstrated that eosinophilic gastritis is characterized by fibrosis and fibroblasts proliferation into basal and superficial parts of mucosa's lamina propria, multiple hemorrhages, thrombosis and erosions on the background of eosinophilic infiltration. Immunohistochemical indexes of cellular restoration in eosinophilic gastritis are characterized by increased proliferative activity and decreased indexes of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic activity. Prevalence of the reaction with the use of monoclonal antibodies to Collagen Type IV in majority of children with eosinophilic gastritis was characterized by separate fragmented foci in basal membranes of superficial epithelium. Remarkable TGFß immune coloration was detected in majority of children on the background of fibrosis and eosinophilic infiltration of lamina propria. NF-κß expression in epitheliocytes' cytoplasm and nuclei was uneven. Homogenous remarkable coloration was detected in majority of patients with lymphocytic infiltration of mucosa. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Eosinophilic gastritis course in children is characterized by remarkable inflammation, decreased regeneration of the mucosa, impairment of cellular restoration which is prognostic index of fibrous remodeling development.


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Gastrite , Criança , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Mucosa Gástrica , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação
13.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(5): 1396-1403, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302278

RESUMO

Several case reports have described severe postoperative enteritis shortly after total colectomy for ulcerative colitis. The very low incidence of this condition makes diagnosis and treatment difficult, and the appropriate treatment strategy is unclear. We report two cases of enteritis after surgery for ulcerative colitis, which were treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy. Case 1 involved a 22-year-old man with symptoms, such as nausea 40 days after total colectomy. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed patchy obliteration of the vascular pattern, erosions in the duodenum, and superficial ulcers in the small intestine. His symptoms and endoscopic findings immediately improved upon administration of infliximab; clinical remission lasted 5 years with continuous administration. Case 2 involved a 64-year-old man, who had a large amount of watery diarrhea from ileostomy that increased 5 days after total colectomy; gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed extensive ulcers in the small intestine. Symptoms and endoscopic findings improved with prednisolone, but relapsed with tapering of the corticosteroid. Administration of adalimumab resulted in marked improvement of enteritis. However, the small intestine developed a pinhole stricture, and partial resection of the small intestine was performed. Our experience with two cases indicates that anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy may play an important role in ulcerative colitis-related postoperative enteritis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Enterite , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Colectomia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/etiologia , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vet J ; 274: 105715, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252549

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to serially evaluate the serum concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis (CPVE) during a 5-day hospitalisation period and assess the association of these hormone concentrations with the outcome and the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Dogs with confirmed CPVE that were hospitalised for at least 5 days were included. The thyroid hormones concentrations were measured on days 1, 3 and 5 of hospitalisation. Twenty-eight dogs were included. All (28/28, 100%), 19/28 (69.7%) and 23/28 (82.1%) dogs had a low serum tT4, fT4 and TSH concentration, respectively, on at least 1 day during the hospitalisation period. Overall, 11/28 (39.3%) dogs were diagnosed with SIRS on at least 1 day. In survivors, serum tT4 concentration was significantly higher on day 5 (median, range: 11.8 nmol/L, <6.4-32.2 nmol/L) compared to those on days 1 (<6.4 nmol/L, <6.4-20.1 nmol/L; P = 0.010) or 3 (7.6 nmol/L, <6.4-25.2 nmol/L; P = 0.019). Survivors had a significantly higher tT4 concentration (median, range: 11.8 nmol/L, <6.4-32.2 nmol/L) on day 5 compared to non-survivors (<6.4 nmol/L, <6.4-7.2 nmol/L; P = 0.002). Regardless of the day of hospitalisation, dogs with SIRS had significantly lower tT4 (<6.4 nmol/L, <6.4-16.3 nmol/L) compared to dogs without SIRS (8.6 nmol/L, <6.4-32.2 nmol/L; P = 0.006). A significant difference was also found in fT4 between dogs with SIRS (<3.9 pmol/L, <3.9-16.2 pmol/L) and dogs without SIRS (15.1 pmol/L, <3.9-59.2; pmol/L; P < 0.001). Non-thyroidal illness syndrome was frequently observed in dogs with CPVE, and a negative association between tT4 and fT4 concentrations and SIRS was noted. Serial measurements of tT4 concentrations appeared to have prognostic value.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Eutireóideo Doente/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/veterinária , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Enterite/veterinária , Síndromes do Eutireóideo Doente/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(9): 1401-1406, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248105

RESUMO

Three eastern bongos (Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaci) presented acutely with hemorrhagic diarrhea at the Singapore Zoo, thought to be caused by a mouldy batch of hay. Repeated fecal tests were negative of parasites and common gastrointestinal bacteria including salmonella and campylobacter. The diarrhea resolved for all individuals after a week of leaf-only diet. However, 2 individuals developed signs of colic. Both animals were anesthetized for examination including blood tests and imaging studies. The findings were consistent of gastrointestinal ileus and a possible impaction. With intensive treatment involving repeated sedations for fluid therapy administration and treatments for gastrointestinal impaction, one individual eventually made a full recovery, but the other individual died due to septic peritonitis secondary to a rupture in the spiral colon. Persistent supportive therapy may be vital in treating severe gastrointestinal disease in this species.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Enterite , Animais , Dieta , Enterite/terapia , Enterite/veterinária , Singapura
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299188

