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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1406-1417, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281355

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gegen Qinlian(GGQL) Decoction and its different compatibility groups on gut microbiota in rats with acute enteritis, and to explore the efficacy of GGQL Decoction in improving acute enteritis and gut microbiota. Male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive control group(SASP), GGQL decoction group, Glycyrrhizae-free group(QGC), Puerariae-free group(QGG), Qinlian-free group(QQL), and Qinlian group(QL). The pathological sections and detection indexes of the rats were observed before and after modeling and administration. After 7 days of administration, fecal samples from 24 rats were collected and Illumina Miseq platform was used for high-throughput sequencing. From the anti-inflammatory and pharmacodynamic indicators, the effect was the most obvious in GGQL Decoction group, QGC group, QGG group and QL group(P<0.05). The alpha diversity and beta diversity showed that there were significant differences in the composition of intestinal flora in each group. As compared with the model group, the increased abundance and diversity of the flora caused by acute inflammation could be down-regulated in all groups except QQL group(P<0.05). The differential bacteria were explored by using LEfSe analysis, and the results showed that Bifidobacterium and other beneficial bacteria only appeared in the normal group. As compared with the normal group, Lactobacillus was significantly reduced(P<0.01), and Bacteroides, Flavonifractor and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 were up-regulated in model group(P<0.05, P<0.01). As compared with the model group, the number of Akkermansia was significantly increased(P<0.05), and the number of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 associated with intestinal inflammatory diseases was decreased in the GGQL Decoction group, QGC group and QL group. QGC group and QQL group caused the up-regulation of Ruminococcaceae and induced enrichment of Desulfovibrio which could lead to colon cell toxicity; QGG group caused the up-regulation of Proteobacteria and Burkhonderiales. The study suggests that the GGQL Decoction may play a role in the treatment of acute enteritis partially through improving the intestinal barrier, regulating the immune response and the structure of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Fezes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314717

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced enteritis in mice and its mechanism. Methods Thirty C57B6/J mice were randomly divided into 0-, 1-, 3-, 5- and 7-day groups and sacrificed separately at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 after intraperitoneal administration of 5-FU 200 µL/d (50 mg/kg) at day 1-3. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) levels in serum and small intestinal fluid were detected by dsDNA quantification kit. Severity of enteritis was evaluated by diarrhea score. HCT-116 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with 5-FU at different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 µmol/L) for 72 hours or 5-FU at 1 µmol/L for different time (24, 48, 72 hours). The dsDNA concentration in the cell culture supernatant of each group was detected by dsDNA quantification kit. Twenty-four C57B6/J mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group (intraperitoneal injection and intragastric administration of 200 µL/d saline), model group (intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg 5-FU of 200 µL/d, intragastric administration of saline 200 µL/d), HCQ treatment group (intragastric administration of 60 mg/kg HCQ of 200 µL/d, starting at 1 day before the first intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg 5-FU of 200 µL/d) and HCQ group (intragastric administration of 60 mg/kg HCQ solution of 200 µL/d). And they were sacrificed after 6 days. Small intestine lesions were observed by HE staining. Apoptotic cells in the small intestine were detected by TUNEL staining. The expression levels of CD11c, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the small intestine were assessed by immunofluorescence staining. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) levels in the serum were detected by ELISA. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were cultured in vitro and stimulated by dsDNA using LipofectamineTM 3000. The expression of TLR9 and NF-κB in BMDCs were detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining, respectively. IL-1ß level in the cell supernatant was detected by ELISA. Results Large amounts of apoptotic cells were observed in the small intestine of 5-FU-treated mice and the dynamic changes of dsDNA levels in the serum and small intestinal lavage fluid were consistent with that of diarrhea score. 5-FU triggered dsDNA release from HCT-116 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HCQ alleviated the destruction in small intestinal epithelium and inhibited the expression levels of TLR9, NF-κB and IL-1ß in the serum. The infiltration of a large number of dendritic cells in the small intestine of model mice was observed. After BMDCs were stimulated with dsDNA, the expression of TLR9, NF-κB, and IL-1ß all significantly increased and HCQ significantly decreased. Conclusion HCQ alleviates 5-FU-induced enteritis in mice and inhibit TLR9 and NF-κB-dependent DNA sensing pathways and the secretion of IL-1ß in dendritic cells.


Assuntos
Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Enterite/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110936, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682933

RESUMO

Palygorskite (PGS) is a kind of clay minerals with the property of absorbent capacity, and ginger essential oil (GEO) is a kind of natural antibacterial substances. In the present study PGS was used as carrier of GEO, and thus, a kind of new anti-bacterial composite GEO-PGS has been obtained. Characterization, inhibitory effect of GEO-PGS on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and its function of improvement of intestinal health would be investigated. Results showed that characterization analysis of GEO-PGS (FTIR, TG-DSC, BET, Zeta potential, specific surface area, total pore volume and size, TEM observation) demonstrated combination of GEO and PGS, and GEO was absorbed on the surface of PGS, partially filled the micropores of PGS. GEO-PGS had obvious inhibitory effect on E.coli, in combination of the antibacterial activity of GEO and bacteria-absorbed capability of PGS. GEO-PGS also had ameliorating effect on enteritis and intestinal dysfunction in vivo, which might be related to the inhibition of gene expression of inflammatory cytokines (TLR2, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8). In conclusion, the novel composite GEO-PGS has the potential usage as functional component having effect of improving intestinal health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengibre/química , Compostos de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Silício/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Enterite/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1073-1077, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859974

RESUMO

In lupus enteritis, circulating pathological immune complexes and thrombosis of intestinal vessels may occur, resulting in acute abdominal pain. We report a 24-year-old woman without a history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), admitted for abdominal pain. An exploratory laparotomy found an appendicitis along with ascites. An appendectomy was performed, and the patient was discharged from the hospital two days later. Three days after discharge, the patient was admitted to another hospital due to the persistence of abdominal pain. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed diffuse mesenteric congestion, concentric bowel loops (double halo or target sign) and the presence of free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Suspecting a rheumatic disorder, the diagnosis of SLE was confirmed by immunological studies. The patient was treated with pulses of methylprednisolone with good results.


Assuntos
Enterite/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 160-166, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675523

RESUMO

Duck viral enteritis (DEV) is a DNA virus that leads to heavy economic losses in the commercial duck industry. As a key cytoplasmic sensor, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) can recognize viral RNA and enhance the antiviral immune response. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and MDA5 both belong to the RIG-I-like receptors family, and RIG-I is known to be involved in the anti-DEV signaling pathway. However, the role of MDA5 in DEV infection remains unclear. In this study, we used overexpression and knockdown methods to determine if MDA5 affected DEV infection in ducks. We confirmed that DEV infection was significantly suppressed in MDA5-overexpressing DEF cells, while knockdown of MDA5 by siRNA markedly enhanced DEV growth. We demonstrated that overexpression of duck MDA5 significantly upregulated expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes, including myxovirus resistance protein (Mx), IFN-induced oligodenylate synthetase-like (OASL), IFN-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) and IFN-ß. In addition, the transcriptional level of MDA5 was upregulated both in vivo and in vitro upon DEV infection. We also showed that there was an association between MDA5 and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) in antiviral signaling. LGP2 functioned as a concentration-dependent switch between MDA5-specific enhancement and interference. Overall, these findings indicated that MDA5 restricted DEV replication and LGP2 plays a critical role in MDA5-mediated antiviral activity against DEV.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , 2',5'-Oligoadenilato Sintetase/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Patos , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/genética , Enterite/virologia , Interferon beta/genética , Interferons/genética , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter infections are typically self-limited, but in cases with severe enteritis, immuno-compromised system and bacteremia, an appropriate antimicrobial treatment is demanding. Our study aim was to determine the isolation rate of Campylobacter among patients with acute enteritis in the capital of North Macedonia and its antimicrobial susceptibility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total number of 3820 patients clinically diagnosed as acute enteritis, were included in the study. Stool samples were collected and Campylobacter was isolated and identified by classical microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates to Ceftriaxone, Amoxicillin-clavulonic acid, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline and Gentamicin was determined by disc-diffusion technique. Additionally, minimal inhibitory concentrations of all Campylobacter isolates against erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline were determined by Epsilon gradient tests. RESULTS: Campylobacter species was isolated in 97 patients. Although the mean isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. during the whole study period was 2.53%, a statistically significant increase was detected in 2016 and 2017, in comparison with the data from previous four years of the study. The isolation rate of Campylobacter spp. didn't reveal statistically significant difference between males and females (p > 0.05). 46.4 % of patients with Campylobacter enteritis were children at the age under 15 years. Forty-three C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to all six antibiotics, but the remaining 44 isolates revealed resistance to at least one antibiotic. C. coli isolates were resistant to 3 antibiotics simultaneously. Two C. coli isolates only, were susceptible to all 6 antibiotics. 40.90% of C. jejuni and 50% of C. coli isolates were resistant to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, simultaneously. CONCLUSION: The increase of the isolation rate of Campylobacter from patients with acute enteritis indicates the need for permanent isolation and identification of Campylobacter from every clinically diagnosed patient, as acute enteritis. Erythromicin is the most effective antibiotic for treatment of Campylobacter enteritis in our patients. The high level of Campylobacter resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines requires more rational approach in the treatment of Campylobacter enteritis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterite/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Macedônia do Norte , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 74(3): 163-167, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554032