RESUMO

Na-K-ATPase provides a favorable transcellular Na gradient required for the functioning of Na-dependent nutrient transporters in intestinal epithelial cells. The primary metabolite for enterocytes is glutamine, which is absorbed via Na-glutamine co-transporter (SN2; SLC38A5) in intestinal crypt cells. SN2 activity is stimulated during chronic intestinal inflammation, at least in part, secondarily to the stimulation of Na-K-ATPase activity. Leukotriene D4 (LTD4) is known to be elevated in the mucosa during chronic enteritis, but the way in which it may regulate Na-K-ATPase is not known. In an in vitro model of rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18), Na-K-ATPase activity was significantly stimulated by LTD4. As LTD4 mediates its action via Ca-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), Ca levels were measured and were found to be increased. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of PKC, also mediated stimulation of Na-K-ATPase like LTD4, while BAPTA-AM (Ca chelator) and calphostin-C (Cal-C; PKC inhibitor) prevented the stimulation of Na-K-ATPase activity. LTD4 caused a significant increase in mRNA and plasma membrane protein expression of Na-K-ATPase α1 and ß1 subunits, which was prevented by calphostin-C. These data demonstrate that LTD4 stimulates Na-K-ATPase in intestinal crypt cells secondarily to the transcriptional increase of Na-K-ATPase α1 and ß1 subunits, mediated via the Ca-activated PKC pathway.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Enterite/enzimologia , Células Epiteliais/enzimologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Leucotrieno D4/farmacologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/patologia , Ativação Enzimática , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Ratos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205445

RESUMO

In the last decade, the role of nutritional management in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases has gained increasing popularity. Disease-specific diets have been introduced as conventional treatments by international guidelines. Patients tend to more willingly accept food-based therapies than drugs because of their relatively "harmless" nature. Apart from a diet's therapeutic role, nutritional support is crucial in maintaining growth and improving clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. Despite the absence of classical "side effects", however, it should be emphasized that any dietary modification might have negative consequences on children's growth and development. Hence, expert supervision is always advised, in order to support adequate nutritional requirements. Unfortunately, the media provide an inaccurate perception of the role of diet for gastrointestinal diseases, leading to misconceptions by patients or their caregivers that tends to overestimate the beneficial role of diets and underestimate the potential adverse effects. Moreover, not only patients, but also healthcare professionals, have a number of misconceptions about the nutritional benefits of diet modification on gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of diet in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, to detect misconceptions and to give a practical guide for physicians on the basis of current scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional , Dor Abdominal , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Enterite/dietoterapia , Enterite/fisiopatologia , Eosinofilia/dietoterapia , Eosinofilia/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Gastrite/dietoterapia , Gastrite/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Leite/efeitos adversos , Leite/imunologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Probióticos
19.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 279, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, also known as eosinophilic gastroenteritis, are rare inflammatory conditions characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, along with peripheral eosinophilia in most cases. Other known causes for gut eosinophilic infiltration must be excluded to confirm the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Symptoms of the disorder depend on the affected gastrointestinal tract segment and depth of involvement. Treatment includes systemic glucocorticoids and/or dietary therapy with an empiric elimination diet. Second line therapies include the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast, and other anti-allergy drugs such as mast cell stabilizers (including cromolyn and the H1-antihistamine ketotifen), suplatast tosilate which is a selective Th-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) inhibitor, and the monoclonal anti-IgE antibody omalizumab. We report a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis who was successfully treated and achieved remission with montelukast as an initial monotherapy. Upon extensive literature review, this represents the second reported adult case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis who responds to montelukast alone as a first line therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old female presented with recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and unexplained eosinophilia. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and was successfully treated with montelukast monotherapy. After 7 days of therapy, the patient responded well and had complete resolution of her gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia. Patient remained in remission on follow-up after 12 months. We reviewed the literature for leukotriene antagonist use in the treatment of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and included the cases treated with the leukotriene antagonist montelukast as an initial therapy or as a second line therapy for refractory disease. CONCLUSION: Montelukast may be an effective treatment for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, either alone or in combination with systemic steroids or ketotifen. Our patient is the second reported adult case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis who responded to montelukast alone as a first line therapy. Further studies and clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy compared to standard therapy.


Assuntos
Enterite , Eosinofilia , Gastroenterite , Acetatos , Adulto , Ciclopropanos , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Gastrite , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinolinas , Sulfetos
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101330, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280643

RESUMO

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a significant enteric disease in commercial poultry with considerable economic effect on profitability manifested by an estimated $6 billion in annual losses to the global industry. NE presents a unique challenge, being a complex enteric disease that often leads to either clinical (acute) or subclinical (chronic) form. The latter typically results in poor performance (reduced feed intake, weight gain and eventually higher feed conversion ratio [FCR]) with low mortality rates, and represents the greatest economic impact on poultry production. The use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) has been an effective tool in protecting birds from enteric diseases by maintaining enteric health and modifying gut microbiota, thus improving broilers' production efficiency and overall health. The removal of AGPs presented the poultry industry with several challenges, including reduced bird health and immunity as well as questioning the safety of poultry products. Consequently, research on antibiotic alternatives that can support gut health was intensified. Probiotics, prebiotics, essential oils, and organic acids were among various additives that have been tested for their efficacy against NE with some being effective but not to the level of AGPs. The focus of this review is on the relationship between NE pathogenesis, microbiome, and host immune responses, along with references to recent reviews addressing production aspects of NE. With a comprehensive understanding of these dynamic changes, new and programmed strategies could be developed to make use of the current products more effectively or build a stepping stone toward the development of a new generation of supplements.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Enterite/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Aves Domésticas
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