RESUMO

Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder (EGID) is an uncommon disease that is accompanied by intestinal eosinophil infiltration without a secondary cause of eosinophilia. Eosinophilic enteritis is a secondary portion of EGID that can present a range of gastrointestinal symptoms according to the affected depth of the intestinal layer. The subserosal type of eosinophilic enteritis presenting as ascites is relatively rarer than the mucosal type. In general, eosinophilic enteritis occurs in patients with food allergies, but its mechanism is unclear. The authors experienced a 29-year-old female patient with a large amount of ascites with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with an influenza A infection one week earlier. Peripheral eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count: 6,351 cells/mm3) and eosinophilic ascites (97% of white blood cells in the ascites are eosinophil) were present. Abdominal CT revealed a large amount of ascites and edematous changes in the ileum and ascending colon wall. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was confirmed as eosinophilic ascites by paracentesis, with eosinophil infiltration of the bowel wall by an endoscopic biopsy. The patient's symptoms improved rapidly after using steroids. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report of eosinophilic enteritis with massive ascites after an influenza A virus infection in a Korean adult.


Assuntos
Enterite/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ascite , Colonoscopia , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/etiologia , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Eosinófilos/citologia , Feminino , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/etiologia , Guanidinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 21(10): 53, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501950

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to make aware of the existence of the rare and exclusive small intestine (SI) diseases, namely cryptogenic multifocal ulcerating stenosing enteropathy (CMUSE) or chronic non-specific multiple ulcers of the small intestine (CNSU) and non-granulomatous ulcerating jejunoileitis (NGUJI). The article will elucidate their epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, differentiating features and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent papers have published the clinical features and diagnostic criteria of CMUSE/CNSU and NGUJI. CNSU/CMUSE is caused by gene mutations involved in the prostaglandin pathways. Although capsule endoscopy can detect these lesions, it carries a risk of retention. TNF antagonists and azathioprine have shown response in few cases. CMUSE/CNSU and NGUJI are uncommon diseases that cause relapsing SI obstruction and bleed due to short-segment strictures and multiple shallow ulcers. This article focuses on current knowledge and novel insights regarding their pathogenesis, genetics, clinical features, diagnostic criteria and management. Multicentric clinical and genetic studies are the need of the hour.


Assuntos
Enterite/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Intestino Delgado , Úlcera/diagnóstico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/etiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo IV/genética , Humanos , Ileíte/diagnóstico , Ileíte/tratamento farmacológico , Ileíte/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Mutação , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera/etiologia
10.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 2121095, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275998

RESUMO

The small intestine is one of the most sensitive organs to irradiation injury, and the development of high effective radioprotectants especially with low toxicity for intestinal radiation sickness is urgently needed. Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) was found to be radioprotective in our previous study, while its effect against the intestinal radiation injury remained unknown. In the present study, we firstly determined the intestinal apoptosis after irradiation injury according to the TUNEL assay. Subsequently, we adopted the immunofluorescence technique to assess the expression levels of different biomarkers including Ki67, γ-H2AX, and defensin 1 in vivo. Additionally, the inflammatory cytokines were detected by RT-PCR. Our data indicated that MPLA could protect the intestine from ionizing radiation (IR) damage through activating TLR4 signal pathway and regulating the inflammatory cytokines. This research shed new light on the protective effect of the novel TLR4 agonist MPLA against intestine detriment induced by IR.


Assuntos
Enterite/etiologia , Enterite/metabolismo , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/metabolismo , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Lipídeo A/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Radiação Ionizante , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/deficiência
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16100, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) can cause vomiting and diarrhea in infants and children, and could be treated clinically with immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which is an immunoglobulin extracted from chicken yolk. There is no systematic evaluation of immunoglobulin in the treatment of rotavirus enteritis. Therefore, we systematically evaluated rotavirus enteritis with oral immunoglobulin Y therapy using meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in CNKI, WANFANG DATA, VIP, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases (up to April 30, 2018). Using Revman 5.3 software for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2626 subjects with rotavirus diarrhea from 17 randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Of these, 1347 subjects received oral immunoglobulin Y and 1279 subjects received conventional treatment. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the total number of effective cases and effective rates of immunoglobulin Y in treatment of rotavirus enteritis in infants and children was statistically different from that in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 3.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] (3.17, 4.74), P < .00001) and (OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.75, 4.80], P < .00001). CONCLUSIONS: Immunoglobulin Y is effective in the treatment of infantile rotavirus enteritis. Oral immunoglobulin Y can be widely used in the treatment of rotavirus enteritis in clinic.


Assuntos
Diarreia Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Rotavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5392-5400, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250009

RESUMO

The effect of dietary inclusion of Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 on the intestinal health and growth performance of Cobb 500 male broilers subjected to a Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis (NE) challenge was determined in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatments of 10 replicate/treatment. In experiment 2, chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatments of 12 replicates/treatment. The experimental treatments were non-infected, non-supplemented control, infected, non-supplemented control (IC), infected + Bacillus subtilis DSM 32315 (B. subtilis DSM 32315), infected + bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD). In both experiments, NE was induced by oral inoculation of toxin producing C. perfringens on 3 consecutive days between 17 and 20 D of age, following exposure of birds to pre-disposing conditions. At day 28 (experiment 1), broilers fed diets with B. subtilis DSM 32315 exhibited a significantly higher body weight, lower mortality, and intestinal NE lesion score, compared to the IC treatment. At day 42 (experiment 2), B. subtilis DSM 32315 supplementation significantly improved BW, feed conversion ratio, production efficiency factor, NE lesion score, and mortality, compared to IC treatment. The effect of B. subtilis DSM 32315 on intestinal integrity of NE challenged chickens was evaluated with histomorphometry. A significantly shallower crypt depth and higher villus height to crypt depth ratio were observed in the mid-intestine of birds belonging to the B. subtilis DSM 32315 group, compared to the IC group. Furthermore, B. subtilis DSM 32315 supplementation significantly reduced the enteritis index associated with NE. In both experiments, the effect of B. subtilis DSM 32315 on the phenotypic measurements of NE and performance was comparable to the effect observed with BMD supplementation. In conclusion, supplementation of the direct fed microbial strain B. subtilis DSM 32315 can ameliorate the pathology and performance detriments associated with NE.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/química , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia
14.
Genes Genomics ; 41(8): 909-917, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute radiation enteritis (ARE), a common complication of intestinal caused by abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy. Rheinic acid is a major active ingredient derived from Rhubarb. Rhubarb could suppress inflammation, tumor, fibrosis oxidative damage. However, RA as the main active component and extract monomer of Rhubarb, the pharmacological activity and the underlying molecular mechanism on various diseases has not yet been revealed. OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential role of rheinic acid (RA) in ameliorating inflammation of rats with acute radiation enteritis (ARE), and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: ARE rat model was established by irradiated with single-dose 10 Gy X-rays at a rate of 0.62 Gy/min to the abdomen. The rats were executed after orally administered with Rheinic acid 7 days and used in the subsequent experiments. Body weight, fecal characteristics and bloody of rats were used to assess the disease activity index. Histological analysis of the jejunum and colon were evaluated using H&E staining. The pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were also determined. The mRNA and protein expression were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Rheinic acid promoted intestinal functional recovery, and ameliorated intestinal damage and bloody stool in ARE rats. Rheinic acid strongly decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, NO, and MDA, whereas increased levels of anti-oxidants, SOD and GSH. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), were decreased with RA treatment. Further study indicated that PPAR-γ was activated and thereby NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathway were suppressed after rheinic acid treatment. CONCLUSION: Rheinic acid could ameliorate acute radiation enteritis and the underlying molecular mechanism is, at least partially, through PPAR-γ/NF-κB and p38 MAPK/JNK pathways.


Assuntos
Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Antraquinonas/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Aguda da Radiação/complicações , Animais , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Apoptose , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos da radiação , Citocinas/metabolismo , Enterite/etiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Saudi J Gastroenterol ; 25(5): 302-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044747

RESUMO

Background/Aims: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) treating on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption in rat intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line. Materials and Methods: LPS was used to stimulate the IEC-18 cells (1 µg/ml), with or without different concentrations of BSP (25, 50 and 100 µg/ml) for 24 h. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured to detect the permeability of cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the cell supernatant were detected with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect the mRNA levels of zonulae occludens (ZO)-1 and occludin. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis were used for analyzing the expression level and the distribution patterns of ZO-1 and occludin protein. Results: After treatment with BSP, the IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the cell supernatant were significantly decreased compared with the experiment group (P < 0.05 or 0.01). The permeability of IEC was decreased in BSP groups when compared with the experiment group (P < 0.05 or 0.01). In addition, compared with the experiment group, treatment with BSP up-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of ZO-1 and occludin, and kept the ZO-1 and occludin protein intact in IEC-18 cells injured with LPS (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Conclusion: BSP has the capacity to protect IEC-18 cells from LPS-induced injury. The mechanisms may be associated with decreasing the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and elevating the expression of ZO-1 and occludin, which might serve as a new protective agent for LPS-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption.


Assuntos
Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterite/metabolismo , Enterite/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Coelhos , Ratos
16.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(3): 240-247, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060972

RESUMO

The small intestine is an organ frequently exposed in abdominal and pelvic irradiations. Acute and late toxicity can sometimes be difficult to manage and can significantly affect the quality of life of patients. Currently there is no guideline on the management of acute and late side effects induced by therapeutic irradiation. The aim of this review is to summarize available data on the pathophysiology of radiation enteritis, and to highlight potential preventive strategies and principles of treatment of radiation enteritis.


Assuntos
Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/fisiopatologia , Lesões por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Enterite/etiologia , Humanos , Lesões por Radiação/complicações
17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(6): 984-994, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The literature related to eosinophilic gastritis (EG), gastroenteritis (EGE), and colitis (EC) is limited. We aimed to characterize rates of diagnosis, clinical features, and initial treatments for patients with EG, EGE, and EC. METHODS: In this retrospective study, data were collected from 6 centers in the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Researchers from 2005 to 2016. We analyzed demographics, time trends in diagnosis, medical history, presenting symptoms, disease overlap, and initial treatment patterns/responses. RESULTS: Of 373 subjects (317 children and 56 adults), 38% had EG, 33% EGE, and 29% EC. Rates of diagnosis of all diseases increased over time. There was no male predominance, and the majority of subjects had atopy. Presenting symptoms were similar between diseases with nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain, the most common. One hundred fifty-four subjects (41%) had eosinophilic inflammation outside of their primary disease location with the esophagus the second most common gastrointestinal (GI) segment involved. Multisite inflammation was more common in children than in adults (68% vs 37%; P < 0.001). Initial treatment patterns varied highly between centers. One hundred-nine subjects (29%) had follow-up within 6 months, and the majority had clinical, endoscopic, and histologic improvements. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, EG, EGE, and EC were diagnosed more frequently over time, and inflammation of GI segments outside the primary disease site co-occurrence of atopy was common with a lack of male predominance. Symptoms were similar between diseases, and initial treatment strategies were highly variable. Future investigation should assess the cause of the increased prevalence of eosinophilic GI disorders and prospectively assess outcomes to establish treatment algorithms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/epidemiologia , Enterite/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade/tendências , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Previsões , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 64(8): 2231-2241, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its natural history and treatment outcomes. The aims of our analysis were to describe clinical presentation, response to current medical treatments, and to evaluate the response of refractory EGE to anti-integrin therapy. METHODS: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of EGE fulfilling the diagnostic criteria: (1) the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, (2) dense eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and (3) exclusion of other conditions leading to gastrointestinal eosinophilia were included in this analysis. In patients non-responding to corticosteroids and/or anti-TNF treatment the integrin blocker vedolizumab was used. RESULTS: EGE patients (n = 22) were predominantly female (63%) with a median age at diagnosis of 41.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain (100%), diarrhea (59%), nausea/vomiting (36%), and bloating (27%). No pathognomonic endoscopic alterations were found. Eosinophilic infiltration was observed in the majority of patients in more than one segment. Patients were treated with systemic steroids, topical, and enteral release steroids in 21/22 (95%) patients, proton pump inhibitors in 7/22 (32%), TNFα inhibitors in 3/22 (14%), and vedolizumab in 4/22 (18%) patients. In 3/4 of steroid-refractory patients vedolizumab induced a clinical and histological improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of highly variable clinical presentation, subtle endoscopic abnormalities, and involvement of several GI segments undermines the difficulty to diagnose EGE and the need for structured biopsy sampling. Corticosteroids were efficient in the majority of patients to induce remission. Response to the integrin blocker vedolizumab suggests further assessment in refractory cases.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Criança , Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/imunologia , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/imunologia , Feminino , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/imunologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 61, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC)-related post-colectomy enteritis is a very rare condition that is characterized by diffuse small-bowel mucosal inflammation following colectomy and could be very dangerous. In previously reported cases, corticosteroid therapy seemed to be the optimal choice for inducing remission; however, the patient studied herein presented with severe diarrhoea and hypovolemic shock and failed to achieve full remission with corticosteroid therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a patient with severe pan-enteritis presenting with life-threatening diarrhoea complicated with hypovolemic shock and acute kidney injury after colectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) for UC; this patient was successfully treated by ileostomy closure after failing to achieve full remission with corticosteroid therapy. Next, we review other cases of post-colectomy enteritis reported in the literature and propose a flow-chart for its diagnosis and initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Post-colectomy enteritis can be dangerous, and the early awareness of this condition plays a vital role. Additionally, in patients who do not respond well to corticosteroid or immunosuppressant therapy, early closure of the ileostomy and re-establishment of the natural faecal stream could be important considerations.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Enterite/etiologia , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/etiologia , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/cirurgia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ileostomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Choque/etiologia
20.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg ; 82(1): 5-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is uncommon disease, and the pathogenesis of this disease have yet to be fully clarified. AIM: This study was to describe the clinical manifestations, endoscopic features and treatment outcomes of a cohort of patients with EG. METHOD: This retrospective study was included 28 consecutive patients who were diagnosed EG between January 2011 and December 2015 in Taizhou Hospital. The patients' clinical manifestations, endoscopic features and treatment outcomes were reviewed from a prospectively maintained database. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with EG were enrolled in the study (median age 54 years). The main symptoms were abdominal pain (78.6%), abdominal distension (50.0%), nausea and vomiting (28.6%) and diarrhea (25.0%). Laboratory examinations showed the elevation of blood eosinophil count (85.7%), serum IgE (71.4%). Endoscopic findings included small patchy mucosal erythema or erosions (75.0%), mucosal fold thickening (17.9%), submucosal nodules (21.4%), small gastroduodenal ulcers (14.3%). Twenty patients were treated and responded to prednisolone but five patients (25.0%) relapsed during the follow-up. The other 8 patients were treated with loratadine, proton pump inhibitors and dietary modification, 5 patients had clinical resolution during the follow-up. The other 3 patients did not achieve clinical remission, and then were given prednisone treatment. CONCLUSION: For some patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia, a high suspicion of EG is necessary and multiple endoscopic examinations might be helpful in diagnosis of EG. Most patients with EG could achieve remission after with the treatment of steroid or dietary elimination therapy.


Assuntos
Enterite/diagnóstico , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
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